Recent Advances in Sedimentology

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Geological Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2024) | Viewed by 22094

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Department of Historical Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Geology and Geo-Environment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: marine geology; climate changes; paleoceanography; geochemistry; petroleum geology; basin analysis; sapropels; coastal and open marine systems; environmental reconstruction; marine sediment dynamics
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Guest Editor
Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloníki, Greece
Interests: sedimentology; sequence stratigraphy; seismic stratigraphy; provenance; geochemistry; paleoclimatology; basin analysis; hydrocarbon exploration; natural resources
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Department of Geology, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
Interests: sedimentary basin analysis; petroleum geology; depositional environments; submarine fans; fluvial deposits; carbonates diagenesis; carbonates deformation; sedimentology; sequence stratigraphy; seismic stratigraphy; geochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sedimentology has remained an important direction in international research, and related investigations have significantly expanded our understanding of several types of depositional environments, including continental and transitional sedimentary successions and marine sequences. Such sedimentary successions hold vital information that can be used to reconstruct the evolution of past sedimentary basins by deciphering their dynamics and can further aid in locating abrupt depositional events on a regional or global scale. The current research priority in this field is the integration of geochemical data with traditional sedimentological data, which will provide novel and more accurate means of unravelling the relationships among chemical, biological, ecological, and sedimentary systems. We particularly encourage contributions outlining the applications of novel techniques in this topic. Sequence stratigraphic correlations and related techniques (e.g., facies distribution and remote acquisition) add a further geological time dimension to sedimentology, and therefore such multidisciplinary applications are fundamental to understanding the evolution of Earth’s geological history. Potential contributions may be global and/or regional in scope and focus on any geographical time period, from the Archean to the Quaternary.

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Full papers should be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the Special Issue website. Research articles, review articles, and short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on the website.

Dr. George Kontakiotis
Dr. Angelos G. Maravelis
Prof. Dr. Avraam Zelilidis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • sedimentary processes and depositional settings
  • offshore/onshore sedimentary basin hydrocarbon potential
  • cyclothematic sedimentation
  • sea-level impact on carbonate factories and terrigenous settings
  • volcaniclastic sedimentation and tephra markers
  • imprint of ocean dynamics on sediments
  • anthropogenic impact on sedimentary environments
  • remote sensing applications in evolving sedimentary environments
  • diagenetic processes in carbonates
  • synsedimentary deformation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

24 pages, 12738 KiB  
Article
Pb-210 Dating of Ice Scour in the Kara Sea
by Osip Kokin, Irina Usyagina, Nikita Meshcheriakov, Roman Ananiev, Vasiliy Arkhipov, Aino Kirillova, Stepan Maznev, Sergey Nikiforov and Nikolay Sorokhtin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(7), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11071404 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
Ice scours are formed when the keels of floating icebergs or sea ice hummocks penetrate unlithified seabed sediments. Until now, ice scours have been divided into “relict” and “modern” according to the water depth that corresponds with the possible maximum vertical dimensions of [...] Read more.
Ice scours are formed when the keels of floating icebergs or sea ice hummocks penetrate unlithified seabed sediments. Until now, ice scours have been divided into “relict” and “modern” according to the water depth that corresponds with the possible maximum vertical dimensions of the keels of modern floating icebergs. However, this approach does not consider climatic changes at the present sea level, which affect the maximum depth of ice keels. We present an application of 210Pb dating of the largest ice scour in the Baydaratskaya Bay area (Kara Sea), located at depths of about 28–32 m. Two sediment cores were studied; these were taken on 2 November 2021 from the R/V Akademik Nikolay Strakhov directly in the ice scour and on the “background” seabed surface, not processed via ice scouring. According to the results of 210Pb dating, the studied ice scour was formed no later than the end of the Little Ice Age. Based on the extrapolation of possible sedimentation rates prior to 1917 (0.22–0.38 cm/year), the age of the ice scour is estimated to be 1810 ± 30 AD. The mean rate of ice scour filling with 70 cm thick sediments from the moment of its formation is around 0.33 cm/year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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24 pages, 13280 KiB  
Article
Sedimentological Controls on the Reservoir Characteristics of the Mid-Triassic Tredian Formation in the Salt and Trans-Indus Surghar Ranges, Pakistan: Integration of Outcrop, Petrographic, and SEM Analyses
by Kamil A. Qureshi, Mohamad Arif, Abdul Basit, Sajjad Ahmad, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah and George Kontakiotis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11051019 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
The current study uses an integrated lithofacies, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis to investigate the sedimentary processes, depositional architecture, and reservoir rock potential of the Tredian Formation’s (Mid-Triassic) mixed siliciclastic and carbonate succession in the Salt and Trans-Indus Ranges. The [...] Read more.
The current study uses an integrated lithofacies, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis to investigate the sedimentary processes, depositional architecture, and reservoir rock potential of the Tredian Formation’s (Mid-Triassic) mixed siliciclastic and carbonate succession in the Salt and Trans-Indus Ranges. The formation has been divided litho-stratigraphically into two components: the lower Landa Member, which consists of fine-grained sandstone and shale, and the upper Khatkiara Member, which consists of coarse-grained sandstone. Based on sedimentary structures and lithology, four distinct types of lithofacies are identified. Two lithofacies representing sandstones interbedded with shale (LF1) and thick-bedded sandstone (LF2) lithofacies suggestive of fluvio-deltaic settings are among them. Another two lithofacies of thin-bedded sandstone (LF3) and dolomite (LF4) suggest a tidal flat depositional environment, correspondingly. The petrographic examination of the Tredian sandstones indicates a lithology ranging from sub-feldspathic arenite to feldspathic arenite with moderate packing. The presence of primary calcite cement, silica cement, and iron oxide/hydroxide cements were shown by the diagenetic investigation, which was supported by SEM studies. In addition, secondary cements include ferroan-dolomite, chlorite, and illite, which is linked with chemical alteration of unstable grains. The paragenetic sequence depicts the diagenetic evolution of the Tredian sandstone from early to late diagenetic phases. The reservoir quality of the LF1 and LF4 lithofacies has been destroyed by early-stage calcite cementation, but the lithofacies LF2 and LF3 have a strong reservoir potential owing to the scarcity of calcite cement, dissolution of unstable feldspar grains, and grain fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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24 pages, 13551 KiB  
Article
Sedimentary Facies, Architectural Elements, and Depositional Environments of the Maastrichtian Pab Formation in the Rakhi Gorge, Eastern Sulaiman Ranges, Pakistan
by Mubashir Mehmood, Abbas Ali Naseem, Maryam Saleem, Junaid ur Rehman, George Kontakiotis, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah, Emad Ullah Khan, Assimina Antonarakou, Ihtisham Khan, Anees ur Rehman and Syed Mamoon Siyar
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040726 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3414
Abstract
An integrated study of sediments was conducted to examine the facies architecture and depositional environment of the Cretaceous Pab Formation, Rakhi Gorge, and Suleiman Ranges, Pakistan. This research focused on analyzing architectural elements and facies, which are not commonly studied in sedimentary basins [...] Read more.
