Topical Collection "Feature Papers on Banking and Finance"

Editors

Prof. Dr. James R. Barth
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Lowder Eminent Scholar in Finance, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Interests: banking; financial regulation; banking crises
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Clas Wihlborg
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
International Business Research Faculty, The George L. Argyros School of Business and Economics, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866, USA
Interests: banking regulation; financial crisis; exchange rate risk; risk management; European Union integration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Banking and Finance section welcomes the submission of high-quality papers examining the governance, performance, and stability of banking institutions and financial firms, including their contributions to systemic risk in the markets in which they operate. Studies focusing on the contributions of regulation and supervision to well-functioning banking and financial markets are especially encouraged. The Banking and Finance section is open to publishing new and challenging studies focusing on a single country or a group of countries. Theoretical and empirical papers, as well as policy-oriented research papers, will be considered.

Dr. James R. Barth
Dr. Clas Wihlborg
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Risk and Financial Management is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Financial Institutions
  • Banking (Efficiency, Crisis, Regulation, Risk Management, Solvency)
  • Commercial Bank
  • Central Bank
  • Federal Reserve
  • Islamic Banks
  • Basel Accords
  • Entrepreneurial Finance
  • Accounting and Financial Reporting
  • Venture Capital
  • Capital Structure
  • Credit Rating
  • Financial Stability

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (29 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018

Article
Evaluating the Unconventional Monetary Policy of the Bank of Japan: A DSGE Approach
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14060253 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
When the nominal interest rate reaches the zero lower bound (ZLB), a conventional monetary policy, namely, the adjustment of short-term interest rate, may become impractical and ineffective for central banks. Therefore, quantitative easing (QE) is one of the few available policy options of [...] Read more.
When the nominal interest rate reaches the zero lower bound (ZLB), a conventional monetary policy, namely, the adjustment of short-term interest rate, may become impractical and ineffective for central banks. Therefore, quantitative easing (QE) is one of the few available policy options of central banks for stimulating the economy and dealing with deflationary pressure. Since February 1999, the Bank of Japan (BoJ) has conducted several unconventional monetary policy programs. Considering the scarce research in this field from a structural macroeconomic model approach, a medium-scale New Keynesian DSGE model with government bonds of different maturities was developed to check the portfolio rebalancing channel of quantitative qualitative easing (QQE) conducted by the BoJ from April 2013 on the basis of the assumption of imperfect asset substitutability. The model was calibrated on the basis of the structure of the Japanese economy in April 2013. The main conclusion is that the BoJ’s asset purchase has a real effect on pushing output and inflation higher, and long-term interest rates lower. Sensitivity simulation analysis shows that, given the same size of asset purchase, the persistence of asset purchase determines the peak effect in the short run. A long-lasting asset purchase can push up inflation higher, and long-term interest rates lower for a relatively longer period, but the long-run effect on output and investment does not have much difference. The policy implication for BoJ is just to announce a long-lasting QE program and make it credible to the market. Full article
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Review
Fantastic Beasts: Blockchain Based Banking
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14040170 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Blockchain is one of the primary digital technologies utilised in the finance industry with huge future potential. This study conducts a systematic literature review of a final sample of 407 prior literature from an initial set of 1979 records for the sample period [...] Read more.
Blockchain is one of the primary digital technologies utilised in the finance industry with huge future potential. This study conducts a systematic literature review of a final sample of 407 prior literature from an initial set of 1979 records for the sample period of 2013–2020 with regard to blockchain adoption in banking. This review is further supplemented by a machine learning based textual analysis that identifies key themes, trends, divergences and gaps between academic and practitioner led industry literature. Moreover, the study highlights present, future use cases, adoption barriers and misconceptions of blockchains in banking, especially given COVID-19. Furthermore, this study identifies behavioural, social, economic, regulatory and managerial implications of blockchain based banking. In addition, our study identifies the cross-industry potential of blockchains via banking, thus, linking much disconnected prior literature. Finally, we develop a blockchain adoption framework and an adoption life cycle for banking. This study would be of interest to academics, bankers, regulators, investors, auditors and other stakeholders in financial markets. Full article
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Article
Towards Full-Fledged Inflation Targeting Monetary Policy Regime in Mauritius
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14030126 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
An increasing number of emerging and developing countries have adopted or are transitioning towards full-fledged inflation targeting (FFIT) as the main monetary policy framework to anchor inflation. In this paper, we explore the FFIT regime as a means for Mauritius to achieve stable [...] Read more.
