Special Issue "Polymer Composites and Fibers"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Xiangfa Wu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108, USA
Interests: polymer matrix composites (PMCs); mulitifunctinal nanofibers; electrospinning; energy conversion and storage; surface and interface engineering; mechanical properties; solid mechanics
Dr. Oksana Zholobko
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108, USA
Interests: smart polymeric systems; high-temperature polymers; multifunctional nanofibers and membranes; electrospinning; material characterization; energy conversion and storage; hydrogel chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs), composed of synthetic or natural polymeric resins reinforced with high performance fibers and particles, have found broad applications in aerospace and aeronautical structures, ground vehicles, offshore and civil infrastructures, sports utilities, amongst others. due to their unique high specific strength and stiffness, sound anticorrosion capability, and low-cost manufacturing. This Special Issue will focus on the general topics on the materials, processing, characterization, and modeling of PMCs, fibers, and fibrous materials. The topics to be covered include but are not limited to:

  • Processing and characterization of PMCs
  • Fabrication and characterization of micro- and nanofibers of polymers, carbon, or other materials
  • PMCs and fibers from biodegradable and/or renewable materials
  • New concepts of structural and multifunctional PMCs and fibers
  • PMCs and fibrous materials for emerging applications in biomedical engineering, environmental protection, renewable energy harvesting, conversion, storage, etc.
  • Interface toughening, damage self-healing, and surface treatment techniques for PMCs and fibers
  • Theoretical, analytical, and computational modeling of the mechanical and multifunctional performances of PMCs, fibers, and fibrous materials

Dr. Xiangfa Wu
Dr. Oksana Zholobko
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polymer matrix composites (PMCs)
  • Self-healing composites
  • Biodegradable composites
  • Natural fiber-reinforced composites
  • Multifunctional composites
  • Fibrous materials
  • Micro/nanofibers
  • Interface toughening
  • Surface treatment of fibers
  • Mechanical properties
  • Composite processing
  • Modelling

Published Papers (18 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Fibre-Reinforced Geopolymer Composites Micro-Nanochemistry by SEM-EDS Simulations
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(8), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5080214 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
The focus of the present study is on fibre-reinforced geopolymer composites, whose optimization and application necessarily need a detailed chemical characterization at the micro-nanoscale. In this regard, many geopolymer composites presenting micro and nanometric architectures pose a challenge for scanning electron microscopy with [...] Read more.
The focus of the present study is on fibre-reinforced geopolymer composites, whose optimization and application necessarily need a detailed chemical characterization at the micro-nanoscale. In this regard, many geopolymer composites presenting micro and nanometric architectures pose a challenge for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS) quantification, because of several potential sources of errors. For this reason, the present work reports a SEM-EDS Monte Carlo approach to carefully investigate the complex physical phenomena related to the cited quantification errors. The model used for this theoretical analysis is a simplified fibre-reinforced geopolymer with basalt-derived glass fibres immersed in a potassium-poly(sialate-siloxo) matrix. The simulated SEM-EDS spectra showed a strong influence on the measured X-ray intensity of (i) the sample nano-to-micro architecture, (ii) the electron beam probing energy and (iii) the electron probe-sample-EDS detector relative position. The results showed that, compared to a bulk material, the X-ray intensity for a nano-micrometric sized specimen may give rise to potential underestimation and/or overestimation of the elemental composition of the sample. The proposed Monte Carlo approach indicated the optimal instrumental setup depending on the sample and on the specific SEM-EDS equipment here considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fabrication of h-MoO3 Nanorods and the Properties of the MoO3/WEP Composite Coatings Research
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(8), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5080207 - 04 Aug 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
In this study, we prepared a novel coating composed of hexagonal molybdenum oxide (h-MoO3) nanofiller and waterborne epoxy resin (WEP) to provide corrosion protection. We optimized the h-MoO3 nanorod synthesis methodology first by changing different parameters (pH, temperature, etc.). Furthermore, [...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared a novel coating composed of hexagonal molybdenum oxide (h-MoO3) nanofiller and waterborne epoxy resin (WEP) to provide corrosion protection. We optimized the h-MoO3 nanorod synthesis methodology first by changing different parameters (pH, temperature, etc.). Furthermore, the as-prepared h-MoO3 rods were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results verified that the anticorrosive performance of the composite coatings was improved by incorporation of low content of MoO3 nanofiller (0.5 wt.%) compared to pure WEP sample. This developed composite will provide a new insight for the design and fabrication of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterial (e.g., nanorod) reinforced epoxy coating and other polymeric coating processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Laminated Composites with Multi-Scale Reinforcements
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(8), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5080204 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 414
Abstract
In this study, an experimental investigation has been performed to understand the electromagnetic interference-shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE) of glass fiber/epoxy laminated composites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, reinforced with micro carbon fibers along the thickness direction. Micro carbon [...] Read more.
