Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 89473

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Guest Editor
Director Pulmonary Intensive Care Unit, Respiratory Institute, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: respiratory medicine; epidemiology; risk factors; outcome; treatment; prevention and pathogenetic mechanisms of respiratory infections; community-acquired pneumonia; intensive care
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pneumonia is a severe health problem and a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The burden of pneumonia is expected to grow given the increasing aging population, the number of patients with multiple comorbidities, including immunosuppression, and the emergence of antibiotic resistance pathogens. PES pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) account for approximately 6% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with microbiological diagnosis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens account for approximately half of the microbiologically confirmed cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Despite improvements in its management, due to the implementation of international guidelines for community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, the diagnosis of pneumonia is still a challenge, especially in specific populations, such as elderly patients and immunocompromised patients. Our current clinical practice is insufficient to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality rates, as well as to avoid short- and long-term sequelae. There is a need for novel approaches to be incorporated in the clinical practice, embracing new knowledge, prevention measures, and therapeutic strategies.

Prof. Dr. Antoni Torres
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • pneumonia
  • community-acquired pneumonia
  • hospital-acquired pneumonia
  • ventilator-associated pneumonia
  • diagnosis
  • therapy
  • management
  • respiratory infections

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 3511 KiB  
Article
The Dynamics of Respiratory Microbiota during Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Pneumonia
by Seongji Woo, So-Yeong Park, Youngmi Kim, Jin Pyeong Jeon, Jae Jun Lee and Ji Young Hong
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030638 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2815
Abstract
Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. We hypothesized that the presence of particular microbiota in endotracheal tube aspirates during the course of intubation was associated with clinical outcomes such as extubation failure or 28-day mortality. Sixty [...] Read more.
Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. We hypothesized that the presence of particular microbiota in endotracheal tube aspirates during the course of intubation was associated with clinical outcomes such as extubation failure or 28-day mortality. Sixty mechanically ventilated ICU (intensive care unit) patients (41 patients with pneumonia and 19 patients without pneumonia) were included, and tracheal aspirates were obtained on days 1, 3, and 7. Gene sequencing of 16S rRNA was used to measure the composition of the respiratory microbiome. A total of 216 endotracheal aspirates were obtained from 60 patients. A total of 22 patients were successfully extubatedwithin3 weeks, and 12 patients died within 28days. Microbiota profiles differed significantly between the pneumonia group and the non-pneumonia group (Adonis, p < 0.01). While α diversity (Shannon index) significantly decreased between day 1 and day 7 in the successful extubation group, it did not decrease in the failed extubation group among intubated patients with pneumonia. There was a significant difference in the change of βdiversity between the successful extubation group and the failed extubation group for Bray-Curtis distances (p < 0.001). At the genus level, Rothia, Streptococcus, and Prevotella correlated with the change of β diversity. A low relative abundance of Streptococci at the time of intubation was strongly associated with 28-day mortality. The dynamics of respiratory microbiome were associated with clinical outcomes such as extubation failure and mortality. Further large prospective studies are needed to test the predictive value of endotracheal aspirates in intubated patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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14 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
Markov State Modelling of Disease Courses and Mortality Risks of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
by Jens Przybilla, Peter Ahnert, Holger Bogatsch, Frank Bloos, Frank M. Brunkhorst, SepNet Critical Care Trials Group, PROGRESS study group, Michael Bauer, Markus Loeffler, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp and Markus Scholz
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020393 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3605
Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most frequent infectious diseases worldwide, with high lethality. Risk evaluation is well established at hospital admission, and re-evaluation is advised for patients at higher risk. However, severe disease courses may develop from all levels of severity. [...] Read more.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most frequent infectious diseases worldwide, with high lethality. Risk evaluation is well established at hospital admission, and re-evaluation is advised for patients at higher risk. However, severe disease courses may develop from all levels of severity. We propose a stochastic continuous-time Markov model describing daily development of time courses of CAP severity. Disease states were defined based on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Model calibration was based on longitudinal data from 2838 patients with a primary diagnosis of CAP from four clinical studies (PROGRESS, MAXSEP, SISPCT, VISEP). We categorized CAP severity into five disease states and estimated transition probabilities for CAP progression between these states and corresponding sojourn times. Good agreement between model predictions and clinical data was observed. Time courses of mortality were correctly predicted for up to 28 days, including validation with patient data not used for model calibration. We conclude that CAP disease course follows a Markov process, suggesting the necessity of daily monitoring and re-evaluation of patient’s risk. Our model can be used for regular updates of risk assessments of patients and could improve the design of clinical trials by estimating transition rates for different risk groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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12 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Clinical Factors Associated with a Shorter or Longer Course of Antibiotic Treatment in Patients with Exacerbations of Bronchiectasis: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Giulia Scioscia, Rosanel Amaro, Victoria Alcaraz-Serrano, Albert Gabarrús, Patricia Oscanoa, Laia Fernandez, Rosario Menendez, Raul Mendez, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro and Antoni Torres
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111950 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Background: Bronchiectasis exacerbations are often treated with prolonged antibiotic use, even though there is limited evidence for this approach. We therefore aimed to investigate the baseline clinical and microbiological findings associated with long courses of antibiotic treatment in exacerbated bronchiectasis patients. Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background: Bronchiectasis exacerbations are often treated with prolonged antibiotic use, even though there is limited evidence for this approach. We therefore aimed to investigate the baseline clinical and microbiological findings associated with long courses of antibiotic treatment in exacerbated bronchiectasis patients. Methods: This was a bi-centric prospective observational study of bronchiectasis exacerbated adults. We compared groups receiving short (≤14 days) and long (15–21 days) courses of antibiotic treatment. Results: We enrolled 191 patients (mean age 72 (63, 79) years; 108 (56.5%) females), of whom 132 (69%) and 59 (31%) received short and long courses of antibiotics, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression of the baseline variables showed that long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), moderate–severe exacerbations, and microbiological isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were associated with long courses of antibiotic therapy. When we excluded patients with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (n = 49), in the model we found that an etiology of P. aeruginosa remained as factor associated with longer antibiotic treatment, with a moderate and a severe FACED score and the presence of arrhythmia as comorbidity at baseline. Conclusions: Decisions about the duration of antibiotic therapy should be guided by clinical and microbiological assessments of patients with infective exacerbations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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8 pages, 226 KiB  
Article
Predictors and Clinical Outcomes in Empyema Thoracis Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department Undergoing Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery
by Yuan-Ming Tsai, Nikita Gamper, Tsai-Wang Huang, Shih-Chun Lee and Hung Chang
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101612 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is widely used for the treatment of empyema. We evaluated clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations, and thoracentesis to assess patients in the emergency department (ED) with empyema thoracis, undergoing VATS to identify predictors of adverse outcomes. Methods: This retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is widely used for the treatment of empyema. We evaluated clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations, and thoracentesis to assess patients in the emergency department (ED) with empyema thoracis, undergoing VATS to identify predictors of adverse outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted by reviewing records of ED patients with pleural empyema admitted for VATS from January 2007 to June 2014. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, and laboratory examinations were compared for survivors (Group I) and non-survivors (Group II). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify parameters related to postoperative mortality. Results: From 380 patients, 7.6% (n = 29) died postoperatively. Survivors and non-survivors exhibited differences in age, gender, presence of cough, dyspnea, chest pain, empyema stage, cerebrovascular disease, malignancy, the glucose level of pleural fluid, serum hemoglobin, platelet count, blood urea nitrogen, and potassium levels. The logistic analysis demonstrated that the most significant factor related to the postoperative morbidity is chest pain (p = 0.018). Conclusions: VATS could be a safe option for pediatric and geriatric patients. Age does not appear to affect postoperative mortality. A high degree of awareness is essential for perioperative management and early surgical treatment when ED patients present with the clinical symptom of chest pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
6 pages, 443 KiB  
Communication
Effect of Corticosteroids on C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia and High Inflammatory Response: The Effect of Lymphopenia
by Antoni Torres, Adrian Ceccato, Miquel Ferrer, Albert Gabarrus, Oriol Sibila, Catia Cilloniz, Raúl Mendez, Rosario Menendez, Jesus Bermejo-Martin and Michael S. Niederman
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091461 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
Background: Lymphopenic patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have shown high mortality rates. Corticosteroids have immunomodulatory properties and regulate cytokine storm in CAP. However, it is not known whether their modulatory effect on cytokine secretion differs in lymphopenic and non-lymphopenic patients with CAP. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Background: Lymphopenic patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have shown high mortality rates. Corticosteroids have immunomodulatory properties and regulate cytokine storm in CAP. However, it is not known whether their modulatory effect on cytokine secretion differs in lymphopenic and non-lymphopenic patients with CAP. Therefore, we aimed to test whether the presence of lymphopenia may modify the response to corticosteroids (mainly in C reactive protein (CRP)) in patients with severe CAP and high inflammatory status). Methods: A post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial (NCT00908713) which evaluated the effect of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and high inflammatory response (CRP > 15 mg/dL). Patients were clustered according to the presence of lymphopenia (lymphocyte count below 1000 cell/mm3). Results: At day 1, 35 patients (59%) in the placebo group presented with lymphopenia, compared to 44 patients (73%) in the corticosteroid group. The adjusted mean changes from day 1 showed an increase of 1.19 natural logarithm (ln) cell/mm3 in the corticosteroid group and an increase of 0.67 ln cell/mm3 in the placebo group (LS mean difference of the changes in ln (methylprednisolone minus placebo) 0.51, 95% CI (0.02 to 1.01), p = 0.043). A significant effect was also found for the interaction (p = 0.043) between corticosteroids and lymphopenia in CRP values at day 3, with lower values in patients without lymphopenia receiving corticosteroids after adjustments for potential confounders. Conclusion: In this exploratory post hoc analysis from ramdomized controlled trial (RCT) data, the response to corticosteroids, measured by CRP, may differ according to lymphocyte count. Further larger studies are needed to confirm this data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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10 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Depression of Immunological Synapse and Endothelial Injury is Associated with Organ Dysfunction in Community-Acquired Pneumonia
by Rosario Menéndez, Raúl Méndez, Raquel Almansa, Alicia Ortega, Ricardo Alonso, Marta Suescun, Ana Ferrando, Laura Feced and Jesús F. Bermejo-Martin
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091404 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
Rationale: A depressed expression of antigen presentation is, along with endothelial dysfunction, a recognized signature of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to evaluate the expression of a number of genes involved in the immunological synapse in non-critically ill CAP patients with or [...] Read more.
Rationale: A depressed expression of antigen presentation is, along with endothelial dysfunction, a recognized signature of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to evaluate the expression of a number of genes involved in the immunological synapse in non-critically ill CAP patients with or without organ dysfunction and to profile endothelial biomarkers such as proendothelin-1 (proET1) and proadrenomedullin (proADM). Methods: A nested study in a prospective cohort in CAP patients was performed. Expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class II DR alpha (HLA-DRA), CD40 ligand (CD40LG), CD3E, CD28, and inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS) were quantified by using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and endothelial biomarkers by immunofluorescence. Results: Ninety-four patients were included, 44.7% of whom had organ failure in one or more organs. A significant decrease in the expression of the five genes with increased levels of proadrenomedullin (proADM) and proendothelin-1 (proET1) was found in CAP with organ failure. The depressed expression of HLA-DRA (odds ratio (OR), 2.94), CD40LG (OR, 3.90), and CD28 (OR, 3.48) was independently associated with organ failure after adjustment for age, Charlson score, and severity. Conclusions. CAP with organ failure showed depressed expression of immunological synapse genes with increased levels of biomarkers denoting endothelial damage. Simultaneous profiling of immunological and endothelial signatures could help in the early identification of organ failure in CAP and in the implementation of personalized treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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13 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and PaO2/FIO2 Diagnostic Accuracy: Changing the Paradigm?
by Miquel Ferrer, Telma Sequeira, Catia Cilloniz, Cristina Dominedo, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Ignacio Martin-Loeches and Antoni Torres
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(8), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081217 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6424
Abstract
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated to longer stay and poor outcomes. Lacking definitive diagnostic criteria, worsening gas exchange assessed by PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 in mmHg has been proposed as one of the diagnostic criteria for VAP. We [...] Read more.