An integrated study of sediments was conducted to examine the facies architecture and depositional environment of the Cretaceous Pab Formation, Rakhi Gorge, and Suleiman Ranges, Pakistan. This research focused on analyzing architectural elements and facies, which are not commonly studied in sedimentary basins in Pakistan. To identify lithofacies, outcrop analysis and section measurement were performed. The identified lithofacies were then categorized based on their depositional characteristics and facies associations, with a total of nine types identified within a stratigraphic thickness of approximately 480 m. These facies were mainly indicative of high-energy environments, although the specifics varied by location. Sedimentary structures such as planar and trough crossbedding, lamination, nodularity, load-casts, and fossil traces were found within these facies, indicating high-energy environments with a few exceptions in calm environments. The identified facies were grouped into seven architectural elements according to their depositional environments: delta-dominated elements, including laminated shale sheet elements (LS), fine sandstone elements (SF), planar cross-bedded sandstone elements (SCp), trace sandstone elements (ST), and paleosol elements (Pa); and river-dominated elements, including trough cross-bedded sandstone elements (SCt), channel deposit elements (CH), and paleosol elements (Pa). These architectural elements, along with their vertical and lateral relationships, indicate a transitional fluvio-deltaic environment within the Pab Formation. In conclusion, by interpreting facies and architectural elements, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the depositional history of the formation and the distribution of reservoir units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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24 pages, 11228 KiB  
Article
Sedimentological and Petrographical Characterization of the Cambrian Abbottabad Formation in Kamsar Section, Muzaffarabad Area: Implications for Proto-Tethys Ocean Evolution
by Syed Kamran Ali, Rafiq Ahmad Lashari, Ali Ghulam Sahito, George Kontakiotis, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah, Muhammad Saleem Mughal, Ahmer Bilal, Tariq Mehmood and Khawaja Umair Majeed
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030526 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
The current sedimentological and petrographical research of the Abbottabad Formation has been carried out in order to understand the formation and evolution of the Proto-Tethys Ocean during the Cambrian on the northern margin of the Indian Plate. The Muzaffarabad region is located east [...] Read more.
The current sedimentological and petrographical research of the Abbottabad Formation has been carried out in order to understand the formation and evolution of the Proto-Tethys Ocean during the Cambrian on the northern margin of the Indian Plate. The Muzaffarabad region is located east of the Upper Indus Basin and the southern part of the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. The geological history of the region varies from the Precambrian to the recent period. The Cambrian Abbottabad Formation is well exposed along the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis at the core of the 500-m-thick Muzaffarabad anticline. The Abbottabad Formation is an unconformity-bounded allo-stratigraphic unit. It has an unconformable lower contact with the Late Precambrian Dogra Formation and an unconformable upper contact with the Paleocene Hangu Formation. The Abbottabad Formation has been divided into four lithofacies, from bottom to top, namely, thinly interbedded dolomite and shale, cherty-stromatolitic dolomite, oxidized limonitic-brecciated zone, and quartzite, with significant lithological changes. Petrographic studies revealed four types of dolomites: fine crystalline dolomite (Dol. I), dolomitic cryptocrystalline chert (Dol. II), algal mat-stromatolitic dolomite (Dol. III), and intraclastic-dolo-grain stone (Dol. IV). The mineral composition of dolostone was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be consistent with previous petrographic studies. The dolomite mineral content decreased from base to top, while chert increased towards the top. Elemental weight percentages through energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis show different elements constitute the minerals found in the dolostone, as confirmed by petrographic and XRD analysis. Using outcrop data, facies information, and geochemical data, a modified depositional model of the Abbottabad Formation was developed. During the Early Cambrian period, the formation was deposited in a shallow subtidal to supratidal setting of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. The top of this deposit marks the Cambrian–Paleocene boundary. Because of the progressively coarsening outcrop sequences, this formation seems to be at the very top of the Proto-Tethys Ocean’s shallow marine system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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14 pages, 22270 KiB  
Article
Unraveling the Origin of the Messinian? Evaporites in Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea: Implications for the Sealing Capacity in the Mediterranean Sea
by Avraam Zelilidis, Nicolina Bourli, Konstantinos Andriopoulos, Eleftherios Georgoulas, Savvas Peridis, Dimitrios Asimakopoulos and Angelos G. Maravelis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020271 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
The new approach on depositional conditions of the Messinian evaporites in Zakynthos Island indicates that the evaporites in the Kalamaki and Ag. Sostis areas were redeposited during the Early Pliocene. They accumulated either as turbiditic evaporites or as slumped blocks, as a response [...] Read more.