In this study, an experimental investigation has been performed to understand the electromagnetic interference-shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE) of glass fiber/epoxy laminated composites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, reinforced with micro carbon fibers along the thickness direction. Micro carbon fibers were reinforced along the thickness direction between the laminates using an electro-flocking process and a vacuum infusion process used to fabricate the composites. The EMI-SE of the composites was measured in the X-band frequency range (8–12 GHz). The effect of carbon fibers of three different lengths (80 µm, 150 µm, and 350 µm) with two different fiber densities (1000 and 2000 fibers/mm2) and two different amounts of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (0.5 and 1 wt.%) on total SE, absorption, and reflection was investigated. Due to the synergetic effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, CNTs, and carbon fibers, the final EMI shielding of the composites was mainly dominated by the absorption process. The absorption was more pronounced in the composites of longer carbon fibers with improved electrical conductivity. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles also enhanced total SE values with improved magnetic permeability. The composite with micro carbon fibers of 350 µm length and 2000 fibers/mm2 density with 1 wt.% of Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed the maximum value of total SE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Engineering Properties of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Ternary Blend Geopolymer Concrete
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(8), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5080203 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The primary aim of this research is to find an alternative for Portland cement using inorganic geopolymers. This study investigated the effect of steel and polypropylene fibres hybridisation on ternary blend geopolymer concrete (TGPC) engineering properties using fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this research is to find an alternative for Portland cement using inorganic geopolymers. This study investigated the effect of steel and polypropylene fibres hybridisation on ternary blend geopolymer concrete (TGPC) engineering properties using fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and metakaolin as the source materials. The properties like compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of ternary blend geopolymer concrete. The standard tests were conducted on TGPC with steel fibres, polypropylene fibres and a combination of steel and polypropylene fibres in hybrid form. A total number of 45 specimens were tested and compared to determine each property. The grade of concrete considered was M55. The variables studied were the volume fraction of fibres, viz. steel fibres (0%, 0.5% and 1%) and polypropylene fibres (0%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2% and 0.25%). The experimental results reveal that the addition of fibres in a hybrid form enhances the mechanical properties of TGPC. The increase in the compressive strength was nominal, and a significant improvement was observed in splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Also, an attempt to obtain the relation between the different engineering properties was made with different volume fractions of fibre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Influence of Rigid Brazilian Natural Fiber Arrangements in Polymer Composites: Energy Absorption and Ballistic Efficiency
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(8), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5080201 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 509
Abstract
Since the mid-2000s, several studies were carried out regarding the development of ballistic resistant materials based on polymeric matrix composites reinforced with natural lignocellulosic fibers (NLFs). The results reported so far are promising and are often comparable to commonly used materials such as [...] Read more.
Since the mid-2000s, several studies were carried out regarding the development of ballistic resistant materials based on polymeric matrix composites reinforced with natural lignocellulosic fibers (NLFs). The results reported so far are promising and are often comparable to commonly used materials such as KevlarTM, especially when used as an intermediate layer in a multilayer armor system (MAS). However, the most suitable configuration for these polymer composites reinforced with NLFs when subjected to high strain rates still lacks investigation. This work aimed to evaluate four possible arrangements for epoxy matrix composite reinforced with a stiff Brazilian NLF, piassava fiber, regarding energy absorption, and ballistic efficiency. Performance was evaluated against the ballistic impact of high-energy 7.62 mm ammunition. Obtained results were statistically validated by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s honest test. Furthermore, the micromechanics associated with the failure of these composites were determined. Energy absorption of the same magnitude as KevlarTM and indentation depth below the limit predicted by NIJ standard were obtained for all conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Stress-Function Variational Method for Accurate Free-Edge Interfacial Stress Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Single-Lap Joints and Single-Sided Joints
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(8), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5080197 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Large free-edge interfacial stresses induced in adhesively bonded joints (ABJs) are responsible for the commonly observed debonding failure in ABJs. Accurate and efficient stress analysis of ABJs is important to the design, structural optimization, and failure analysis of ABJs subjected to external mechanical [...] Read more.
