Clinical Research and Advances in Hemodialysis (Closed)

A topical collection in Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This collection belongs to the section "Nephrology & Urology".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: essential hypertension; dialysis; vascular access; hemodialysis; clinical nephrology; fabry disease; immunosuppressive agents; kidney transplantation
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Collection Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Meram School of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
Interests: diabetic nephropathy; kidney transplantation; membranous glomerulonephritis; inflammation in CKD and HD

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

End stage kidney disease is among the most deadly and economically costly conditions faced by patients and modern society. The last decade has provided a number of advances in renal replacement therapy, particularly in hemodialysis. This refers to the preparation, initiation, and individualization of dialysis programs. The most important stage is choosing and installing the optimal vascular access-lifeline, as this strongly influences hospitalization burden and patient survival. The daily life of a dialysis patient is limited by fatigue, depression, and co-morbidities. This can be partially improved by the correct nutrition, exercising, and adequate dialysis. Patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life can help us to adjust both patient needs and medical indices. It is also important to analyze the economic costs of different practices, especially in the preparation for dialysis, vascular access functionality and complications, dialysis membranes and technical aspects.

This Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine will cover the following important aspects of hemodialysis:

  • Nutrition in dialysis patients;
  • Physical activity and rehabilitation during and after hemodialysis sessions;
  • The correct vascular access in individual patients;
  • Prevention and treatment of catheter-related infection and dysfunction;
  • Outcomes in patients with cardiorenal syndromes on dialysis maintenance;
  • Indices of dialysis adequacy;
  • Mental health and dementia in dialysis patients;
  • Health technology assessment (HTA) regarding preparation before and during a hemodialysis program;
  • Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) and health-related quality of life issues.

Prof. Dr. Mariusz Kusztal
Prof. Dr. Kultigin Turkmen
Collection Editors

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Keywords

  • vascular access
  • dialysis membranes
  • complications
  • AVF
  • catheters
  • dialysis adequacy

Published Papers (17 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

11 pages, 1685 KiB  
Article
Arrhythmia and Heart Rate Variability during Long Interdialytic Periods in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: Prospective Observational Cohort Study
by Ha Young Choi, Nam-Jun Cho, Samel Park, Hwamin Lee, Min Hong, Eun Young Lee and Hyo-Wook Gil
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010265 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients is related to the hemodialysis schedule. Mortality is highest within 12 h before and after the first hemodialysis sessions of a week. We investigated the association of arrhythmia occurrence and heart rate variability (HRV) using an electrocardiogram [...] Read more.
Sudden cardiac death among hemodialysis patients is related to the hemodialysis schedule. Mortality is highest within 12 h before and after the first hemodialysis sessions of a week. We investigated the association of arrhythmia occurrence and heart rate variability (HRV) using an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring patch during the long interdialytic interval in hemodialysis patients. This was a prospective observational study with 55 participants on maintenance hemodialysis for at least six months. A patch-type ECG monitoring device was applied to record arrhythmia events and HRV during 72 h of a long interdialytic period. Forty-nine participants with sufficient ECG data out of 55 participants were suitable for the analysis. The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia did not significantly change over time. The square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), the proportion of adjacent NN intervals differing by >50 ms (pNN50), and high-frequency (HF) increased during the long interdialytic interval. The gap in RMSSD, pNN50, HF, and the low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio between patients with and without significant arrhythmias increased significantly over time during the long interdialytic interval. The daily changes in RMSSD, pNN50, HF, and the LF/HF ratio were more prominent in patients without significant arrhythmias than in those with significant arrhythmias. The electrolyte fluctuation between post-hemodialysis and subsequent pre-hemodialysis was not considered in this study. The study results suggest that the decreased autonomic response during interdialytic periods in dialysis patients is associated with poor cardiac arrhythmia events. Full article
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11 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Oxygen Extraction and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Chronic Haemodialysis Treatment: A Multicentre Study
by Silverio Rotondi, Lida Tartaglione, Maria Luisa Muci, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Panocchia, Filippo Aucella, Antonio Gesuete, Teresa Papalia, Luigi Solmi, Alessio Farcomeni and Sandro Mazzaferro
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010138 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1094
Abstract
Patients on haemodialysis (HD) suffer a high mortality rate linked to developing subclinical hypoxic parenchymal stress during HD sessions. The oxygen extraction ratio (OER), an estimate of the oxygen claimed by peripheral tissues, might represent a new prognostic factor in HD patients. This [...] Read more.