An increasing number of emerging and developing countries have adopted or are transitioning towards full-fledged inflation targeting (FFIT) as the main monetary policy framework to anchor inflation. In this paper, we explore the FFIT regime as a means for Mauritius to achieve stable inflation, anchor inflationary expectations and establish credibility in committing monetary policy towards price stability as its primary goal. This paper reviews and highlights issues experienced with the current monetary policy framework and the challenges in transitioning towards FFIT. Given that forecasting is central to FFIT, we develop a practical model-based forecasting and policy analysis system (FPAS) to support transition to FFIT, taking into account structural features and shocks that are specific to the Mauritius economy. Full article
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Article
Has the Propensity to Pay Dividends Declined? Evidence from the US Banking Sector
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2021, 14(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14030103 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 400
Abstract
This article examines the propensity to pay dividends in the U.S banking sector during 1973–2014. Although the propensity to pay dividends has been declining over the 52 years of our sample period, banks are consistently more likely to pay dividends than non-financial firms. [...] Read more.
This article examines the propensity to pay dividends in the U.S banking sector during 1973–2014. Although the propensity to pay dividends has been declining over the 52 years of our sample period, banks are consistently more likely to pay dividends than non-financial firms. Using the coefficients from logit models estimated early in the sample period to forecast the percentage of dividend payers in each subsequent year, we conclude that there has been a decline in the likelihood of paying dividends in the banking sector. However, the decline started from a very high level as compared to that of the non-banking sectors. In addition, the variables taken from the non-financial firm literature do not explain the difference between the actual and expected percentage of dividend payers in the banking sector. We also conduct exploratory analyses with bank-specific variables. Although newly included variables are significantly related to the likelihood of paying dividends, they do not explain the declining propensity to pay dividends in the banking sector. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019, 2018

Article
Bank Characteristics Effect on Capital Structure: Evidence from PMG and CS-ARDL
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(12), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13120310 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The main aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of bank characteristics on capital structure empirically. The study employed a panel data analysis, Pooled Mean Group (PMG) and Cross-Sectionally Augmented Autoregressive Distributed Lag (CS-ARDL) estimators were utilized, for the period spans [...] Read more.
The main aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of bank characteristics on capital structure empirically. The study employed a panel data analysis, Pooled Mean Group (PMG) and Cross-Sectionally Augmented Autoregressive Distributed Lag (CS-ARDL) estimators were utilized, for the period spans between the years 2008 and 2018. Both the borrowing (leverage) ratio and equity ratio used in the analysis cover short-term deposits and long-term deposits as a fundamental determinant variable on the capital structure. The main findings confirm that the deposit ratio has a positive relationship with the size of the bank. In other words, big banks use more foreign sources than small banks to use the tax shield advantage. At the same time, a percentage increase in bank size and liquidity ratio enhance the bank deposit rate by 0.0068% and 0.479%, respectively, in the long-run, while a percentage change in interest income coverage will reduce the bank deposit rate by 0.004% in the long-run. Meanwhile, the significant causal relationship of growth rate with the bank deposit rate could not be established. In addition, the short-run coefficients of the variables reveal that size, interest coverage, and liquidity have a positive and significant causal relationship with bank deposit rate in the short-run. The findings of the study are in line with the results of capital structure theories, especially the hierarchy theory and balancing theory. Full article
Article
Empirical Evidence of a Changing Operating Cost Structure and Its Impact on Banks’ Operating Profit: The Case of Germany
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(10), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13100247 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561
Abstract
The financial sector is undergoing extensive changes and challenges that affect the entire market and infrastructure of financial service providers. Technological development leads to increased digitalisation and allows new business models to emerge. With regard to the banking sector, it is evident that [...] Read more.
The financial sector is undergoing extensive changes and challenges that affect the entire market and infrastructure of financial service providers. Technological development leads to increased digitalisation and allows new business models to emerge. With regard to the banking sector, it is evident that this sector is characterized by employees and associated services. However, due to changing conditions, a decline in personnel has been recorded for many years. This raises the question as to what extent—based on contrary assumptions of the principle agency theory and the expense preference hypothesis—personnel changes influence the operational success of banks. On this basis, six hypotheses were formulated and tested. The principal component analysis method was applied to prepare the data. Afterwards, the actual analysis was carried out using a mixed method approach. The results on the basis of the years 2013–2017 showed a negative personnel development, which contributed to the improvement of the operating results of banks. Hereby it becomes evident that the business model design of savings and cooperative banks is of secondary importance. Full article
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Article
Banking Development and Economy in Greece: Evidence from Regional Data
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(10), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13100243 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
This article examines the development of Greek systemic banks for the period 2003–2018, using data such as the ATM network and branches at a regional level. We test the impact of the ATM network and branches on the deposits of Greek commercial banks [...] Read more.