Large free-edge interfacial stresses induced in adhesively bonded joints (ABJs) are responsible for the commonly observed debonding failure in ABJs. Accurate and efficient stress analysis of ABJs is important to the design, structural optimization, and failure analysis of ABJs subjected to external mechanical and thermomechanical loads. This paper generalizes the high-efficiency semi-analytic stress-function variational methods developed by the authors for accurate free-edge interfacial stress analysis of ABJs of various geometrical configurations. Numerical results of the interfacial stresses of two types of common ABJs, i.e., adhesively bonded single-lap joints and adhesively single-sided joints, are demonstrated by using the present method, which are further validated by finite element analysis (FEA). The numerical procedure formulated in this study indicates that the present semi-analytic stress-function variational method can be conveniently implemented for accurate free-edge interfacial stress analysis of various type of ABJs by only slightly modifying the force boundary conditions. This method is applicable for strength analysis and structural design of broad ABJs made of multi-materials such as composite laminates, smart materials, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Urethane Diols through Non-Isocyanate Approach and Their Application in MF Coating
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(7), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5070194 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
In this work, two urethane diols with different middle chain lengths were prepared by the non-isocyanate approach from 1,4-diaminobutane or 1,6-diaminohexane with ethylene cyclic carbonate at room temperature without the aid of a catalyst. Different weight percentages of hexa(methoxymethyl) melamine (HMMM) crosslinker was [...] Read more.
In this work, two urethane diols with different middle chain lengths were prepared by the non-isocyanate approach from 1,4-diaminobutane or 1,6-diaminohexane with ethylene cyclic carbonate at room temperature without the aid of a catalyst. Different weight percentages of hexa(methoxymethyl) melamine (HMMM) crosslinker was mixed with urethane diols then cured under elevated temperature to generate the melamine-formaldehyde (MF) coating films. Two different linear diols without urethane linkage were chosen to crosslink with HMMM as the control group. The mechanical properties of these MF coatings were investigated by tensile test, adhesion test, and conical mandrel bend test. It was found that coatings incorporated with urethane diols exhibited enhanced mechanical properties and flexibility. These properties were also influenced by the weight percentage of HMMM crosslinker. This study provided a facile non-isocyanate way to produce urethane diols and successfully applied them in MF coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Cohesive Zone Modeling of the Elastoplastic and Failure Behavior of Polymer Nanoclay Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5050131 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Cohesive zone model (CZM) is commonly used to deal with the nonlinear zone ahead of crack tips in materials with elastoplastic deformation behavior. This model is capable of predicting the behavior of crack initiation and growth. In this paper, CZM-based finite element analysis [...] Read more.
Cohesive zone model (CZM) is commonly used to deal with the nonlinear zone ahead of crack tips in materials with elastoplastic deformation behavior. This model is capable of predicting the behavior of crack initiation and growth. In this paper, CZM-based finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to examine the effects of processing parameters (i.e., the clay nanoparticle volume fraction and aspect ratio) in the mechanical behaviors of a polymeric matrix reinforced with aligned clay nanoparticles. The polymeric matrix is treated as an ideal elastoplastic solid with isotropic hardening behavior, whereas the clay nanoparticles are simplified as stiff, linearly elastic platelets. Representative volume elements (RVEs) of the resulting polymer nanoclay composites (PNCs) are adopted for FEA with the clay nanoparticle distributions to follow both stack and stagger configurations, respectively. In the study, four volume fractions (Vf = 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) and four aspect ratios (ρ = 5, 7.5, 10, and 20) of the clay nanoparticles in the PNCs are considered. Detailed computational results show that either increasing volume fraction or aspect ratio of the clay nanoparticles enhances the effective tensile strength and stiffness of the PNCs. The progressive debonding process of the clay nanoparticles in the polymeric resin was predicted, and the debonding was initiated in the linearly elastic loading range. The numerical results also show that PNCs with stagger nanoparticle configuration demonstrate slightly higher values of the engineering stress than those based on the stack nanoparticle configuration at both varying volume fractions and aspect ratios of the clay nanoparticles. In addition, CZM-based FEA predicts a slightly lower stress field around the clay particles in PNCs than that without integration of CZM. The present computational studies are applicable for processing PNCs with controllable mechanical properties, especially the control of the key processing parameters of PNCs, i.e., the volume fraction and aspect ratio of the clay nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Study of the Reinforcement Type Effect on the Thermomechanical Properties and Burning of Epoxy-Based Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5030089 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Aramid (AF), glass (GF), carbon (CF), basalt (BF), and flax (FF) fibers in the form of fabrics were used to produce the composites by hand-lay up method. The use of fabrics of similar grammage for composites’ manufacturing allowed for a comprehensive comparison of [...] Read more.