Patients on haemodialysis (HD) suffer a high mortality rate linked to developing subclinical hypoxic parenchymal stress during HD sessions. The oxygen extraction ratio (OER), an estimate of the oxygen claimed by peripheral tissues, might represent a new prognostic factor in HD patients. This study evaluated whether the intradialytic change in OER (ΔOER) identified patients with higher mortality risks. We enrolled chronic HD patients with permanent central venous catheters with available central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurements; the arterial oxygen saturation was measured with peripheral oximeters (SpO2). We measured OER before and after HD at enrolment; deaths were recorded during two-years of follow-up. In 101 patients (age: 72.9 ± 13.6 years, HD vintage: 9.6 ± 16.6 years), 44 deaths were recorded during 11.6 ± 7.5 months of follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups according to a 40% ΔOER threshold (ΔOER < 40%, n = 56; ΔOER ≥ 40%, n = 45). The ΔOER ≥ 40% group showed a higher incidence of death (60% vs. 30%; p = 0.005). The survival curve (log-rank-test: p = 0.0001) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002) confirmed a ΔOER ≥ 40% as a mortality risk factor. This study showed the intradialytic ΔOER ≥ 40% was a mortality risk factor able to highlight critical hypoxic damage. Using a ΔOER ≥ 40% could be clinically applicable to characterise the most fragile patients. Full article
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5 pages, 1362 KiB  
Case Report
Prone Position Facilitates Creation of Ulnar-Basilic Arteriovenous Fistula
by Tomasz Gołębiowski, Patryk Jerzak, Krzysztof Letachowicz, Andrzej Konieczny, Mariusz Kusztal, Maciej Gołębiowski, Mirosław Banasik, Katarzyna Sznajder and Magdalena Krajewska
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092610 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 3815
Abstract
Background: The distal ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula (UBAVF) is a rarely used alternative type of vascular access for haemodialysis. The location of the vein on the back aspect of the forearm forces an extremely uncomfortable external rotation of the upper limb during surgery when [...] Read more.
Background: The distal ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula (UBAVF) is a rarely used alternative type of vascular access for haemodialysis. The location of the vein on the back aspect of the forearm forces an extremely uncomfortable external rotation of the upper limb during surgery when the patient is in a supine position. Methods: We present a new approach towards creating UBAVF, which involves placing the patient in the prone position, thus eliminating the aforementioned inconvenience. The procedure was performed and described in a 46-year-old patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diabetic nephropathy. In the period from September 2021 to December 2021, we created an additional three UBAVFs with such modifications. Results: All fistulas were patent both immediately after the procedure and 2 weeks after surgery. Conclusions: The prone position may improve the comfort of both the operator and the patient during the procedure. On top of this, it may have a positive impact on the quality of the arteriovenous anastomosis. Full article
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12 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Association of Physical Performance, Muscle Strength and Body Composition with Self-Assessed Quality of Life in Hemodialyzed Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Maja Nowicka, Monika Górska, Krzysztof Edyko, Magdalena Szklarek-Kubicka, Adam Kazanek, Malwina Prylińska, Maciej Niewodniczy, Tomasz Kostka and Ilona Kurnatowska
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092283 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
(1) Patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) experience impaired quality of life (QoL). We analyzed HD’s relationship with physical performance, body composition, and muscle strength; (2) QoL was assessed with the Short Form-36, composed of physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health dimensions. Physical performance [...] Read more.