This article examines the development of Greek systemic banks for the period 2003–2018, using data such as the ATM network and branches at a regional level. We test the impact of the ATM network and branches on the deposits of Greek commercial banks as well as the impact of local GDP on the regional banking efficiency. The analysis is carried out in two steps, (1) we use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for efficiency analysis, and (2) we use panel regression models for regression analysis. The results show that branches that operate at small regions are less efficient than those of the larger regions. Furthermore, both the ATMs and the number of branches have a positive relationship with deposits. This means that banks must continue to operate branches and ATMs in Greece. Finally, we show that local GDP helps significantly in increasing regional banking efficiency. The above findings are important given the need to support the local economy with modern banking services in Greece. Full article
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Article
Bottlenecks to Financial Development, Financial Inclusion, and Microfinance: A Case Study of Mauritania
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(10), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13100239 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
The objective of the study was to enhance our knowledge on institutional bottlenecks for financial development, financial inclusion, and microfinance, using Mauritania as a case study. We used a mixed-methods’ methodology that combines analysis of secondary data and an expert interview. First, a [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to enhance our knowledge on institutional bottlenecks for financial development, financial inclusion, and microfinance, using Mauritania as a case study. We used a mixed-methods’ methodology that combines analysis of secondary data and an expert interview. First, a logit model with dummy independent variables was used to investigate the factors that impact the households’ access to credit, the main advantage of this model being to avoid confounding effects by analyzing the association of all variables together. Our study found that access to financial services is equal in Mauritania between men and women, but that access to credit is higher for public sector employees, educated people, and households with smaller families. Second, using principal components’ analysis, we found that the different regions of Mauritania can be divided based on unemployment, income, literacy, financial inclusion, and population density into two main dimensions, yielding four quadrants: Attractive, industrious, moderate, and resource cursed. We expected that sparsely populated countries would have less access to credit. Counterintuitively, we found that within a low-density country, people in the lowest-density regions have higher odds of getting credit. Third, based on an interview with an expert, we noted the key challenges that microfinance is facing in Mauritania and provided recommendations to overcome these. As in most case studies, external validity was limited. Full article
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Article
The Impact of BASEL Accords on the Management of Vietnamese Commercial Banks
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(10), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13100228 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 704
Abstract
This paper is an attempt to empirically examine the impact of Basel Accord regulatory guidelines on the risk-based capital adequacy regulation and bank risk management of Vietnamese commercial banks. Our research aims to assess how Vietnamese commercial banks manage their capital ratio and [...] Read more.
This paper is an attempt to empirically examine the impact of Basel Accord regulatory guidelines on the risk-based capital adequacy regulation and bank risk management of Vietnamese commercial banks. Our research aims to assess how Vietnamese commercial banks manage their capital ratio and bank risk under the latest Basel Accord capital adequacy ratio requirements. Building on previous studies, this research uses a simultaneous equation modeling (SiEM) with three-stage least squares regression (3SLS) to analyze the endogenous relationship between risk-based capital adequacy standards and bank risk management. A year dummy variable (dy2013) is included in the model to take account of changes in the regulation of the Vietnamese banking system. Furthermore, we add a value-at-risk variable developed by as an independent variable into equations of the empirical models. The results reveal a significant impact of Basel capital adequacy regulatory pressure on the risk-based capital adequacy standards and bank risk management of Vietnamese commercial banks. Moreover, banks under the latest Basel capital adequacy regulations are induced to reduce risks and increase banks’ financial performance. Full article
Article
A Study on the Impact of Capitalization on the Profitability of Banks in Emerging Markets: A Case of Pakistan
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(9), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13090217 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
A strong capitalized position of financial institutions is essential to ensure their solvency. Because of their unique nature, banks must always keep an optimum level of capital to ensure smooth banking earnings. Consequently, it is mandatory for all types of banks operating in [...] Read more.