Aramid (AF), glass (GF), carbon (CF), basalt (BF), and flax (FF) fibers in the form of fabrics were used to produce the composites by hand-lay up method. The use of fabrics of similar grammage for composites’ manufacturing allowed for a comprehensive comparison of the properties of the final products. The most important task was to prepare a complex setup of mechanical and thermomechanical properties, supplemented by fire behavior analysis, and discuss both characteristics in their application range. The mechanical properties were investigated using tensile and flexural tests, as well as impact strength measurement. The investigation was improved by assessing thermomechanical properties under dynamic deformation conditions (dynamic mechanical–thermal analysis (DMTA)). All products were subjected to a fire test carried out using a cone calorimeter (CC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Investigation of Residual Stresses in Welded Thermoplastic CFRP Structures
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5020045 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Using thermoplastics as the matrix in carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) offers the possibility to make use of welded joints, which results in weight savings compared to conventional joining methods using mechanical fasteners. In this paper, the resulting temperature distribution in the material due [...] Read more.
Using thermoplastics as the matrix in carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) offers the possibility to make use of welded joints, which results in weight savings compared to conventional joining methods using mechanical fasteners. In this paper, the resulting temperature distribution in the material due to resistance welding is investigated by transient finite element (FE) simulations. To examine the effects on the component structure, a numerical modeling approach is created, which allows determining the residual stresses caused by the welding process. It is shown that the area of the structure, especially near the joining zone, is highly affected by the process, especially in terms of residual stresses. In particular, the stresses perpendicular to the fiber direction show failure relevant values up to a maximum of 221 MPa, which might lead to the formation of microcracks in the matrix. In turn, that is assumed to be critical in terms of the fatigue of welded composite structures. Thus, the suggested modeling approach provides residual stresses that can be used to determine their effects on the strength, structural stability, and fatigue of such composite structures. In a subsequent step, these findings could play an important role in the design process of thermoplastic composite structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Flexural Performance of FRP-Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete Beam
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4040187 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar and geopolymer concrete (GPC) are relatively new construction materials that are now been increasingly used in the construction sectors. Both materials exhibit superior structural and durability properties that also make them a sustainable alternative solution. Due to the absence [...] Read more.
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebar and geopolymer concrete (GPC) are relatively new construction materials that are now been increasingly used in the construction sectors. Both materials exhibit superior structural and durability properties that also make them a sustainable alternative solution. Due to the absence of any design standard for an FRP-reinforced GPC beam, it is important to validate the efficacy of available standards and literature related to other materials, e.g., FRP-reinforced conventional concrete or GPC alone. Four theories/design standards are considered for this comparison—ACI440.1R-15, CAN/CSA S806-12, parabolic stress block theory, and equivalent rectangular stress block theory for GPC under compression. The accuracy of these four approaches is also examined by studying the flexural performance of both the glass FRP (GFRP) and carbon FRP (CFRP). The FRP-reinforced beams are designed against the actual load they will be subjected to in a real-world scenario. It is concluded that parabolic stress block theory over-estimates the capacity, whereas CSA S806-12 yields the most accurate and conservative results. In addition, the flexural performance of the FRP-reinforced beams is evaluated in terms of ultimate, cracking, and service moment capacity, along with serviceable, ultimate, and residual deflection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Experimental Study of the Probabilistic Fatigue Residual Strength of a Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(4), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4040173 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
Degradation of the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) subjected to cyclic loading is crucial to the long-term load-carrying capability of PMC structures in practice. This paper reports the experimental study of fatigue residual tensile strength and its probabilistic distribution in [...] Read more.
