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Article

Depositional Sedimentary Facies, Stratigraphic Control, Paleoecological Constraints, and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of Late Permian Chhidru Formation (Western Salt Range, Pakistan)

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Institute of Geology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad 13100, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
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Department of Geology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Dir (U), Sheringal 18050, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
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School of Geoscience and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
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Department of Historical Geology-Paleontology, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, School of Earth Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografou, 15784 Athens, Greece
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Department of Earth Sciences, Université Lille 1, Cité Scientifique, CEDEX, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France
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Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: János Kovács
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121372
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 29 November 2021 / Accepted: 30 November 2021 / Published: 3 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Geological Oceanography)
The Upper Indus Basin, in Pakistan’s western Salt Range, is home to the Zaluch Gorge. The sedimentary rocks found in this Gorge, belonging to the Chhidru Formation, were studied in terms of sedimentology and stratigraphy, and provide new insights into the basin paleogeographic evolution from the Precambrian to the Jurassic period. Facies analysis in the Chhidru Formation deposits allowed the recognition of three lithofacies (the limestone facies—CF1, the limestone with clay interbeds facies—CF2, and the sandy limestone facies—CF3) with five microfacies types (mudstone biomicrite—MF-1, wackestone-biomicrite—MF-2, wackestone-biosparite—MF-3, pack-stone-biomicrite—MF-4, and packstone-biosparite—MF-5), as well as their depositional characteristics. The identified carbonate and siliciclastic formations display various facies in a shallow marine environment, with different lithologies, sedimentary features, and energy conditions. It is thought that the depositional characteristics of these microfacies are closer to those of the middle to outer shelf. Because of the progressively coarsening outcrop sequence, this formation seems to be at the very top of the high stand system tract (HST). A modified dynamic depositional model of the Chhidru Formation is further built using outcrop data, facies information, and stratigraphy. According to this concept, the formation was deposited in the middle to inner shelf area of the shallow marine environment, during the Late-Permian period. The Permo-Triassic Boundary (PTB), which is the end of the type-1 series, is marked by this formation’s top. View Full-Text
Keywords: Permian-Triassic boundary; sequence stratigraphy; high stand systems tract (HST); shallow marine deposits; microfacies types; stratigraphic correlations; subtidal-intertidal depositional environments; mixed siliciclastic-carbonate successions; sedimentary basin dynamics; paleoecology Permian-Triassic boundary; sequence stratigraphy; high stand systems tract (HST); shallow marine deposits; microfacies types; stratigraphic correlations; subtidal-intertidal depositional environments; mixed siliciclastic-carbonate successions; sedimentary basin dynamics; paleoecology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, S.K.; Janjuhah, H.T.; Shahzad, S.M.; Kontakiotis, G.; Saleem, M.H.; Khan, U.; Zarkogiannis, S.D.; Makri, P.; Antonarakou, A. Depositional Sedimentary Facies, Stratigraphic Control, Paleoecological Constraints, and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of Late Permian Chhidru Formation (Western Salt Range, Pakistan). J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121372

AMA Style

Ali SK, Janjuhah HT, Shahzad SM, Kontakiotis G, Saleem MH, Khan U, Zarkogiannis SD, Makri P, Antonarakou A. Depositional Sedimentary Facies, Stratigraphic Control, Paleoecological Constraints, and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of Late Permian Chhidru Formation (Western Salt Range, Pakistan). Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(12):1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121372

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ali, Syed K., Hammad T. Janjuhah, Syed M. Shahzad, George Kontakiotis, Muhammad H. Saleem, Usman Khan, Stergios D. Zarkogiannis, Panayota Makri, and Assimina Antonarakou. 2021. "Depositional Sedimentary Facies, Stratigraphic Control, Paleoecological Constraints, and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of Late Permian Chhidru Formation (Western Salt Range, Pakistan)" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 12: 1372. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121372

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