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The Necessity and Feasibility of Innovative Waste-Derived Sustainable Construction Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2023) | Viewed by 9835

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Interests: hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete; multi-scale fiber-reinforced composites; analytical modelling; sustainable infrastructure; natural fiber concrete for sustainable construction
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Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
Interests: sustainable cementitious materials; engineered cement composites; alkali-activated materials; environmental impact assessment; machine learning and artificial intelligence
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Interests: sustainable construction materials; recycled aggregate concrete; lightweight cement-based composites; laminated cementitious composites; fiber-reinforced concrete; nanomaterials; fatigue and fracture; wind energy harvesting
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School of Civil Engineering and Communication, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045, China
Interests: durability evaluation; fracture behavior; new test technologies; structural reinforcement; seismic strengthening of structures; structural seismic evaluation; smart structures and sustainable infrastructure development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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School of Water Conservancy, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045, China
Interests: high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites; micro/nano modified cement-based materials; multi-scale fiber-reinforced cementitious composites; fracture mechanics, durability of fiber-reinforced cementitious composites; sustainable concrete

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI), Islamabad, Pakistan
Interests: structural behavior of concrete; cement-based materials; high-strength concrete; durability of sustainable concrete; nondestructive testing; analytical modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the modern civilized world, the development of buildings and infrastructures has expanded quickly because of rising population and life demands. Concrete is one of the most versatile and commonly used man-made building materials, and it has gained popularity due to its various benefits, including the simplest manufacturing process as well as its strength and durability in ordinary environments. The cost of ordinary Portland cement, a key ingredient of concrete, continues to rise, and natural resources are decreasing as a result (e.g., limestone). During the manufacturing of cement, clinker is burned at around 1450 °C, resulting in the emission of vast quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2). The consequent increase in global temperature is one of the causes of climate change and cement manufacturing produces CO2. As a result, global warming continues to increase. Consequently, the massive extraction of raw resources necessary for the manufacturing of concrete has significant ecological impacts. Numerous research investigations on using waste materials to replace virgin ingredients in concrete were conducted in an effort to promote sustainability. To address these issues, research in cement and concrete technology has focused on the potential use of waste materials in the construction sector. Reducing the quantity of pollution and greenhouse gases emitted during the production of concrete, making more efficient use of waste materials, and developing low-energy, durable, and sustainably engineered concrete are also of interest. When appropriately handled, waste materials have demonstrated their effectiveness as construction materials and their capacity to meet design standards. In recent decades, extensive study has been conducted on the use of rice husk ash, sawdust ash/wood ash, bagasse ash, industrial waste (slag, silica fume, fly ash), recycled fibers, and construction and demolition waste as cement and concrete components. Some waste products can be substituted for cement (slags, fly ash, silica fumes, rice husk ash, etc.). These waste materials can be utilized or processed in part to make aggregates or fillers for concrete. In addition, all technological processes related to the construction and demolition of building concrete generate waste in the form of concrete production and demolition debris. The volume of its production in various nations is calculated differently, and mostly depends on the standard of living. The industry concerned with the manufacture of construction materials is the largest consumer of natural resources; however, a substantial portion of these resources can be replaced by industrial and municipal waste with remarkable environmental and economic efficiency. Consequently, sustainable concrete can be produced by partially substituting waste materials with cement or other ingredients in concrete, which also contributes to the reduction of CO2 emissions, the production of more durable and cost-effective concrete, the conservation of energy through the use of less cement in concrete production, and the resolution of the waste disposal problem through the efficient consumption of waste. Utilizing waste materials in concrete is feasible, beneficial, and reasonable for the production of sustainable concrete, which is one of the finest solutions for energy conservation and the sustainable development of infrastructure.

This Special Issue's goal is to demonstrate the most recent research on unique and creative civil engineering construction materials derived from waste materials for sustainable infrastructures. The development of Sustainable Concrete Infrastructure using cutting-edge methods is especially encouraged. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Innovative waste-derived sustainable construction materials;
  • Sustainable concrete composites for civil engineering;
  • Geopolymer composites;
  • Concrete composites made with recycled materials;
  • Environmental impacts of waste materials in concrete;
  • Advanced sustainable construction materials;
  • New computational advancements in sustainable construction materials;
  • Sustainable construction materials with recycled fibers;
  • Environmental impact assessment of sustainable composites;
  • Structural application of sustainable materials;
  • Durability performance of concrete composites developed from waste material;
  • Sustainable urban infrastructure development.