Degradation of the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) subjected to cyclic loading is crucial to the long-term load-carrying capability of PMC structures in practice. This paper reports the experimental study of fatigue residual tensile strength and its probabilistic distribution in a carbon fiber-reinforced PMC laminate made of unidirectional (UD) carbon-fiber/epoxy prepregs (Hexcel T2G190/F263) with the ply layup [0/±45/90]S after certain cycles of cyclic loading. The residual tensile strengths of the PMC laminates after cyclic loading of 1 (quasistatic), 2000, and 10,000 cycles were determined. Statistical analysis of the experimental data shows that the fatigue residual tensile strength of the PMC laminate follows a two-parameter Weibull distribution model with the credibility ≥ 95%. With increasing fatigue cycles, the mean value of the fatigue residual strength of the PMC specimens decreased while its deviation increased. A free-edge stress model is further adopted to explain the fatigue failure initiation of the composite laminate. The present experimental study is valuable for understanding the fatigue durability of PMC laminates as well as reliable design and performance prediction of composite structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber/Epoxy Composite
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030101 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
High-performance composites based on basalt fibers are becoming increasingly available. However, in comparison to traditional composites containing glass or carbon fibers, their mechanical properties are currently less well known. In particular, this is the case for laminates consisting of unidirectional plies of continuous [...] Read more.
High-performance composites based on basalt fibers are becoming increasingly available. However, in comparison to traditional composites containing glass or carbon fibers, their mechanical properties are currently less well known. In particular, this is the case for laminates consisting of unidirectional plies of continuous basalt fibers in an epoxy polymer matrix. Here, we report a full quasi-static characterization of the properties of such a material. To this end, we investigate tension, compression, and shear specimens, cut from quality autoclave-cured basalt composites. Our findings indicate that, in terms of strength and stiffness, unidirectional basalt fiber composites are comparable to, or better than epoxy composites made from E-glass fibers. At the same time, basalt fiber composites combine low manufacturing costs with good recycling properties and are therefore well suited to a number of engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Miniaturised Rod-Shaped Polymer Structures with Wire or Fibre Reinforcement—Manufacturing and Testing
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4030084 - 27 Jun 2020
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Rod-shaped polymer-based composite structures are applied to a wide range of applications in the process engineering, automotive, aviation, aerospace and marine industries. Therefore, the adequate knowledge of manufacturing methods is essential, covering the fabrication of small amounts of specimens as well as the [...] Read more.
Rod-shaped polymer-based composite structures are applied to a wide range of applications in the process engineering, automotive, aviation, aerospace and marine industries. Therefore, the adequate knowledge of manufacturing methods is essential, covering the fabrication of small amounts of specimens as well as the low-cost manufacturing of high quantities of solid rods using continuous manufacturing processes. To assess the different manufacturing methods and compare the resulting quality of the semi-finished products, the cross-sectional and bending properties of rod-shaped structures obtained from a thermoplastic micro-pultrusion process, conventional fibre reinforced epoxy resin-based solid rods and fibre reinforced thermoplastic polymers manufactured by means of an implemented shrink tube consolidation process, were statistically analysed. Using the statistical method one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the differences between groups were calculated. The statistical results show that the flexural moduli of carbon fibre reinforced polymers were statistically significantly higher than the modulus of all other investigated specimens (probability value ). The discontinuous shrink tube consolidation process resulted in specimens with a smooth outer contour and a high level of roundness. However, this process was recommended for the manufacturing of small amounts of specimens. In contrast, the pultrusion process allowed the manufacturing of high amounts of semi-finished products; however, it requires a more extensive process controlling and manufacturing equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Enhanced ITZ in Engineered Polypropylene Fibers for Bond Improvement
J. Compos. Sci. 2020, 4(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020053 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is well known to be a zone of high porosity and lesser strength and is the weak zone in the fiber-reinforced matrix. This study aims to evaluate the improvement in the bonding between engineered polypropylene fibers and the [...] Read more.
The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is well known to be a zone of high porosity and lesser strength and is the weak zone in the fiber-reinforced matrix. This study aims to evaluate the improvement in the bonding between engineered polypropylene fibers and the surrounding mortar matrix. The improvement was implemented by modifying the ITZ, which develops between the fibers and the cementitious matrix. Two commercially available repair materials have been used in this study, Mix M and Mix P. Mix M served as the base material for the prepared fibers, whereas Mix P is a fiber-reinforced repair mortar and provides a comparison. A total of six types of mixes have been investigated. The improved bonding is tested by coating the polypropylene fibers with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) using an innovative patented concept. In this study, silica fume and metakaolin are used as the SCM because of their fine size and pozzolanic capacity. The study involves multiple items of investigation, including mechanical tests such as compressive strength, direct tensile strength, and three-point bending tests. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the different mixes helped in evaluating and analyzing the ITZ between the fiber and matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
An Overview of the Design of Chitosan-Based Fiber Composite Materials
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(6), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5060160 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 404
Abstract
Chitosan composite fibrous materials continue to generate significant interest for wastewater treatment, food packaging, and biomedical applications. This relates to the relatively high surface area and porosity of such fibrous chitosan materials that synergize with their unique physicochemical properties. Various methods are involved [...] Read more.