The new approach on depositional conditions of the Messinian evaporites in Zakynthos Island indicates that the evaporites in the Kalamaki and Ag. Sostis areas were redeposited during the Early Pliocene. They accumulated either as turbiditic evaporites or as slumped blocks, as a response to Kalamaki thrust activity. Thrust activity developed a narrow and restricted Kalamaki foreland basin with the uplifted orogenic wedge consisting of Messinian evaporites. These evaporites eroded and redeposited in the foreland basin as submarine fans with turbiditic currents or slumped blocks (olistholiths) that consist of Messinian evaporites. These conditions occurred just before the inundation of the Mediterranean, during or prior to the Early Pliocene (Zanclean). Following the re-sedimentation of the Messinian evaporites, the inundation of the Mediterranean produced the “Lago Mare” fine-grained sediments that rest unconformably over the resedimented evaporites. The “Trubi” limestones were deposited later. It is critical to understand the origin of the “Messinian” Evaporites because they can serve as an effective seal rock for the oil and gas industry. It is thus important to evaluate their thickness and distribution into the SE Mediterranean Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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18 pages, 6121 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mud Supply and Hydrodynamic Conditions on the Sedimentary Distribution of Estuaries: Insights from Sediment Dynamic Numerical Simulation
by Qian Zhang, Mingming Tang, Shuangfang Lu, Xueping Liu and Sichen Xiong
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010174 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Estuaries are important sediment facies in the fluvial-to-marine transition zone, are strongly controlled by dynamic interactions of tides, waves, and fluvial flows, and show various changes in depositional processes and sediment distribution. Deep investigations on the sediment dynamic processes of the sand component [...] Read more.
Estuaries are important sediment facies in the fluvial-to-marine transition zone, are strongly controlled by dynamic interactions of tides, waves, and fluvial flows, and show various changes in depositional processes and sediment distribution. Deep investigations on the sediment dynamic processes of the sand component of estuaries have been conducted; however, the understanding of how mud supply affects estuaries’ sedimentary characteristics and morphology is still in vague. Herein, the effects of mud concentration, mud transport properties, fluvial discharge, and tidal amplitude on the sedimentary characteristics of an estuary were systematically analyzed using sedimentary dynamic numerical simulation. The results show that the mud concentration has significant effects on the morphology of tidal channels in estuaries, which become more braided with a lower mud concentration, and straighter, with reduced channel migration, with a higher mud concentration. The mud transport properties, namely, setting velocity, critical bed shear stress for sedimentation, and erosion, mostly affect the ratio between the length and width (RLW) of the sand bar; a sheet-like sand bar with a lower RLW value develops in the lower settling velocity, while there are obvious strip shaped bars with a high RLW value in the higher settling velocity case. Moreover, the effects of hydrodynamic conditions on sedimentary distribution were analyzed by changing the tidal amplitudes and fluvial discharges. The results show that a higher tidal amplitude is often accompanied by a stronger tidal energy, which induces a more obvious seaward progradation, while a higher fluvial discharge usually yields a higher deposition rate and yields a greater deposition thickness. From the above numerical simulations, the statistical characteristics of tidal bars and mud interlayers were further obtained, which show good agreement with modern sedimentary characteristics. This study suggests that sedimentary dynamic numerical simulation can provide insights into an efficient quantitative method for analyzing the effects of mud components on the sediment processes of estuaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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24 pages, 7492 KiB  
Article
A Potential Beach Monitoring Based on Integrated Methods
by Isabella Lapietra, Stefania Lisco, Luigi Capozzoli, Francesco De Giosa, Giuseppe Mastronuzzi, Daniela Mele, Salvatore Milli, Gerardo Romano, François Sabatier, Giovanni Scardino and Massimo Moretti
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121949 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