Dr. Mehran Khan
Dr. Arslan Akbar
Dr. Asad Hanif
Prof. Dr. Junfeng Guan
Dr. Chaopeng Xie
Prof. Dr. Abid Ali Shah
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable concrete
  • cement-based materials
  • civil engineering
  • waste material
  • geopolymer
  • sustainable construction materials
  • industrial waste
  • recycled materials
  • environment impact
  • artificial intelligence
  • life-cycle assessment
  • circular economy
  • self-healing concrete
  • durability
  • structural application

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 5067 KiB  
Article
Structural Characterization of Phosphorous Slag Regarding Occurrence State of Phosphorus in Dicalcium Silicate
by Yu Wang, Na Zhang, Huiteng Xiao, Jihan Zhao, Yihe Zhang and Xiaoming Liu
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217450 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Phosphorous slag is a solid waste generated in the process of yellow phosphorus production. In order to deeply understand the structural and cementitious characteristics of phosphorous slag, comprehensive characterizations, including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman, scanning electron [...] Read more.
Phosphorous slag is a solid waste generated in the process of yellow phosphorus production. In order to deeply understand the structural and cementitious characteristics of phosphorous slag, comprehensive characterizations, including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman, scanning electron microscope, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were adopted to investigate the composition, thermal stability, microstructure, and cementitious activity of phosphorous slag. In addition, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to analyze the occurrence state of P in phosphorous slag. The results show that phosphorous slag is mostly vitreous with good thermal stability. Its chemical composition mainly comprises 43.85 wt % CaO, 35.87 wt % SiO2, and 5.57 wt % Al2O3, which is similar to that of blast furnace slag, but it presents lower cementitious activity than blast furnace slag. P is uniformly distributed in the phosphorous slag with P2O5 content of 3.75 wt %. The distribution pattern of P is extremely similar to that of Si. P is mainly existing in orthophosphate of 3CaO·P2O5, which forms solid solution with dicalcium silicate (2CaO·SiO2). This work specifically clarifies the occurrence state of P in dicalcium silicate within the phosphorous slag. It is theoretically helpful to solve the retarding problem of phosphorous slag in cement and concrete. Full article
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40 pages, 17533 KiB  
Article
Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Composites: A Review of the Compressive Strength and Microstructure Analysis
by Shaker Qaidi, Hadee Mohammed Najm, Suhad M. Abed, Hemn U. Ahmed, Husam Al Dughaishi, Jawad Al Lawati, Mohanad Muayad Sabri, Fadi Alkhatib and Abdalrhman Milad
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207098 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 4579
Abstract
Geopolymer (GP) concrete is a novel construction material that can be used in place of traditional Portland cement (PC) concrete to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and effectively manage industrial waste. Fly ash (FA) has long been utilized as a key constituent in GPs, [...] Read more.
Geopolymer (GP) concrete is a novel construction material that can be used in place of traditional Portland cement (PC) concrete to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and effectively manage industrial waste. Fly ash (FA) has long been utilized as a key constituent in GPs, and GP technology provides an environmentally benign alternative to FA utilization. As a result, a thorough examination of GP concrete manufactured using FA as a precursor (FA-GP concrete) and employed as a replacement for conventional concrete has become crucial. According to the findings of current investigations, FA-GP concrete has equal or superior mechanical and physical characteristics compared to PC concrete. This article reviews the clean production, mix design, compressive strength (CS), and microstructure (Ms) analyses of the FA-GP concrete to collect and publish the most recent information and data on FA-GP concrete. In addition, this paper shall attempt to develop a comprehensive database based on the previous research study that expounds on the impact of substantial aspects such as physio-chemical characteristics of precursors, mixes, curing, additives, and chemical activation on the CS of FA-GP concrete. The purpose of this work is to give viewers a greater knowledge of the consequences and uses of using FA as a precursor to making effective GP concrete. Full article
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Review

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27 pages, 8218 KiB  
Review
Properties and Applications of Geopolymer Composites: A Review Study of Mechanical and Microstructural Properties
by Ahmed Saeed, Hadee Mohammed Najm, Amer Hassan, Mohanad Muayad Sabri Sabri, Shaker Qaidi, Nuha S. Mashaan and Khalid Ansari
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228250 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3240
Abstract
Portland cement (PC) is considered the most energy-intensive building material and contributes to around 10% of global warming. It exacerbates global warming and climate change, which have a harmful environmental impact. Efforts are being made to produce sustainable and green concrete as an [...] Read more.
Portland cement (PC) is considered the most energy-intensive building material and contributes to around 10% of global warming. It exacerbates global warming and climate change, which have a harmful environmental impact. Efforts are being made to produce sustainable and green concrete as an alternative to PC concrete. As a result, developing a more sustainable strategy and eco-friendly materials to replace ordinary concrete has become critical. Many studies on geopolymer concrete, which has equal or even superior durability and strength compared to traditional concrete, have been conducted for this purpose by many researchers. Geopolymer concrete (GPC) has been developed as a possible new construction material for replacing conventional concrete, offering a clean technological choice for long-term growth. Over the last few decades, geopolymer concrete has been investigated as a feasible green construction material that can reduce CO2 emissions because it uses industrial wastes as raw materials. GPC has proven effective for structural applications due to its workability and analogical strength compared to standard cement concrete. This review article discusses the engineering properties and microstructure of GPC and shows its merits in construction applications with some guidelines and suggestions recommended for both the academic community and the industrial sector. This literature review also demonstrates that the mechanical properties of GPC are comparable and even sometimes better than those of PC concrete. Moreover, the microstructure of GPC is significantly different from that of PC concrete microstructure and can be affected by many factors. Full article
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