A strong capitalized position of financial institutions is essential to ensure their solvency. Because of their unique nature, banks must always keep an optimum level of capital to ensure smooth banking earnings. Consequently, it is mandatory for all types of banks operating in Pakistan to keep a minimum amount of required capital along with capital adequacy to remain solvent and profitable. Therefore, using three measures of capitalization, i.e., the Capital Ratio (CR), Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), and Minimum Capital Requirement (MCR), and four measures of profitability, i.e., Return on Avg. Assets (ROAA), Return on Avg. Equity (ROAE), Net Interest Margin (NIMAR), and Profit Margin (NMAR), this study contributes to the existing literature on the relationship between the capitalization and profitability of 29 Pakistani banks over the period of 2007–2018. The results, based on the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) system estimator technique, reported an inverted U-shaped relationship between the two capitalization measures, i.e., CR and CAR, and the four profitability measures, i.e., ROAA, ROAE, NIMAR, and NMAR. This indicates that profitability increases with an increase in capitalization up to a certain level, while beyond that level, a further increase in capitalization decreases profitability. The results also indicate that banks who maintain their MCR have higher profitability than those who do not. Full article
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Article
Do Profitable Banks Make a Positive Contribution to the Economy?
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(8), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13080159 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
A number of studies have investigated the relationship between financial sector development and economic growth; however, the impact of bank profitability on economic growth is still unclear. We investigate the link between bank profitability and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region over the [...] Read more.
A number of studies have investigated the relationship between financial sector development and economic growth; however, the impact of bank profitability on economic growth is still unclear. We investigate the link between bank profitability and economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region over the period 2004–2014. Using the system GMM estimator, our findings suggest that a profitable banking sector is a prerequisite for economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region and that the impact of bank profitability on economic growth is more prominent in small banking sectors. Perhaps surprisingly, we found that the bank size has a negative impact on GDP growth, with the influence of bank profitability on economic growth reducing as the size of the banking sector increases. Our results also show that the impact of profitability on economic growth is much larger in developed economies compared to small emerging and large emerging economies. Full article
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Article
The Role of Redenomination Risk in the Price Evolution of Italian Banks’ CDS Spreads
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(7), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13070150 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The recent financial crisis offered an interesting opportunity to analyze the markets’ behavior in a high-volatility framework. In this paper, we analyzed the price discovery process of the Italian banks’ Credit Default Swap (CDS) spreads through the Merton model, extended with the inclusion [...] Read more.
The recent financial crisis offered an interesting opportunity to analyze the markets’ behavior in a high-volatility framework. In this paper, we analyzed the price discovery process of the Italian banks’ Credit Default Swap (CDS) spreads through the Merton model, extended with the inclusion of a redenomination risk proxy, as to say, the risk that Italy could leave the eurozone. This paper contributes to the literature by integrating the classic Merton model with a political-sensitive market variable able to explain the greatest variance in the Italian banks’ CDS spreads during the most relevant and commonly recognized periods of socio-political and financial distress. Results show that the redenomination risk is progressively becoming the main driver of the process during crises, in particular for the sovereign debt crisis and in 2018. Full article
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Article
Life after Debt: The Effects of Overleveraging on Conventional and Islamic Banks
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13060137 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
It is generally argued that Islamic banks are safer than conventional banks. The prime reason is that their product structure is essentially asset-backed financing, while conventional banks rely heavily on leveraging, which was considered one of the main causes of the 2008 global [...] Read more.
It is generally argued that Islamic banks are safer than conventional banks. The prime reason is that their product structure is essentially asset-backed financing, while conventional banks rely heavily on leveraging, which was considered one of the main causes of the 2008 global financial crisis. This paper examines the riskiness of Islamic and conventional banks during the 2008 global crisis by measuring overleveraging, defined as the difference between actual and optimal debt. This research conducted empirical analysis on the overleveraging of 20 banks (10 conventional and 10 Islamic banks) from five different countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Malaysia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The analysis is double-folded: on the one hand, the results in this paper suggest that excess debt, rather than the mere holding of debt, was the reason behind the severe financial meltdown in 2007–2009; on the other hand, this paper shows that Islamic banks, in most of the countries in context, performed better during the recent crisis, but were subject to the second-round effect of the global crisis around the years of 2011–2013. Full article
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Review
Regulatory Restrictions on US Bank Funding Sources: A Review of the Treatment of Brokered Deposits
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(6), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13060130 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
This paper is the first paper to provide a comprehensive review of the US regulatory treatment of a relatively recent and controversial source of funds, namely brokered deposits. To do this, we consider the extent to which banks rely on brokered deposits, as [...] Read more.
This paper is the first paper to provide a comprehensive review of the US regulatory treatment of a relatively recent and controversial source of funds, namely brokered deposits. To do this, we consider the extent to which banks rely on brokered deposits, as well as the impact of these funds on bank performance, bank failures, and bank failure costs. We also consider the changes taking place in technologies and how they continue to affect the way banks obtain funds and provide services to their customers. Our conclusion is that, without sufficient evidence to the contrary, such deposits should be treated no differently from all other deposits and other purchased funds. Full article
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Article
Microfinance Participation in Thailand
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(6), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13060122 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Income inequality is a major problem in Thailand. A key determinant of income inequality in Thailand is the lack of financial access to financial institutions for low-income families. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) play an important role in enabling poor households to access financial resources [...] Read more.
Income inequality is a major problem in Thailand. A key determinant of income inequality in Thailand is the lack of financial access to financial institutions for low-income families. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) play an important role in enabling poor households to access financial resources at a reasonable cost. The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that affect Thai households participating in microfinance programs in Thailand. A multinomial logit model is used to investigate the factors that impact the Thai households’ access to microfinance. The study employs secondary data from the Thai Socioeconomic Survey (cross-sectional data in 2017) to identify factors affecting Thai household participation in microfinance programs. The results show that the Village Fund (VF) targets low-income rural households and encourages those with older household heads who have lower levels of education, and female household heads, to participate in their program. Larger households are more likely to access the VF. Households with higher dependency ratios are less likely to borrow from the VF. Households with well-educated, young household heads in regional areas are more likely to borrow money from Saving Groups for Production (SGPs). SGP borrower households have higher household incomes than VF borrower households. Our findings indicate that VFs and SGPs are credit sources in the rural credit market; these sources enable rural households to access credit to meet their needs. In addition, rural Thai households borrow from many sources so that they can rotate their loan repayments. Low-income households refinance their loans by borrowing from different sources. Full article
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Commercial Banking
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(6), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13060111 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 574
Abstract
The existence of financial intermediaries is arguably an artifact of information asymmetry. Beyond simple financial transactions, financial intermediation provides a mechanism for information transmission, which can reduce the degree of information asymmetry and consequently increase market efficiency. During the process of information transmission, [...] Read more.
The existence of financial intermediaries is arguably an artifact of information asymmetry. Beyond simple financial transactions, financial intermediation provides a mechanism for information transmission, which can reduce the degree of information asymmetry and consequently increase market efficiency. During the process of information transmission, the bank is able to provide unique services in the production and exchange of information. Therefore, banks have comparative advantages in information production, transmission, and utilisation. In credit provision, it is possible for lenders to make Type I and Type II errors. These types of errors are associated with whether banks decide to lend money to borrowers with low repayment capacity or risk missing out on potentially profitable lending. However, the recent US subprime loan crisis and previous financial crises (such as the Mexican, Argentinian, Chilean and Asian financial crises) show it is possible that banks can make both good and bad lending decisions. Does this mean that banks have lost their comparative advantages in leveraging information asymmetry? This Special Issue includes contribution in empirical methods in banking such risk and bank performance, capital regulation, bank competition and foreign bank entry, bank regulation on bank performance, and capital adequacy and deposit insurance. Full article
Communication
Negative Interest Rates
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13050090 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Negative interest rates are an invention of monetary authorities to show that monetary activism does not have boundaries, i.e., as if there is no such thing as a liquidity trap. Their presence in the financial landscape has redefined the benefits to savers and [...] Read more.
Negative interest rates are an invention of monetary authorities to show that monetary activism does not have boundaries, i.e., as if there is no such thing as a liquidity trap. Their presence in the financial landscape has redefined the benefits to savers and to investors. Governments can now borrow at will without visibly adding to budget deficits. This makes negative interest borrowing an alternative to raising taxes. Banks can now achieve regulatory compliance partially at the expense of depositors. Commercial banks pay to keep money at the central bank instead of earning interest on it. This paper shows the true nature of negative interest rates and their consequences on various economic agents and performance measures, specifically on economic growth and exchange rates. In addition, this paper demonstrates that the arguments in favor of negative interest rates have been largely exaggerated based on the weight of the evidence that shows the United States, which never issued negative interest rates debt, is a leader among developed countries in terms of economic growth in a non-inflationary environment. Full article
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Article
Global Bank Capital and Liquidity after 30 Years of Basel Accords
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13040073 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
In this paper we analyze the effectiveness of more than 30 years of efforts by international banking supervisors, working together in the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, to harmonize capital and liquidity standards for internationally active banks. Notwithstanding the great efforts and progress [...] Read more.
In this paper we analyze the effectiveness of more than 30 years of efforts by international banking supervisors, working together in the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, to harmonize capital and liquidity standards for internationally active banks. Notwithstanding the great efforts and progress made by international banking supervisors since the financial crisis of 2007–2009, two important issues require further attention. First, although bank capital ratios have been raised significantly since the recent financial crisis, they are still at historically low levels. In a world in which global debt ratios have risen even further during the past decade, this is a worrying signal of fragility in the global financial system. Second, bank liquidity requirements may have become too complex and could also have unintented and unpredictable interaction effects with bank capital requirements. Full article
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Article
Relative Efficiency of Canadian Banks: A Three-Stage Network Bootstrap DEA
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13040068 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
In this study, we focus on how banks can enhance their efficiency in the utilization of resources to ensure their economic sustainability. We propose a novel three-stage (production, investment, and revenue generation) network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with bootstrapping to evaluate the performance [...] Read more.
In this study, we focus on how banks can enhance their efficiency in the utilization of resources to ensure their economic sustainability. We propose a novel three-stage (production, investment, and revenue generation) network Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with bootstrapping to evaluate the performance of the six big Canadian banks for the period 2000–2017, amid the 2007 financial crisis and the increasing competition level due to new technologies. We identify the best practices in each stage that can be used as benchmarks by other banks to improve their economic sustainability. Our results indicate that the 2007 financial crisis resulted in lower efficiencies in the performance of Canadian banks. This decline was not substantial for the production and investment stages when the revenue generation stage received the greatest hit. In addition, we observed that the individual banks did not have consistent performance in the different stages. Finally, we compared our model with the black box DEA model and concluded that the network DEA provides more insightful and accurate results in terms of banks’ efficiencies. Full article
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Article
Liquidity and Corporate Governance
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13030054 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
This paper discusses the relationship between stock market liquidity and corporate governance. Both concepts are widely investigated from different angles in the literature. It is generally agreed that they are related so that better corporate governance implies higher liquidity for shares of listed [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the relationship between stock market liquidity and corporate governance. Both concepts are widely investigated from different angles in the literature. It is generally agreed that they are related so that better corporate governance implies higher liquidity for shares of listed companies. However, the importance of good corporate governance for the market liquidity of the share will differ depending on the characteristics of the firm’s business. Good corporate governance will be particularly important in reducing agency problems in firms where the business is subject to a high degree of uncertainty. Proper corporate governance, in other words, matters most for firms where external assessment of the firm’s business prospects is difficult, while it is less important for value creation in firms where the business is easier to understand. Full article
Article
News-Driven Expectations and Volatility Clustering
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13010017 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Financial volatility obeys two fascinating empirical regularities that apply to various assets, on various markets, and on various time scales: it is fat-tailed (more precisely power-law distributed) and it tends to be clustered in time. Many interesting models have been proposed to account [...] Read more.
Financial volatility obeys two fascinating empirical regularities that apply to various assets, on various markets, and on various time scales: it is fat-tailed (more precisely power-law distributed) and it tends to be clustered in time. Many interesting models have been proposed to account for these regularities, notably agent-based models, which mimic the two empirical laws through a complex mix of nonlinear mechanisms such as traders switching between trading strategies in highly nonlinear way. This paper explains the two regularities simply in terms of traders’ attitudes towards news, an explanation that follows from the very traditional dichotomy of financial market participants, investors versus speculators, whose behaviors are reduced to their simplest forms. Long-run investors’ valuations of an asset are assumed to follow a news-driven random walk, thus capturing the investors’ persistent, long memory of fundamental news. Short-term speculators’ anticipated returns, on the other hand, are assumed to follow a news-driven autoregressive process, capturing their shorter memory of fundamental news, and, by the same token, the feedback intrinsic to the short-sighted, trend-following (or herding) mindset of speculators. These simple, linear models of traders’ expectations explain the two financial regularities in a generic and robust way. Rational expectations, the dominant model of traders’ expectations, is not assumed here, owing to the famous no-speculation, no-trade results. Full article
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Brief Report
QE versus the Real Problems in the World Economy
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2020, 13(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13010011 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
These notes are based on parts of a keynote address to the Fourth Annual Conference on Money and Finance at Chapman University on 6–7 September 2019. Quantitative easing (QE) policies have been pushed to extremes and extended well beyond their use-by dates to [...] Read more.
These notes are based on parts of a keynote address to the Fourth Annual Conference on Money and Finance at Chapman University on 6–7 September 2019. Quantitative easing (QE) policies have been pushed to extremes and extended well beyond their use-by dates to little plausible effect in achieving the goal of raising inflation and growth. Instead, they are damaging the interbank market (as exemplified by the liquidity crisis in September 2019), adding to the risk of financial crises in the future and taking pressure off policy-makers to deal with the real causes of poor investment, growth and deflation pressure. The shift in where investment is occurring and the special problems of Europe and Brexit are focused upon. Full article
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2019

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Article
Revenue Diversification, Risk and Bank Performance of Vietnamese Commercial Banks
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2019, 12(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm12030138 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
In the future, when the process of economic integration in the banking sector is more powerful, and competitive, diversifying revenue is an inevitable and objective trend to help the banks increase profits, minimize risks and improve their competitive position in the system. The [...] Read more.
In the future, when the process of economic integration in the banking sector is more powerful, and competitive, diversifying revenue is an inevitable and objective trend to help the banks increase profits, minimize risks and improve their competitive position in the system. The research is on the relationship between revenue diversification, risk and bank performance using data from audited financial statements and annual reports of 26 commercial banks listed and unlisted in Vietnam during the period 2010–2018. The research method uses Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) modeling techniques to solve endogenous problems, variance and autocorrelation in the research model. Research results show that diversification negatively impacts profitability and the higher the diversification, the higher the risk of commercial banks. However, the more diversified listed banks, the more increased the bank’s stability. The banks show the weakness and lack of experience of the banking system in developing a reasonable profit transformation model. The revenue diversification of banks is currently passive and moves slowly. Interest income is still the motivation of bank development, boosting profit growth. Growth, as well as the contribution from service activities, is not commensurate with potentials; although there are many positive points, they are not enough to cover risks from net interest income activities. Full article
Article
Competition in the Indian Banking Sector: A Panel Data Approach
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2019, 12(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm12030136 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
The paper aims to assess the level of competition in the Indian banking sector overall as well as within the three groups of banks: foreign owned, state owned (public sector), and privately owned. We use panel data for the period from 2005–2018. We [...] Read more.
The paper aims to assess the level of competition in the Indian banking sector overall as well as within the three groups of banks: foreign owned, state owned (public sector), and privately owned. We use panel data for the period from 2005–2018. We found that the overall competition in the Indian banking sector is strong, although there are differences by type of bank ownership. The Indian banking market continues to be characterized by monopolistic competition. The various policy measures taken by the Indian government in recent years appear to have helped boost competition. A policy suggestion would be to further liberalize the banking sector for foreign investment. Full article
Article
Can Higher Capital Discipline Bank Risk: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2019, 12(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm12030134 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Capital regulation has been among the most important tools for regulators to maintain the credibility and stability of the financial systems. However, the question whether higher capital induce banks to take lower risk remains unanswered. This paper examines the effect of capital on [...] Read more.
Capital regulation has been among the most important tools for regulators to maintain the credibility and stability of the financial systems. However, the question whether higher capital induce banks to take lower risk remains unanswered. This paper examines the effect of capital on bank risk employing a meta-analysis approach, which considers a wide range of empirical papers from 1990 to 2018. We found that the negative effect of bank capital on bank risk, which implies the discipline role of bank capital, is more likely to be reported. However, the reported results are suffered from the publication bias due to the preference for significant estimates and favored results. Our study also shows that the differences in the previous studies’ conclusions are primarily caused by the differences in the study design, particularly the risk and capital measurements; the model specification such as the concern for the dynamic of bank risk behaviors, the endogeneity of the capital and unobserved time fixed effects; along with and the sample characteristics such as the sample size, and whether banks are bank holding companies or located in high-income countries. Full article
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Article
Role of Bank Regulation on Bank Performance: Evidence from Asia-Pacific Commercial Banks
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2019, 12(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm12030131 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
The banking industry is an essential financial intermediary, thus the efficient operation of banks is vital for economic development and social welfare. However, the 2008 global financial crisis triggered a reconsideration of the banking systems, as well as the role of government intervention. [...] Read more.