This study focuses on the analysis of sandy beaches by integrating sedimentological, geomorphological, and geophysical investigations. The beach represents an extremely variable environment where different natural processes act simultaneously with human activities, leading to the gathering of different methodologies of the Earth Sciences [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the analysis of sandy beaches by integrating sedimentological, geomorphological, and geophysical investigations. The beach represents an extremely variable environment where different natural processes act simultaneously with human activities, leading to the gathering of different methodologies of the Earth Sciences to study its evolution in space and time. The aim of this research is to propose a potential procedure for monitoring the morpho-sedimentary processes of sandy beaches by analyzing the textural and compositional characteristics of the sands and quantifying the volumes involved in the coastal dynamics. The study area includes two Apulian sandy beaches (Torre Guaceto and Le Dune beach) that are representative of the coastal dynamics of a large sector of the central/northern Mediterranean Sea involving the southern Adriatic Sea and the northern Ionian Sea. Sedimentological and ecological investigations allowed to describe the textural and compositional characteristics of the beach sands by interpreting their sand provenance and the physical/biological interactions within the beach. The topographic surveys carried out with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner and an Optical Total Station, aimed to quantify the variations of sediment volume over time, whereas the Delft3d software was applied to analyze the effects of the dominant wave motion on the sedimentary dynamics. Lastly, the geophysical techniques which included Sub Bottom Profiler procedures, Ground Penetrating Radar investigation, and resistivity models enabled us to calculate the sand sediment thickness above the bedrock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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23 pages, 5626 KiB  
Article
Sedimentary and Diagenetic Controls across the Cretaceous—Paleogene Transition: New Paleoenvironmental Insights of the External Ionian Zone from the Pelagic Carbonates of the Gardiki Section (Epirus, Western Greece)
by Leonidas Moforis, George Kontakiotis, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah, Alexandra Zambetakis-Lekkas, Dimitrios Galanakis, Panagiotis Paschos, Christos Kanellopoulos, Sotirios Sboras, Evangelia Besiou, Vasileios Karakitsios and Assimina Antonarakou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121948 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Field investigation, biostratigraphic, paleoecological, and sedimentary microfacies analyses, as well as diagenetic processes characterization, were carried out in the Epirus region (Western Ionian Basin) to define the depositional environments and further decipher the diagenetic history of the Late Cretaceous–Early Paleocene carbonate succession in [...] Read more.
Field investigation, biostratigraphic, paleoecological, and sedimentary microfacies analyses, as well as diagenetic processes characterization, were carried out in the Epirus region (Western Ionian Basin) to define the depositional environments and further decipher the diagenetic history of the Late Cretaceous–Early Paleocene carbonate succession in western continental Greece. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the studied carbonates revealed that the investigated part of the Gardiki section covers the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K-Pg) transition, partly reflecting the Senonian limestone and calciturbidites formations of the Ionian zone stratigraphy. Litho-and bio-facies analyses allowed for the recognition of three distinct depositional facies: (a) the latest Maastrichtian pelagic biomicrite mudstone with in situ planktonic foraminifera, radiolarians, and filaments, (b) a pelagic biomicrite packstone with abundant planktonic foraminifera at the K-Pg boundary, and (c) an early Paleocene pelagic biomicrite wackestone with veins, micritized radiolarians, and mixed planktonic fauna in terms of in situ and reworked (aberrant or broken) planktonic foraminifera. The documented sedimentary facies characterize a relatively low to medium energy deep environment, representing the transition from the deep basin to the deep shelf and the toe of the slope crossing the K-Pg boundary. Micropaleontological and paleoecological analyses of the samples demonstrate that primary productivity collapse is a key proximate cause of this extinction event. Additional petrographic analyses showed that the petrophysical behavior and reservoir characteristics of the study deposits are controlled by the depositional environment (marine, meteoric, and burial diagenetic) and further influenced by diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, cementation, dissolution, and fracturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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13 pages, 5036 KiB  
Article
Speleothems and Biomineralization Processes in Hot Spring Environment: The Case of Aedipsos (Edipsos), Euboea (Evia) Island, Greece
by Christos Kanellopoulos, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Artemis Politi, Panagiotis Voudouris, Ioannis Iliopoulos, Maria Kokkaliari, Leonidas Moforis and Athena Economou-Amilli
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121909 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Caves with hot springs and speleothem deposits are infrequent environments of high scientific interest due to their unique environmental conditions. The selected site is a small open cave with a hot spring and stalactites in the Aedipsos area (NW Euboea Island, Greece), which [...] Read more.
Caves with hot springs and speleothem deposits are infrequent environments of high scientific interest due to their unique environmental conditions. The selected site is a small open cave with a hot spring and stalactites in the Aedipsos area (NW Euboea Island, Greece), which was studied through an interdisciplinary approach. The mineralogical composition of the speleothems was determined by optical microscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS microanalysis, and identification of the Cyanobacteria species was made based on morphological characteristics. The main mineral phase in the studied samples is calcite, with several trace elements (i.e., up to 0.48 wt.% Na2O, up to 0.73 wt.% MgO, up to 4.19 wt.% SO3, up to 0.16 wt.% SrO and up to 2.21 wt.% Yb2O3) in the mineral-chemistry composition. The dominant facies are lamination and shrubs, which are the most common among the facies of the thermogenic travertines of the area. Based on the studied stalactites, twenty-nine different Cyanobacteria species were identified, belonging to the following orders: Synechococcales (28%), Oscillatoriales (27%), Chroococcales (21%) and Nostocales (21%), and Spirulinales (3%). Among them, thermophilic species (Spirulina subtilissima) and limestone substrate species (Chroococcus lithophilus, Leptolyngbya perforans, and Leptolyngbya ercegovicii) were identified. The identified Cyanobacteria were found to participate in biomineralization processes. The most characteristic biomineralization activity is made by the endolithic Cyanobacteria destroying calcite crystals in the outer layer. In a few cases, calcified cyanobacterial sheaths were detected. The presence of filamentous Cyanobacteria, along with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), creates a dense net resulting in the retention of calcium carbonate crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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28 pages, 17396 KiB  
Article
Sedimentology and Diagenesis of the Early–Middle Eocene Carbonate Deposits of the Ceno-Tethys Ocean
by Ahmer Bilal, Renchao Yang, Muhammad Saleem Mughal, Hammad Tariq Janjuhah, Muhammad Zaheer and George Kontakiotis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111794 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2249
Abstract
An integrated study based on field observation, petrography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the Early–Middle Eocene carbonate rocks has been carried out, which were deposited in the Ceno-Tethys Ocean. The study area of the Yadgaar Section lies on the eastern margin of [...] Read more.
An integrated study based on field observation, petrography, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the Early–Middle Eocene carbonate rocks has been carried out, which were deposited in the Ceno-Tethys Ocean. The study area of the Yadgaar Section lies on the eastern margin of the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan. The Early–Middle Eocene Margalla Hill Limestone and Chorgali Formation act as reservoir rocks in other parts of the basin and are also present in the Yadgaar Section. The lack of comprehensive study in this area makes these reservoir rocks highly attractive for sedimentological evaluations and future exploration of hydrocarbons. The Early–Middle Eocene carbonate rocks are divided into nine microfacies: dolomicritic foraminiferal mudstone–wackestone microfacies (EMI); green algae dominated, mixed foraminiferal wackestone–packstone microfacies (EMII); ostracod, green algae and gypsum dominating mudstone–wackestone microfacies (EMIII); algae and mixed foraminiferal wackestone–packstone microfacies (EMIV); Nummulites dominating mudstone–wackestone microfacies (EMV); algal limestone mudstone microfacies (EMVI); Assilina bed wackestone–packstone microfacies (EMVII); micritized larger benthic foraminiferal wackestone–packstone microfacies (EMVIII); and algal limestone, mudstone microfacies (EMIX). The transgressive-regressive environment in the Ceno-Tethys Ocean leads to the deposition of these microfacies in the platform interior, open marine platform, platform edge, platform margin reef, toe of the slope apron, arid–humid platform interior, platform edge, open marine platform interior, and restricted marine platform interior, respectively. Initial post-depositional diagenetic stages are identified from the base to the top of the strata by their respective cement types, i.e., the base–lower middle part of the strata demonstrates an eogenetic sub-stage with the appearance of drusy cement, the middle section indicates a mesogenetic sub-stage by the appearance of blocky cement, while the top portion again reveals an eogenetic sub-stage of diagenesis by the presence of drusy and blocky types of cement. The ascending–descending hierarchy of cement generations is directly proportional to the grade of diagenesis from the base to the top of the carbonate strata. Variable diagenetic effects on the various microfacies also increase the secondary porosity range and enhance the reservoir characteristics of the Formations. The presence of foraminifera microfossils determined that these carbonate formations date from the Early–Middle Eocene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sedimentology)
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