(1) Patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) experience impaired quality of life (QoL). We analyzed HD’s relationship with physical performance, body composition, and muscle strength; (2) QoL was assessed with the Short Form-36, composed of physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health dimensions. Physical performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), body composition (lean tissue mass% (LTM%), fat tissue mass% (FTM%), and skeletal muscle mass% (SMM%)) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance, and lower extremity strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer; and (3) we enrolled 76 patients (27 F, 49 M), age 62.26 ± 12.81 years, HD vintage 28.45 (8.65–77.49) months. Their QoL score was 53.57 (41.07–70.64); their PCS and MCS scores were 52.14 (38.69–65.95) and 63.39 (44.64–76.79) and strongly correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.738). QoL correlated positively with SPPB (R = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001), muscle strength (R from 0.21 to 0.41, p < 0.05), and LTM% (R = 0.38, p < 0.001) and negatively with FTM% (R = −0.32, p = 0.006). PCS correlated positively with SPPB (R = 0.42 p < 0.001), muscle strength (R 0.25–0.44, p < 0.05), and LTM% (R = 0.32, p = 0.006) and negatively with FTM% (R = −0.25, p = 0.031). MCS correlated positively with SPPB (R = 0.23, p = 0.047), SMM% (R = 0.25; p = 0.003), and LTM% (R = 0.39, p < 0.001) and negatively with FTM% (R = −0.34; p = 0.003). QoL was unrelated to sex (p = 0.213), age (p = 0.157), HD vintage (p = 0.156), and BMI (p = 0.202); (4) Better physical performance, leaner body composition, and higher muscle strength are associated with better mental and physical QoL in HD. Full article
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12 pages, 8483 KiB  
Article
Safety and Efficacy of Short Daily Hemodialysis with Physidia S3 System: Clinical Performance Assessment during the Training Period
by Hafedh Fessi, Jean-Christophe Szelag, Cécile Courivaud, Philippe Nicoud, Didier Aguilera, Olivia Gilbert, Marion Morena, Michel Thomas, Bernard Canaud and Jean-Paul Cristol
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082123 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3156
Abstract
Background: A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that clinical outcomes of hemodialysis patients can be improved with short daily dialysis treatment. Current in-center hemodialysis machines do not fulfill the requirements needed for self-care home hemodialysis (HHD) treatment. In line with the reviviscence [...] Read more.
Background: A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that clinical outcomes of hemodialysis patients can be improved with short daily dialysis treatment. Current in-center hemodialysis machines do not fulfill the requirements needed for self-care home hemodialysis (HHD) treatment. In line with the reviviscence of home therapy, several hemodialysis devices have been developed and deployed for treatment. Physidia S3 is one of these new dialysis delivery systems featuring an appealing design and functionalities intended for daily HHD treatment. Methods: In this French multicenter proof-of-concept study enrolling 13 training centers, we report our preliminary experience with a special focus on quantifying clinical performances in short daily HHD treatment performed during the training period of the patients. Results: Among the 80 patients included in this study, a total of 249 sessions could be analyzed. Dialysis dose, estimated from weekly standardized Kt/V, was maintained at 2.22 [1.95–2.61] with a normalized protein catabolic rate of 0.93 [0.73–1.18] g/kg/24 h. Furthermore, anemia and nutritional status were adequately controlled as indicated by 11.6 ± 1.4 g/dL of hemoglobin level and 39.4 ± 5.7 g/L of serum albumin as well as electrolyte disorders. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of the S3 therapy concept relying on a short daily hemodialysis treatment using a bagged delivery system are in total agreement with daily HHD recommendations. Clinical performances are aligned to the metabolic needs of the vast majority of HHD patients. Currently ongoing studies at home will provide further evidence and value of this therapeutic approach. Full article
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14 pages, 1008 KiB  
Review
The Relationship of Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients
by Kultigin Turkmen, Hakan Ozer and Mariusz Kusztal
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(5), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051308 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Additionally, [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), visceral fat depot of the heart, was found to be associated with coronary artery disease in cardiac and non-cardiac patients. Additionally, EAT has been proposed as a novel cardiovascular risk in the general population and in end-stage renal disease patients. It has also been shown that EAT, more than other subcutaneous adipose tissue deposits, acts as a highly active organ producing several bioactive adipokines, and proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. Therefore, increased visceral adiposity is associated with proinflammatory activity, impaired insulin sensitivity, increased risk of atherosclerosis, and high morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. In the present review, we aimed to demonstrate the role of EAT in the pathophysiological mechanisms of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Full article
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12 pages, 285 KiB  
Review
Electronic Patient-Reported Outcomes in Nephrology: Focus on Hemodialysis
by Rosa Pérez-Morales, Juan Manuel Buades-Fuster, Vicent Esteve-Simó, Manuel Macía-Heras, Carmen Mora-Fernández and Juan F. Navarro-González
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030861 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
The success of hemodialysis (HD) treatments has been evaluated using objective measures of analytical parameters, or machine-measured parameters, despite having available validated instruments that assess patient perspective. There is an emerging interest regarding the use and relevance of patient-related outcomes (PROs). Electronic PROs [...] Read more.
