Special Issue "Endodontic Biomaterials"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. João M. Santos

Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Blocos de Celas-CHUC, Av. Bissaya Barreto, 3000 - 075 Coimbra, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +351 239 249 151
Interests: Endodontics; Biocompatibility; Root Canal Filling; Bioceramics; Vital Pulp Therapy; Regenerative Endodontic Procedures; Photodynamic Therapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Endodontics is currently going through one of the most exciting periods of knowledge expansion within the history of the discipline, especially in terms of the future clinical translation of scientific attainments, largely driven by new insights in pulp biology and biomaterial development.

One of the focuses of biomaterials science is to engineer substances to be used in therapeutic procedures, able to interact with the components of living systems and promote specific treatment goals in order to improve the expected clinical outcomes. The immense advances verified over the last two decades with the introduction of breakthrough materials for root canal filling, pulp capping and regenerative endodontic procedures represent a leap forward in our capacity to simplify current complex therapeutic approaches in the endodontic field. Hopefully this will allow for more conservative treatment options to manage pulpal and periapical pathology and preserve the natural dentition of our patients.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the various aspects of biomaterials development and testing, from physicochemical evaluations to biological in vitro and in vivo assessments of performance before their introduction to clinical use.

Prof. Dr. João M. Santos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biocompatibility
  • In vitro testing
  • In vivo testing
  • Bioceramics
  • Regenerative endodontics
  • Vital pulp therapy
  • Root canal filling

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Application of 29Si NMR Spectroscopy to the Analysis of Calcium Silicate-Based Cement using Biodentine™ as an Example
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10020025
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 25 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
Biodentine is one of the most successful and widely studied among the second generation of calcium silicate-based endodontic cements. Despite its popularity, the setting reactions of this cement system are not currently well understood. In particular, very little is known about the formation [...] Read more.
Biodentine is one of the most successful and widely studied among the second generation of calcium silicate-based endodontic cements. Despite its popularity, the setting reactions of this cement system are not currently well understood. In particular, very little is known about the formation and structure of the major calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel phase, as it is difficult to obtain information on this poorly crystalline material by the traditional techniques of powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In this study, the hydration reactions of Biodentine are monitored by XRD, FTIR, isothermal conduction calorimetry and, for the first time, 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si MAS NMR) is used to investigate the structures of the anhydrous calcium silicate phases and the early C-S-H gel product. XRD analysis indicated that the anhydrous powder comprises 73.8 wt% triclinic tricalcium silicate, 4.45 wt% monoclinic β-dicalcium silicate, 16.6 wt% calcite and 5.15 wt% zirconium oxide. Calorimetry confirmed that the induction period for hydration is short, and that the setting reactions are rapid with a maximum heat evolution of 28.4 mW g−1 at 42 min. A progressive shift in the FTIR peak maximum from 905 to 995 cm−1 for the O-Si-O stretching vibrations accompanies the formation of the C-S-H gel during 1 week. The extent of hydration was determined by 29Si MAS NMR to be 87.0%, 88.8% and 93.7% at 6 h, 1 day and 1 week, respectively, which is significantly higher than that of MTA. The mean silicate chain length (MCL) of the C-S-H gel was also estimated by this technique to be 3.7 at 6 h and 1 day, and to have increased to 4.1 after 1 week. The rapid hydration kinetics of Biodentine, arising from the predominance of the tricalcium silicate phase, small particle size, and ‘filler effect’ of calcite and zirconium oxide, is a favorable characteristic of an endodontic cement, and the high values of MCL are thought to promote the durability of the cement matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Six-Month Color Stability Assessment of Two Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Used in Regenerative Endodontic Procedures
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010014
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aim: The purpose of the present study is to assess the color stability of two calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) used in regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Methods: A total of 40 acrylic single-rooted transparent teeth, with immature apex, were used. Root canals were filled [...] Read more.
Aim: The purpose of the present study is to assess the color stability of two calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) used in regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Methods: A total of 40 acrylic single-rooted transparent teeth, with immature apex, were used. Root canals were filled up to 3 mm below the level of the cementoenamel junction, with either saline solution (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA)/saline and Biodentine/saline) or blood (MTA/blood and Biodentine/blood). Subsequently, ProRoot MTA® or BiodentineTM was placed in the root canal to create a cervical barrier. Color measurement was carried out at four different evaluation periods (3 h, 72 h, 7 days, and 6 months). Shade analysis within the L* a* b* color space was performed and color variation (∆E) calculated. The significance level for statistical analysis was set at p < 0.05. Results: The four groups showed a significant decrease in L* values over time. The ΔE value increased over time for all groups but was not statistically significant for the Biodentine/blood group. Two-way ANOVA showed no interaction between the CSC and treatment (contact with saline solution or blood). CSC used was the factor responsible for ΔE over time, inducing statistically significant color variations from T3H to T7D (p = 0.04) and T3H to T6M (p < 0.01). After 6 months, MTA/saline had 5.08 (p = 0.001) higher ΔE than Biodentine/Saline and the MTA/blood had 3.65 (p = 0.009) higher than Biodentine/blood. Conclusions: After 6 months, regardless of blood exposure, Biodentine exhibits superior color stability compared to MTA. Biodentine might be a suitable alternative to MTA as a cervical barrier material in REPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effects of a New Bioceramic Material on Human Apical Papilla Cells
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9040074
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: The development of materials with bioregenerative properties is critically important for vital pulp therapies and regenerative endodontic procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of a new endodontic biomaterial, PulpGuard, in comparison with two other biomaterials [...] Read more.
Background: The development of materials with bioregenerative properties is critically important for vital pulp therapies and regenerative endodontic procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of a new endodontic biomaterial, PulpGuard, in comparison with two other biomaterials widely used in endodontic procedures, ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine. Methods: Apical papilla cells (APCs) were isolated from third molars with incomplete rhizogenesis from patients with orthodontic indication for dental extraction. Cultured APCs were incubated for 24, 48, or 72 h with different dilutions of eluates prepared from the three materials. Cellular viability, mobility, and proliferation were assessed in vitro using the Alamar Blue assay and a wound-healing test. The cells were also cultured in direct contact with the surface of each material. These were then analyzed via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the surface chemical composition was determined by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cells incubated in the presence of eluates extracted from ProRoot MTA and PulpGuard presented rates of viability comparable to those of control cells; in contrast, undiluted Biodentine eluates induced a significant reduction of cellular viability. The wound-healing assay revealed that eluates from ProRoot MTA and PulpGuard allowed for unhindered cellular migration and proliferation. Cellular adhesion was observed on the surface of all materials tested. Consistent with their disclosed composition, EDS analysis found high relative abundance of calcium in Biodentine and ProRoot MTA and high abundance of silicon in PulpGuard. Significant amounts of zinc and calcium were also present in PulpGuard discs. Concerning solubility, Biodentine and ProRoot MTA presented mild weight loss after eluate extraction, while PulpGuard discs showed significant water uptake. Conclusions: PulpGuard displayed a good in vitro cytocompatibility profile and did not significantly affect the proliferation and migration rates of APCs. Cells cultured in the presence of PulpGuard eluates displayed a similar profile to those cultured with eluates from the widely used endodontic cement ProRoot MTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Biomaterials)
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