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated to longer stay and poor outcomes. Lacking definitive diagnostic criteria, worsening gas exchange assessed by PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 in mmHg has been proposed as one of the diagnostic criteria for VAP. We aim to assess the adequacy of PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 to diagnose VAP. Methods: Prospective observational study in 255 consecutive patients with suspected VAP, clustered according to PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 vs. > 240 at pneumonia onset. The primary analysis was the association between PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 and quantitative microbiologic confirmation of pneumonia, the most reliable diagnostic gold-standard. Results: Mean PaO2/FIO2 at VAP onset was 195 ± 82; 171 (67%) cases had PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240. Patients with PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 had a lower APACHE-II score at ICU admission; however, at pneumonia onset they had higher CPIS, SOFA score, acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria and incidence of shock, and less microbiological confirmation of pneumonia (117, 69% vs. 71, 85%, p = 0.008), compared to patients with PaO2/FIO2 > 240. In multivariate logistic regression, PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240 was independently associated with less microbiological confirmation (adjusted odds-ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.89, p = 0.027). The association between PaO2/FIO2 and microbiological confirmation of VAP was poor, with an area under the ROC curve 0.645. Initial non-response to treatment and length of stay were similar between both groups, while hospital mortality was higher in patients with PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 240. Conclusion: Adding PaO2/FIO2 ratio ≤ 240 to the clinical and radiographic criteria does not help in the diagnosis of VAP. PaO2/FIO2 ratio > 240 does not exclude this infection. Using this threshold may underestimate the incidence of VAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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10 pages, 832 KiB  
Article
Impact of Cefotaxime Non-susceptibility on the Clinical Outcomes of Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia
by Catia Cillóniz, Cristina de la Calle, Cristina Dominedò, Carolina García-Vidal, Celia Cardozo, Albert Gabarrús, Francesc Marco, Antoni Torres and Alex Soriano
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(8), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081150 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Background: We aimed to analyze the impact of cefotaxime non-susceptibility on the 30-day mortality rate in patients receiving a third-generation cephalosporin for pneumococcal bacteremic pneumonia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of prospectively collected data from the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. All [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to analyze the impact of cefotaxime non-susceptibility on the 30-day mortality rate in patients receiving a third-generation cephalosporin for pneumococcal bacteremic pneumonia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of prospectively collected data from the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona. All adult patients with monomicrobial bacteremic pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and treated with a third-generation cephalosporin from January 1991 to December 2016 were included. Risk factors associated with 30-day mortality were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: During the study period, 721 eligible episodes were identified, and data on the susceptibility to cefotaxime was obtainable for 690 episodes. Sixty six (10%) cases were due to a cefotaxime non-susceptible strain with a 30-day mortality rate of 8%. Variables associated with 30-day mortality were age, chronic liver disease, septic shock, and the McCabe score. Infection by a cefotaxime non-susceptible S. pneumoniae did not increase the mortality rate. Conclusion: Despite the prevalence of cefotaxime, non-susceptible S. pneumoniae has increased in recent years. We found no evidence to suggest that patients hospitalized with bacteremic pneumonia due to these strains had worse clinical outcomes than patients with susceptible strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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12 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Risk and Prognostic Factors in Very Old Patients with Sepsis Secondary to Community-Acquired Pneumonia
by Catia Cillóniz, Cristina Dominedò, Antonella Ielpo, Miquel Ferrer, Albert Gabarrús, Denise Battaglini, Jesús Bermejo-Martin, Andrea Meli, Carolina García-Vidal, Adamanthia Liapikou, Mervyn Singer and Antoni Torres
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070961 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4225
Abstract
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. Consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP were included if they were very old (≥80 years) and divided into those with and without sepsis for comparison. Sepsis was diagnosed based on the Sepsis-3 criteria. The main clinical outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among the 4219 patients hospitalized with CAP during the study period, 1238 (29%) were very old. The prevalence of sepsis in this age group was 71%. Male sex, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for sepsis, while antibiotic therapy before admission was independently associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Thirty-day and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality did not differ between patients with and without sepsis. In CAP-sepsis group, chronic renal disease and neurological disease were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: In very old patients hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were increased if they developed sepsis. Antibiotic therapy before hospital admission was associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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11 pages, 762 KiB  
Article
Lymphocytopenia as a Predictor of Mortality in Patients with ICU-Acquired Pneumonia
by Adrian Ceccato, Meropi Panagiotarakou, Otavio T. Ranzani, Marta Martin-Fernandez, Raquel Almansa-Mora, Albert Gabarrus, Leticia Bueno, Catia Cilloniz, Adamantia Liapikou, Miquel Ferrer, Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin and Antoni Torres
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060843 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4492
Abstract
Background: Intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICU-AP) is a severe complication in patients admitted to the ICU. Lymphocytopenia is a marker of poor prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but its impact on ICU-AP prognosis is unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether lymphocytopenia is [...] Read more.
Background: Intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICU-AP) is a severe complication in patients admitted to the ICU. Lymphocytopenia is a marker of poor prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but its impact on ICU-AP prognosis is unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether lymphocytopenia is an independent risk factor for mortality in non-immunocompromised patients with ICU-AP. Methods: Prospective observational cohort study of patients from six ICUs of an 800-bed tertiary teaching hospital (2005 to 2016). Results: Of the 473 patients included, 277 (59%) had ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the lymphocyte counts at diagnosis showed that 595 cells/mm3 was the best cut-off for discriminating two groups of patients at risk: lymphocytopenic group (lymphocyte count <595 cells/mm3, 141 patients (30%)) and non-lymphocytopenic group (lymphocyte count ≥595 cells/mm3, 332 patients (70%)). Patients with lymphocytopenia presented more comorbidities and a higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at the moment of pneumonia diagnosis. Also, 28-day mortality and 90-day mortality were higher in patients with lymphocytopenia (28-day: 38 (27%) versus 59 (18%), 90-day: 74 (53%) versus 111 (34%)). In the multivariable model, <595 cells/mm3 resulted to be an independent predictor for 90-day mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval 1.02 to 1.94). Conclusion: Lymphocytopenia is an independent predictor of 90-day mortality in non-immunocompromised patients with ICU-AP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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10 pages, 447 KiB  
Article
Early Corticosteroid Therapy for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia Irrespective of Used Antibiotics in Children
by Eun-Ae Yang, Hyun-Mi Kang, Jung-Woo Rhim, Jin-Han Kang and Kyung-Yil Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050726 - 22 May 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 4343
Abstract
Antibiotics’ effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection still remains controversial. A prospective study of 257 children with MP pneumonia during a recent epidemic (2015–2016) was conducted. All MP pneumonia patients were treated with corticosteroids within 24–36 h after admission. Initially, oral prednisolone (1 [...] Read more.
Antibiotics’ effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection still remains controversial. A prospective study of 257 children with MP pneumonia during a recent epidemic (2015–2016) was conducted. All MP pneumonia patients were treated with corticosteroids within 24–36 h after admission. Initially, oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP; 1–2 mg/kg) was administered for mild pneumonia patients, and IVMP (5–10 mg/kg/day) for severe pneumonia patients. If patients showed a persistent fever for 36–48 h or disease progression, additive IVMP (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) was given. Thirty-three percent of patients received only a broad-spectrum antibiotic without a macrolide. The mean age and the male-to-female ratio was 5.6 ± 3.1 years and 1:1, respectively. Seventy-four percent of patients showed immediate defervescence within 24 h, and 96% of patients showed defervescence within 72 h with improvements in clinical symptoms. Three percent of patients (8/257) who received additive IVMP also showed clinical improvement within 48 h without adverse reactions. There were no clinical or laboratory differences between patients treated with a macrolide (n = 172) and without (n = 85). Early corticosteroid therapy might reduce disease morbidity and prevent disease progression in MP pneumonia patients without side effects, and antibiotics may have limited effects on MP infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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14 pages, 1865 KiB  
Article
Pleural Tap-Guided Antimicrobial Treatment for Pneumonia with Parapneumonic Effusion or Pleural Empyema in Children: A Single-Center Cohort Study
by Patrick M. Meyer Sauteur, Ariane Burkhard, Ueli Moehrlen, Christa Relly, Christian Kellenberger, Kerstin Ruoss and Christoph Berger
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050698 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4728
Abstract
Parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema (PPE/PE) is a frequent complication of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Different management approaches exist for this condition. We evaluated a 14-day treatment with amoxicillin (AMX) with/without clavulanic acid (AMC) confirmed or modified by microbiological findings from pleural [...] Read more.
Parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema (PPE/PE) is a frequent complication of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Different management approaches exist for this condition. We evaluated a 14-day treatment with amoxicillin (AMX) with/without clavulanic acid (AMC) confirmed or modified by microbiological findings from pleural tap. Children ≤16 years of age with radiologically diagnosed PPE/PE and initial diagnostic pleural tap were included at University Children’s Hospital Zurich from 2001–2015. AMX/AMC was given for 14 days and rationalized according to microbiological pleural tap results. Clinical and radiological follow-up was scheduled until six months or full recovery. In 114 of 147 (78%) children with PPE/PE a pathogen was identified by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and/or antigen testing. Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in 90 (79%), S. pyogenes in 13 (11%), and Staphylococcus aureus in seven cases (6%), all but two cultured pathogens (96%) were sensitive to AMX/AMC. One-hundred two of 147 (69%) patients received treatment with AMX/AMC for 14 days. They recovered more rapidly than patients with a different management (p = 0.026). Of 139 children with follow-up, 134 (96%) patients fully recovered. In conclusion, 14-day AMX/AMC treatment confirmed and rarely modified by microbiological findings from pleural tap resulted in full recovery in >95% of children with PPE/PE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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Review

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17 pages, 276 KiB  
Review
Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Cardiac and Non-Cardiac)
by Raúl Méndez, Irene Aldás and Rosario Menéndez
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020549 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3345
Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to infection. Several aspects such as severity and host response are related to its clinical course and outcome. Beyond the acute implications that the infection provokes in the host, pneumonia [...] Read more.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to infection. Several aspects such as severity and host response are related to its clinical course and outcome. Beyond the acute implications that the infection provokes in the host, pneumonia also has long-term negative consequences. Among them, cardiovascular complications and mortality are the most outstanding. Therefore, an adequate recognition and stratification of the risk of complications and mortality is crucial. Many biomarkers have been studied for these reasons, considering that each biomarker mirrors a different aspect. Moreover, the clinical application of many of them is still being deliberated because of their limitations and the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we examine some of the most relevant biomarkers that we have classified as cardiac and non-cardiac. We discuss some classic biomarkers and others that are considered novel biomarkers, which are mainly involved in cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
23 pages, 4266 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Events after Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Global Perspective with Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
by António Tralhão and Pedro Póvoa
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020414 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5192
Abstract
Acute cardiovascular disease after community-acquired pneumonia is a well-accepted complication for which definitive treatment strategies are lacking. These complications share some common features but have distinct diagnostic and treatment approaches. We therefore undertook an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting [...] Read more.
Acute cardiovascular disease after community-acquired pneumonia is a well-accepted complication for which definitive treatment strategies are lacking. These complications share some common features but have distinct diagnostic and treatment approaches. We therefore undertook an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the incidence of overall complications, acute coronary syndromes, new or worsening heart failure, new or worsening arrhythmias and acute stroke, as well as short-term mortality outcomes. To set a framework for future research, we further included a holistic review of the interplay between the two conditions. From 1984 to 2019, thirty-nine studies were accrued, involving 92,188 patients, divided by setting (inpatients versus outpatients) and clinical severity (low risk versus high risk). Overall cardiac complications occurred in 13.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.6–18.9), acute coronary syndromes in 4.5% (95% CI 2.9–6.5), heart failure in 9.2% (95% CI 6.7–12.2), arrhythmias in 7.2% (95% CI 5.6–9.0) and stroke in 0.71% (95% CI 0.1–3.9) of pooled inpatients. During this period, meta-regression analysis suggests that the incidence of overall and individual cardiac complications is decreasing. After adjusting for confounders, cardiovascular events taking place after community-acquired pneumonia independently increase the risk for short-term mortality (range of odds-ratio: 1.39–5.49). These findings highlight the need for effective, large trial based, preventive and therapeutic interventions in this important patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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21 pages, 795 KiB  
Review
Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Nosocomial Bacterial Pneumonia
by Shio-Shin Jean, Yin-Chun Chang, Wei-Cheng Lin, Wen-Sen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh and Chin-Wan Hsu
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010275 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 15675
Abstract
Septicaemia likely results in high case-fatality rates in the present multidrug-resistant (MDR) era. Amongst them are hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), two frequent fatal septicaemic entities amongst hospitalised patients. We reviewed the PubMed database to identify the common organisms implicated in [...] Read more.
Septicaemia likely results in high case-fatality rates in the present multidrug-resistant (MDR) era. Amongst them are hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), two frequent fatal septicaemic entities amongst hospitalised patients. We reviewed the PubMed database to identify the common organisms implicated in HAP/VAP, to explore the respective risk factors, and to find the appropriate antibiotic choice. Apart from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae spp., MDR or extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-Acinetobacter baumannii complex spp., followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Elizabethkingia meningoseptica are ranked as the top Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) implicated in HAP/VAP. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae notably emerged as an important concern in HAP/VAP. The above-mentioned pathogens have respective risk factors involved in their acquisition. In the present XDR era, tigecycline, colistin, and ceftazidime-avibactam are antibiotics effective against the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and oxacillinase producers amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates implicated in HAP/VAP. Antibiotic combination regimens are recommended in the treatment of MDR/XDR-P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii complex isolates. Some special patient populations need prolonged courses (>7-day) and/or a combination regimen of antibiotic therapy. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship policy and the measures recommended by the United States (US) Institute for Healthcare were shown to decrease the incidence rates of HAP/VAP substantially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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8 pages, 644 KiB  
Review
Can Artificial Intelligence Improve the Management of Pneumonia
by Mariana Chumbita, Catia Cillóniz, Pedro Puerta-Alcalde, Estela Moreno-García, Gemma Sanjuan, Nicole Garcia-Pouton, Alex Soriano, Antoni Torres and Carolina Garcia-Vidal
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010248 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 7714
Abstract
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) to support clinical medical decisions is a rather promising concept. There are two important factors that have driven these advances: the availability of data from electronic health records (EHR) and progress made in computational performance. These two [...] Read more.
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) to support clinical medical decisions is a rather promising concept. There are two important factors that have driven these advances: the availability of data from electronic health records (EHR) and progress made in computational performance. These two concepts are interrelated with respect to complex mathematical functions such as machine learning (ML) or neural networks (NN). Indeed, some published articles have already demonstrated the potential of these approaches in medicine. When considering the diagnosis and management of pneumonia, the use of AI and chest X-ray (CXR) images primarily have been indicative of early diagnosis, prompt antimicrobial therapy, and ultimately, better prognosis. Coupled with this is the growing research involving empirical therapy and mortality prediction, too. Maximizing the power of NN, the majority of studies have reported high accuracy rates in their predictions. As AI can handle large amounts of data and execute mathematical functions such as machine learning and neural networks, AI can be revolutionary in supporting the clinical decision-making processes. In this review, we describe and discuss the most relevant studies of AI in pneumonia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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22 pages, 389 KiB  
Review
Treatment Options for Colistin Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Present and Future
by Nicola Petrosillo, Fabrizio Taglietti and Guido Granata
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(7), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8070934 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 93 | Viewed by 11669
Abstract
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae represents an increasing threat to human health, causing difficult-to-treat infections with a high mortality rate. Since colistin is one of the few treatment options for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections, colistin resistance represents a challenge due to the limited [...] Read more.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae represents an increasing threat to human health, causing difficult-to-treat infections with a high mortality rate. Since colistin is one of the few treatment options for carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections, colistin resistance represents a challenge due to the limited range of potentially available effective antimicrobials, including tigecycline, gentamicin, fosfomycin and ceftazidime/avibactam. Moreover, the choice of these antimicrobials depends on their pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics properties, the site of infection and the susceptibility profile of the isolated strain, and is sometimes hampered by side effects. This review describes the features of colistin resistance in K. pneumoniae and the characteristics of the currently available antimicrobials for colistin-resistant MDR K. pneumoniae, as well as the characteristics of novel antimicrobial options, such as the soon-to-be commercially available plazomicin and cefiderocol. Finally, we consider the future use of innovative therapeutic strategies in development, including bacteriophages therapy and monoclonal antibodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia)
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