The success of hemodialysis (HD) treatments has been evaluated using objective measures of analytical parameters, or machine-measured parameters, despite having available validated instruments that assess patient perspective. There is an emerging interest regarding the use and relevance of patient-related outcomes (PROs). Electronic PROs (ePROs) involve the use of electronic technology, provide rapid access to this information, and are becoming more widely used in clinical trials and studies to evaluate efficacy and safety. Despite the scarce literature, this review suggests that ePROs are useful in providing a more customized and multidimensional approach to patient management and in making better clinical decisions in relevant aspects such as vascular access, duration and frequency of dialysis sessions, treatment of anemia, mental health, fatigue, and quality of life. The purpose of this review is to raise interest in the systematic use of ePROs in HD and to promote the development of studies in this field, which can respond to the gaps in knowledge and contribute to the implementation of the use of ePROs through new technologies, helping to improve the quality of health care. Full article
15 pages, 1741 KiB  
Article
Outcomes of Frail Patients While Waiting for Kidney Transplantation: Differences between Physical Frailty Phenotype and FRAIL Scale
by María José Pérez-Sáez, Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Carlos E. Arias-Cabrales, Anna Faura, Anna Bach, Anna Buxeda, Carla Burballa, Ernestina Junyent, Marta Crespo, Ester Marco, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas and Julio Pascual
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030672 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Frailty is associated with poorer outcomes among patients waiting for kidney transplantation (KT). Several different tools to measure frailty have been used; however, their predictive value is unknown. This is a prospective longitudinal study of 449 KT candidates evaluated for frailty by the [...] Read more.
Frailty is associated with poorer outcomes among patients waiting for kidney transplantation (KT). Several different tools to measure frailty have been used; however, their predictive value is unknown. This is a prospective longitudinal study of 449 KT candidates evaluated for frailty by the Physical Frailty Phenotype (PFP) and the FRAIL scale. During the study period, 296 patients received a KT, while 153 remained listed. Patients who did not get receive a transplant were more frequently frail according to PFP (16.3 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.013). Robust patients had fewer hospital admissions during the 1st year after listing (20.8% if PFP = 0 vs. 43.4% if ≥1, and 27.1% if FRAIL = 0 vs. 48.9% if ≥1) and fewer cardiovascular events (than FRAIL ≥ 1) or major infectious events (than PFP ≥ 1). According to PFP, scoring 1 point had an impact on patient survival and chance of transplantation in the univariate analysis. The multivariable analysis corroborated the result, as candidates with PFP ≥ 3 had less likelihood of transplantation (HR 0.45 [0.26–0.77]). The FRAIL scale did not associate with any of these outcomes. In KT candidates, pre-frailty and frailty according to both the PFP and the FRAIL scale were associated with poorer results while listed. The PFP detected that frail patients were less likely to receive a KT, while the FRAIL scale did not. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

7 pages, 3724 KiB  
Article
Hemodynamic and Metabolic Tolerance of Acetate-Free Biofiltration in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients: A Real-Life Study
by Anna Gouin, Pierre Tailpied, Olivier Marion, Laurence Lavayssiere, Chloé Medrano, Marie-Béatrice Nogier, Bruno Seigneuric, Nassim Kamar, Olivier Cointault and Stanislas Faguer
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5729; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245729 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
Intradialytic hypotension can lead to superimposed organ hypoperfusion and ultimately worsens long-term kidney outcomes in critically ill patients requiring kidney replacement therapy. Acetate-free biofiltration (AFB), an alternative technique to bicarbonate-based hemodialysis (B-IHD) that does not require dialysate acidification, may improve hemodynamic and metabolic [...] Read more.
Intradialytic hypotension can lead to superimposed organ hypoperfusion and ultimately worsens long-term kidney outcomes in critically ill patients requiring kidney replacement therapy. Acetate-free biofiltration (AFB), an alternative technique to bicarbonate-based hemodialysis (B-IHD) that does not require dialysate acidification, may improve hemodynamic and metabolic tolerance of dialysis. In this study, we included 49 mechanically ventilated patients requiring 4 h dialysis (AFB sessions n = 66; B-IHD sessions n = 62). Whereas more AFB sessions were performed in patients at risk of hemodynamic intolerance, episodes of intradialytic hypotension were significantly less frequent during AFB compared to B-IHD, whatever the classification used (decrease in mean blood pressure ≥ 10 mmHg; systolic blood pressure decrease >20 mmHg or absolute value below 95 mmHg) and after adjustment on the use of vasoactive agent. Diastolic blood pressure readily increased throughout the dialysis session. The use of a bicarbonate zero dialysate allowed the removal of 113 ± 25 mL/min of CO2 by the hemofilter. After bicarbonate reinjection, the global CO2 load induced by AFB was +25 ± 6 compared to +80 ± 12 mL/min with B-IHD (p = 0.0002). Thus, notwithstanding the non-controlled design of this study, hemodynamic tolerance of AFB appears superior to B-IHD in mechanically ventilated patients. Its use as a platform for CO2 removal also warrants further research. Full article
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14 pages, 3400 KiB  
Article
Gender Disparities in Vascular Access and One-Year Mortality among Incident Hemodialysis Patients: An Epidemiological Study in Lazio Region, Italy
by Laura Angelici, Claudia Marino, Ilaria Umbro, Maurizio Bossola, Enrico Calandrini, Luigi Tazza, Nera Agabiti, Marina Davoli and on behalf of the Regional Registry Dialysis and Transplant Lazio Region
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(21), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10215116 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
(1) Background: Interest in gender disparities in epidemiology, clinical features, prognosis and health care in chronic kidney disease patients is increasing. Aims of the study were to evaluate the association between gender and vascular access (arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or central venous catheter (CVC)) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Interest in gender disparities in epidemiology, clinical features, prognosis and health care in chronic kidney disease patients is increasing. Aims of the study were to evaluate the association between gender and vascular access (arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or central venous catheter (CVC)) used at the start of hemodialysis (HD) and to investigate the association between gender and 1-year mortality. (2) Methods: The study includes 9068 adult chronic HD patients (64.7% males) registered in the Lazio Regional Dialysis Register (January 2008–December 2018). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between gender and type of vascular access (AVF vs. CVC) and between gender and 1-year mortality. Interactions between gender and socio-demographic and clinical variables were tested adding the interaction terms in the final model. (3) Results: Females were older, had lower educational level and lower rate of self-sufficiency compared to males. Overall, CVC was used in 51.2% of patients. Females were less likely to use AVF for HD initiation than males. 1354 out of 8215 (16.5%) individuals died at the end of the follow-up period. Interaction term between gender and vascular access was significant in the adjusted model. From stratified analyses by vascular access, OR female vs. male (AVF) = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48–0.87 and OR female vs. male (CVC) = 0.88; 95% CI 0.75–1.04 were found. (4) Conclusions: This prospective population-based cohort study in a large Italian Region showed that in females starting chronic HD AVF was less common respect to men. The better 1-year survival of females is more evident among those women with AVF. Reducing gender disparity in access to AVF represents a key point in the management of HD patients. Full article
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17 pages, 5462 KiB  
Article
To Close, Observe, or Reconstruct: The Third Way of Managing Dialysis Fistula Aneurysms in Kidney Transplant Recipients
by Krzysztof Bojakowski, Aneta Gziut, Rafał Góra, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Stanisław Kaźmierczak, Dominika Kasprzak, Jolanta Małyszko and Piotr Andziak
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4567; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194567 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Background: The management of patent dialysis fistulas in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx) is controversial—the options that are usually considered are the fistula’s closure or observation. Many complications of dialysis fistulas occur in patients after KTx, and immunosuppression increases the risk of fistula [...] Read more.
Background: The management of patent dialysis fistulas in patients after kidney transplantation (KTx) is controversial—the options that are usually considered are the fistula’s closure or observation. Many complications of dialysis fistulas occur in patients after KTx, and immunosuppression increases the risk of fistula aneurysms and hyperkinetic flow. This study aimed to evaluate the results of dialysis fistula aneurysm treatment in patients after KTx and to compare them to procedures performed in an end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialyzed population. Methods: We enrolled 83 renal transplant recipients and 123 ESRD patients with dialysis fistula aneurysms qualified for surgical revision to this single-center, prospective study. The results of the surgical treatment of dialysis fistula aneurysms were analyzed, and the primary, assisted primary and secondary patency rate, percentage and type of complications were also assessed. Results: For the treatment of dialysis fistula aneurysms in transplant patients, we performed dialysis fistula excisions with fistula closure in 50 patients (60.2%), excision with primary fistula reconstruction (n = 10, 12.0%) or excision with PTFE bypasses (n = 23, 27.7%). Postoperative complications occurred in 11 patients (13.3%) during a follow-up (median follow-up, 36 months), mostly in distant periods (median time after correction procedure, 11.7 months). The most common complication was outflow stenosis, followed by hematoma, dialysis fistula thrombosis and the formation of a new aneurysm and postoperative bleeding, infection and lymphocele. The 12-month primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates of fistulas corrected by aneurysm excision and primary reconstruction in the KTx group were all 100%; in the control ESRD group, the 12-month primary rate was 70%, and the primary assisted and secondary patency rates were 100%. The 12-month primary, primarily assisted and secondary patency rates after dialysis fistula aneurysm excision combined with PTFE bypass were better in the KTx group than in the control ESRD group (85% vs. 71.8%, 90% vs. 84.5% and 95% vs. 91.7%, respectively). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a significant difference in primary patency (p = 0.018) and assisted primary (p = 0.018) rates and a strong tendency in secondary patency rates (p = 0.053) between the KTx and ESRD groups after dialysis fistula excisions combined with PTFE bypass. No statistically significant differences in patency rates between fistulas treated by primary reconstruction and reconstructed with PTFE bypass were observed in KTx patients. Conclusions: Reconstructions of dialysis fistula aneurysms give good long-term results, with a low risk of complications. The reconstruction of dialysis fistulas can be an effective treatment method. Thus, this is an attractive option in addition to fistula ligation or observation in patients after KTx. Reconstructions of dialysis fistula aneurysms enable the preservation of the dialysis fistula while reducing various complications. Full article
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15 pages, 2186 KiB  
Review
Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Uremic Toxins, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Thi Thuy Uyen Nguyen, Hyeong Wan Kim and Won Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4456; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194456 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5688
Abstract
The dysbiosis of gut microbiota may cause many complications in patients with end-stage renal disease, which may be alleviated by probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of these supplementations on circulatory [...] Read more.
The dysbiosis of gut microbiota may cause many complications in patients with end-stage renal disease, which may be alleviated by probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic supplementation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effects of these supplementations on circulatory uremic toxins, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients. We searched the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases until 8 August 2021. Randomized controlled trials evaluating adult patients receiving hemodialysis were included. The pooled results from 23 studies with 931 hemodialysis patients indicated that interventions significantly decreased the circulating levels of p-cresyl sulfate (standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.38; 95% CI: −0.61, −0.15; p = 0.001), endotoxins (SMD: −0.58; 95% CI: −0.99, −0.18; p = 0.005), malondialdehyde (SMD: −1.16; 95% CI: −1.81, −0.52; p = 0.0004), C-reactive proteins (CRP) (SMD: −0.61; 95% CI: −0.99, −0.23; p = 0.002), and interleukin 6 (SMD: −0.92; 95% CI: −1.51, −0.33; p = 0.002), and improved the total antioxidant capacity (SMD: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.30; p < 0.0001) and glutathione (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.66; p = 0.003) when compared to the placebo group. Our results suggest that treatment with probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics may help alleviate uremic toxin levels, oxidative stress, and the inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients. Full article
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10 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
Persistent Post-COVID-19 Syndrome in Hemodialyzed Patients—A Longitudinal Cohort Study from the North of Poland
by Aleksander Och, Piotr Tylicki, Karolina Polewska, Ewelina Puchalska-Reglińska, Aleksandra Parczewska, Krzysztof Szabat, Bogdan Biedunkiewicz, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień and Leszek Tylicki
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194451 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2263
Abstract
Background: After recovery from COVID-19, patients frequently face so-called “Post-COVID-19 Syndrome” defined by clusters of persistent symptoms lasting for >12 weeks which may arise from any system in the body. The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in maintenance hemodialyzed (HD) patients remain to [...] Read more.
Background: After recovery from COVID-19, patients frequently face so-called “Post-COVID-19 Syndrome” defined by clusters of persistent symptoms lasting for >12 weeks which may arise from any system in the body. The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in maintenance hemodialyzed (HD) patients remain to be investigated. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study we described the health consequences in HD patients requiring hospitalization due to COVID-19. They were interviewed three and six months (M3 and M6) after discharge with a series of standardized questionnaires. Results: Of 144 HD patients discharged from the 7th Naval Hospital in Gdansk, 79 participants were enrolled, 39 m (49.4%) and 40 f (50.6%) with a median age of 70.0 (64.0–76.5) and an HD vintage of 40 months (17.5–88). After discharge, 93.7% and 81% reported at least one persistent symptom at M3 and M6, respectively. The most common symptoms were fatigue or muscle weakness (60.76% and 47.04%) and palpitations (40.51% and 30.14%). Dyspnea with an mMRC scale grade of at least 1 was reported by 21.5% before infection, and by 43.03% and 34.25% at M3 and M6, respectively. A decrease in the quality of life was reported in all domains of the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire but mainly in the pain/discomfort and anxiety dimensions. Mean EQ-VAS scores were 69.05, 61.58 and 64.38, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that HD patients may still experience persistent symptoms six months after recovery from COVID-19, which can further reduce their already poor health-related quality of life. This study highlights the need for long-term follow-up on these patients for diagnostic and rehabilitation programs. Full article
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9 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
The Rapid Atrial Swirl Sign for Ultrasound-Guided Tip Positioning of Retrograde-Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Single Center
by Peter Korsten, Tim Kuczera, Manuel Wallbach and Björn Tampe
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173999 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common medical problem in patients worldwide, with an increasing prevalence of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). In patients requiring RRT for more than two weeks or those who develop ESKD, [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common medical problem in patients worldwide, with an increasing prevalence of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). In patients requiring RRT for more than two weeks or those who develop ESKD, tunneled hemodialysis catheter (HDC) insertion is preferred, based on a lower risk for infectious complications. While the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided tip positioning in antegrade-tunneled HDCs has previously been shown, its application for the insertion of retrograde-tunneled HDCs has not been described yet. This is especially important, since the retrograde-tunneled technique has several advantages over the antegrade-tunneled HDC insertion technique. Therefore, we here report our first experience of applying the rapid atrial swirl sign (RASS) for US-guided tip positioning of retrograde-tunneled HDCs. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the feasibility of applying the RASS for US-guided tip positioning of retrograde-tunneled HDCs. We performed a total number of 24 retrograde-tunneled HDC insertions in 23 patients (requiring placement of a HDC for the temporary or permanent treatment of ESKD) admitted to our Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology at the University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany. Results: The overall success rate of applying the RASS for US-guided tip positioning of retrograde-tunneled HDCs was 24/24 (100%), with proper tip position in the right atrium in 18/23 (78.3%), or cavoatrial junction in 5/23 (21.7%) when RASS was positive and improper position when RASS was negative in 1/1 (100%), confirmed by portable anterior-posterior chest radiography, with only minor post-procedural bleeding in 2/24 (8.3%). In addition, this insertion technique allows optimal HDC flow, without any observed malfunction. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the RASS for US-guided tip positioning of retrograde-tunneled HDCs in patients with ESKD. Application of the RASS for US-guided tip positioning is an accurate and safe procedure for the proper placement of retrograde-tunneled HDCs. Full article
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11 pages, 2148 KiB  
Article
Biocompatibility Parameters with Standard and Increased Dose of Citrate in Hemodialysis—A Randomized Trial
by Alesa Orsag, Mojca Bozic-Mijovski, Samo Hudoklin, Sasa Simcic and Jakob Gubensek
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(13), 2987; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132987 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1963
Abstract
Background: The dose of citrate needed in regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) to achieve optimal biocompatibility is unknown. We performed a randomized trial comparing two doses (ACTRN12613001340729). Methods: In 30 patients a single hemodialysis with either standard (2.7 mmol/L) or increased dose of citrate [...] Read more.
Background: The dose of citrate needed in regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) to achieve optimal biocompatibility is unknown. We performed a randomized trial comparing two doses (ACTRN12613001340729). Methods: In 30 patients a single hemodialysis with either standard (2.7 mmol/L) or increased dose of citrate (4 mmol/L) was performed. C5a-desArg, myeloperoxidase (MPO), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), and platelet factor 4 (PF4) were measured and the inner surface of the dialyzer fibers was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: A good separation of anticoagulation effect was achieved (post-filter ionized calcium 0.20 vs. 0.31 mmol/L, p < 0.05). There was no effect of citrate dose on any of the biocompatibility parameters; transient and parallel increase in PF4 after 30 min and parallel increase in TAT after 4 h were observed. There were no visually detected clotting problems within the circuit and no significant hypocalcemia in either group. SEM clotting score was excellent and comparable in both groups (p = 0.59). Conclusions: Given the excellent results in both groups, absence of between group differences and inability of the increased dose of citrate to completely blunt the small residual increase in PF4 and TAT, we conclude that the standard dose of citrate seems sufficient in RCA for chronic hemodialysis. Full article
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14 pages, 1383 KiB  
Review
Locked Away—Prophylaxis and Management of Catheter Related Thrombosis in Hemodialysis
by Joanna Szymańska, Katarzyna Kakareko, Alicja Rydzewska-Rosołowska, Irena Głowińska and Tomasz Hryszko
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112230 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4428
Abstract
Reliable vascular access is necessary for effective hemodialysis. Guidelines recommend chronic hemodialysis via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), however, in a significant number of patients, permanent central venous catheters (CVCs) are used. The use of a tunneled catheter is acceptable if the estimated dialysis [...] Read more.
Reliable vascular access is necessary for effective hemodialysis. Guidelines recommend chronic hemodialysis via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), however, in a significant number of patients, permanent central venous catheters (CVCs) are used. The use of a tunneled catheter is acceptable if the estimated dialysis time is less than a year or it is not possible to create an AVF. The main complications associated with CVC include thrombosis and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), which may result in loss of vascular access. The common practice is to use locking solutions to maintain catheter patency and minimize the risk of CRBSI. This paperwork summarizes information on currently available locking solutions for dialysis catheters along with their effectiveness in preventing thrombotic and infectious complications and describes methods of dealing with catheter dysfunction. The PubMed database was systematically searched for articles about locking solutions used in permanent CVCs in hemodialysis patients. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies and international guidelines. Articles on end-stage kidney disease patients dialyzed through a permanent CVC were included. Information from each primary study was extracted using pre-determined criteria including thrombotic and infectious complications of CVC use, focusing on permanent CVC if sufficient data were available. Of the currently available substances, it seems that citrate at a concentration of 4% has the best cost-effectiveness and safety profile, which is reflected in the international guidelines. Recent studies suggest the advantage of 2+1 protocols, i.e., taurolidine-based solutions with addition of urokinase once a week, although it needs to be confirmed by further research. Regardless of the type of locking solution, if prophylaxis with a thrombolytic agent is chosen, it should be started from the very beginning to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications. In case of CVC dysfunction, irrespective of the thrombolysis attempt, catheter replacement should be planned as soon as possible. Full article
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12 pages, 824 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices in Hemodialysis and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients—An Experience-Based Narrative Review
by Krzysztof Nowak and Mariusz Kusztal
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081745 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2953
Abstract
Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are a standard therapy utilized for different cardiac conditions. They are implanted in a growing number of patients, including those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and malignant arrhythmia, [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are a standard therapy utilized for different cardiac conditions. They are implanted in a growing number of patients, including those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and malignant arrhythmia, remain the leading cause of mortality among CKD patients, especially in ESKD. CIED implantation procedures are considered minor surgery, typically with transvenous leads inserted via upper central veins, followed by an impulse generator introduced subcutaneously. A decision regarding optimal hemodialysis (HD) modality and the choice of permanent vascular access (VA) could be particularly challenging in CIED recipients. The potential consequences of arteriovenous access on the CIED side are related to (1) venous hypertension from lead-related central vein stenosis and (2) the risk of systemic infection. Therefore, when creating permanent vascular access, the clinical scenario may be complicated by the CIED presence on one side and the lack of suitable vessels for arteriovenous fistula on the contralateral arm. These factors suggest the need for an individualized approach according to different clinical situations: (1) CIED in a CKD patient; (2) CIED in a patient on hemodialysis CIED; and (3) VA in a patient with CIED. This complex clinical conundrum creates the necessity for close cooperation between cardiologists and nephrologists. Full article
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