The banking industry is an essential financial intermediary, thus the efficient operation of banks is vital for economic development and social welfare. However, the 2008 global financial crisis triggered a reconsideration of the banking systems, as well as the role of government intervention. The literature has paid little attention to the banking industry in the Asia-Pacific region in the context of bank efficiency. This study employs double bootstrap data envelopment analysis to measure bank efficiency and examine the relationship between regulation, supervision, and state ownership in commercial banks in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 2005 to 2014. Our results indicate that excluding off-balance sheet activities in efficiency estimations lead to underestimating of the pure technical efficiency, while overestimating the scale efficiency of banks in the Asia-Pacific region. Cross-country comparisons reveal that Australian banks exhibit the highest levels of technical efficiency, while Indonesian banks exhibit the lowest average. Our bootstrap regression results suggest that bank regulation and supervision are positively related to bank technical efficiency, while state ownership is not significantly related to bank efficiency. Furthermore, our findings show that tighter regulation and supervision are significantly related to higher efficiency for small and large-sized banks. Full article
Article
The Good and Bad News about the New Liquidity Rules of Basel III in Islamic Banking of Malaysia
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2019, 12(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm12030120 - 17 Jul 2019
Viewed by 2730
Abstract
How has Basel III (Bank for International Settlements), regarding the computation, measurement, and management of the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR), vitalized the Islamic banking sector in emerging economies? Vice versa, what is the Islamic banking sector’s capacity to respond in embracing Basel III? [...] Read more.
How has Basel III (Bank for International Settlements), regarding the computation, measurement, and management of the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR), vitalized the Islamic banking sector in emerging economies? Vice versa, what is the Islamic banking sector’s capacity to respond in embracing Basel III? This study aims to review the current issues faced by a bank as it discusses the current regulatory guidelines and operational challenges in implementing the system. Based on the implementation of LCR preliminary secondary data of Malaysian banks between 2010 and 2016, this study finds that the readiness of LCR system implementation in the Islamic banking industry is currently low because LCR is still relatively new for all financial institutions and vendors. There is a huge gap between the present system infrastructure of the banks and the LCR model requirements as defined by BNM (Bank Negara Malaysia) under Basel III. Nevertheless, this finding opens new horizons of understanding and practically offers further investigations for the whole banking sector in Malaysia. Thus, policy makers, regulators, and industry players should utilize a unique framework for Islamic banks when strategizing liquidity risk management. Full article
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Article
Bank Competition, Foreign Bank Entry, and Risk-Taking Behavior: Cross Country Evidence
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2019, 12(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm12030106 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
This unique study examines the interactive role of bank competition and foreign bank entry in explaining the risk-taking of banks over the globe. We used cross-country data for the banking sector from 2000 to 2016. Using the pooled regression model and Two-stage Least [...] Read more.
This unique study examines the interactive role of bank competition and foreign bank entry in explaining the risk-taking of banks over the globe. We used cross-country data for the banking sector from 2000 to 2016. Using the pooled regression model and Two-stage Least Squares model (2SLS with Generalized Method of Moments GMM), we document that foreign bank entry decreases the risk-taking behavior of the banks to a certain level and exhibits an inverted U-shaped relation with financial stability. Furthermore, the joint effect of bank competition and foreign bank entry brings financial fragility because host banks tend to make risky investments due to undue competition induced by foreign bank entry. We support the competition–fragility hypothesis when foreign bank entry goes beyond a certain threshold. Our results also suggest that restrictions on bank activities and capital regulation stringency reduce the level of the risk factor. We also applied various robustness tests, which further confirm our mainstream results. Our findings have policy implications for foreign investors and regulatory authorities. Full article
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2018

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Article
Capital Adequacy, Deposit Insurance, and the Effect of Their Interaction on Bank Risk
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2018, 11(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm11040079 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
This paper investigates how deposit insurance and capital adequacy affect bank risk for five developed and nine emerging markets over the period of 1992–2015. Although full coverage of deposit insurance induces moral hazard by banks, deposit insurance is still an effective tool, especially [...] Read more.
This paper investigates how deposit insurance and capital adequacy affect bank risk for five developed and nine emerging markets over the period of 1992–2015. Although full coverage of deposit insurance induces moral hazard by banks, deposit insurance is still an effective tool, especially during the time of crisis. On the contrary, capital adequacy by itself does not effectively perform the monitoring role and leads to the asset substitution problem. Implementing the safety nets of both deposit insurance and capital adequacy together could be a sustainable financial architecture. Immediate-effect analysis reveals that the interplay between deposit insurance and capital adequacy is indispensable for banking system stability. Full article
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