Chitosan composite fibrous materials continue to generate significant interest for wastewater treatment, food packaging, and biomedical applications. This relates to the relatively high surface area and porosity of such fibrous chitosan materials that synergize with their unique physicochemical properties. Various methods are involved in the preparation of chitosan composite fibrous materials, which include the modification of the biopolymer that serve to alter the solubility of chitosan, along with post-treatment of the composite materials to improve the water stability or to achieve tailored functional properties. Two promising methods to produce such composite fibrous materials involve freeze-drying and electrospinning. Future developments of such composite fibrous materials demands an understanding of the various modes of preparation and methods of structural characterization of such materials. This review contributes to an understanding of the structure–property relationships of composite fibrous materials that contain chitosan, along with an overview of recent advancements concerning their preparation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Review on Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites under Various Strain Rates
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5050130 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 569
Abstract
With the lightning speed of technological evolution, the demand for high performance yet sustainable natural fibres reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs) are rising. Especially a mechanically competent NFPCs under various loading conditions are growing day by day. However, the polymers mechanical properties are strain-rate [...] Read more.
With the lightning speed of technological evolution, the demand for high performance yet sustainable natural fibres reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs) are rising. Especially a mechanically competent NFPCs under various loading conditions are growing day by day. However, the polymers mechanical properties are strain-rate dependent due to their viscoelastic nature. Especially for natural fibre reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs) which the involvement of filler has caused rather complex failure mechanisms under different strain rates. Moreover, some uneven micro-sized natural fibres such as bagasse, coir and wood were found often resulting in micro-cracks and voids formation in composites. This paper provides an overview of recent research on the mechanical properties of NFPCs under various loading conditions-different form (tensile, compression, bending) and different strain rates. The literature on characterisation techniques toward different strain rates, composite failure behaviours and current challenges are summarised which have led to the notion of future study trend. The strength of NFPCs is generally found grow proportionally with the strain rate up to a certain degree depending on the fibre-matrix stress-transfer efficiency. The failure modes such as embrittlement and fibre-matrix debonding were often encountered at higher strain rates. The natural filler properties, amount, sizes and polymer matrix types are found to be few key factors affecting the performances of composites under various strain rates whereby optimally adjust these factors could maximise the fibre-matrix stress-transfer efficiency and led to performance increases under various loading strain rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Modeling Strategies of Finite Element Simulation of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP: A Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs5010019 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites do not only possess superior mechanical properties, but can also be easy to tailor, install, and maintain. As such, FRPs offer novel and attractive solutions to facilitate strengthening and/or retrofitting of aging, weakened, and upgraded structures. Despite the availability [...] Read more.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites do not only possess superior mechanical properties, but can also be easy to tailor, install, and maintain. As such, FRPs offer novel and attractive solutions to facilitate strengthening and/or retrofitting of aging, weakened, and upgraded structures. Despite the availability of general code provisions, the design and analysis of FRP-strengthened concrete structures is both tedious and complex—especially in scenarios associated with unique loading conditions. As such, designers often leverage advanced finite element (FE) simulation as a mean to understand and predict the performance of FRP-strengthened structures. In order to narrow this knowledge gap, this paper details suitable strategy for developing and carrying out advanced FE simulations on FRP-strengthened concrete structures. The paper also covers techniques related to simulating adhesives (bonding agents), material constitutive properties and plasticity (cracking/crushing of concrete, yielding of steel reinforcement, and delamination of FRP laminates), as well as different material types of FRP (CFRP, GFRP, and their hybrid combinations), and FRP strengthening systems (sheets, plates, NSM, and rods) under various loading conditions including ambient, earthquake, and fire. The principles, thumb rules, and findings of this work can be of interest to researchers, practitioners, and students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Composites and Fibers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop