Special Issue "State of the Art in Craniofacial Surgery"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery/Aesthetic Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2022) | Viewed by 1880

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jeremie D. Oliver
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Interests: cleft palate; cleft lip; craniofacial surgery; maxillofacial surgery; plastic and reconstructive surgery; molecular genetics; developmental biology; tissue engineering
Dr. Michael S. Hu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Interests: plastic and reconstructive surgery, particularly craniofacial surgery, microsurgery, and general reconstructive surgery.
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The craniofacial region comprises the most complex and intricate anatomical structures in the human body. As a result of developmental defects, traumatic injury, or neoplastic tissue formation, the functional and aesthetic intricacies of the face and cranium are often disrupted. While reconstructive and aesthetic surgical techniques have long been innovated in this field, there are crucial limitations to the surgical restoration of craniomaxillofacial form and function. Fortunately, the rise of regenerative medicine and surgery has expanded the possibilities for patients affected with hard and soft tissue deficits, allowing for the controlled engineering and regeneration of patient-specific defects. Innovative advances made in material science, including scaffold-based delivery systems for precision tissue engineering, now offer new avenues for stimulating bone and soft-tissue formation at the site of the surgical correction of deficient craniofacial anatomy. This Special Issue aims to highlight the current state of the art in craniofacial surgery, spanning all areas of innovation within the specialty. Therefore, researchers (clinicians and scientists) in the fields of plastic and reconstructive surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology—head and neck surgery, and neurosurgery are encouraged to submit original articles or reviews to this Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine. We look forward to receiving your submissions!

Dr. Jeremie D. Oliver
Dr. Michael S. Hu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Craniofacial
  • Maxillofacial
  • Cleft lip/palate
  • Orofacial cleft
  • Orthognathic
  • Osteogenesis
  • Reconstruction
  • Aesthetics
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Cranioplasty

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
TMJ Position in Symmetric Dentofacial Deformity
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3631; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133631 - 23 Jun 2022
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Abstract
The aim of this research was to analyze the facial class, presence of malocclusion, and the mandibular plane and to relate this to the mandibular condyle position. A cross-sectional study in subjects under analysis for orthognathic surgery was done. The mandibular plane, the [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to analyze the facial class, presence of malocclusion, and the mandibular plane and to relate this to the mandibular condyle position. A cross-sectional study in subjects under analysis for orthognathic surgery was done. The mandibular plane, the gonial angle, and the molar class were included to compare the coronal and sagittal position of the condyle and the joint space observed in the CBCT. The measurements were obtained by the same observer at an interval of two weeks. In addition, the Spearman test was performed to determine the correlation using a p value < 0.05 to observe any significant differences. Eighty-nine male and female subjects (18 to 58 years old, 24.6 ± 10.5) were included. In the coronal section, subjects with CIII had a greater mediolateral distance (MLD, p = 0.0001) and greater vertical distance (SID, p = 0.0001) than subjects with CII. In terms of the skeletal class and the mandibular plane, it was observed that subjects in the CII group had a greater mandibular angle (open angle) (p = 0.04) than the CII group and was related to the anterior position of the condyle. The most anterior condylar position was observed in the CII group (p = 0.03), whereas a posterior condylar position was significant in CIII subjects (p = 0.03). We can conclude that the sagittal position of the TMJ was related to the mandibular plane and the skeletal class showing a higher mandibular angle and most anterior position of the condyle in CII subjects and a lower mandibular angle and most posterior position of the condyle in CIII subjects. The implications for surgical treatment have to be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Craniofacial Surgery)
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Article
No Significant Bone Resorption after Open Treatment of Mandibular Condylar Head Fractures in the Medium-Term
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(10), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11102868 - 19 May 2022
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Abstract
Open treatment of condylar head fractures (CHF) is considered controversial. In this retrospective cohort study our primary objective was therefore to assess bone resorption and remodeling as well as patients function after open treatment of CHF in a medium-term follow-up (15.1 ± 2.2 [...] Read more.
Open treatment of condylar head fractures (CHF) is considered controversial. In this retrospective cohort study our primary objective was therefore to assess bone resorption and remodeling as well as patients function after open treatment of CHF in a medium-term follow-up (15.1 ± 2.2 months). We included 18 patients with 25 CHF who underwent open reduction and internal fixation, between 2016 and 2021, in our analysis. The clinical data and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) datasets were analyzed. The condylar processes were segmented in the postoperative (T1) and follow-up (T2) CBCT scans. Volumetric and linear bone changes were the primary outcome variables, measured by using a sophisticated 3D-algorithm. The mean condylar head volume decreased non-significantly from 3022.01 ± 825.77 mm3 (T1) to 2878.8 ± 735.60 mm3 (T2; p = 0.52). Morphological alterations indicated remodeling and resorption. The pre-operative maximal interincisal opening (MIO) was 19.75 ± 3.07 mm and significantly improved to 40.47 ± 1.7 mm during follow-up (p = 0.0005). Low rates of postoperative complications were observed. Open reduction of CHF leads to good clinical outcomes and low rates of medium-term complications. This study underlines the feasibility and importance of open treatment of CHF and may help to spread its acceptance as the preferred treatment option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Craniofacial Surgery)
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Article
Off-Label Treatment for Severe Craniomaxillofacial Fractures in Low-Income Countries—A Novel Operation Method with the External Face Fixator
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(6), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11061488 - 09 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Introduction: Craniomaxillofacial fractures (CMF) are common in low-income countries (LIC). Due to limited resources, treatment of these fractures usually consists of interdental wiring or immobilization with a Barton bandage to maintain the reduction by permanent occlusion. These non-surgical treatment methods often lead to [...] Read more.
Introduction: Craniomaxillofacial fractures (CMF) are common in low-income countries (LIC). Due to limited resources, treatment of these fractures usually consists of interdental wiring or immobilization with a Barton bandage to maintain the reduction by permanent occlusion. These non-surgical treatment methods often lead to unsatisfactory results, such as a disturbed dental occlusion and lockjaw. The aim of this study is to present an off-label treatment option for CMF by applying a hand fixator as external face fixator (EFF) and to demonstrate the surgical method in detail. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and postoperative outcomes of this new off-label operation technique were evaluated by analyzing patients with CMF (n = 13) treated at an NGO hospital in Sierra Leone between 2015 and 2019. Results: The application of the EFF was feasible. The biggest advantage compared to the conventional non-operative methods was, that a dynamic occlusion was still possible during the 6 weeks healing period. Hence, patients could eat and drink almost normally and perform dental hygiene with the EFF in place. We did not discover pintrack infections or other complications. Three patients developed an oronasal fistula due to traumatic a palatal bone loss of about 7–8 mm which was treated by a palatal mucoperiosteal flap 15–20 days after the first operation. Discussion and Conclusions: In LIC, where plate osteosynthesis for CMF cannot be performed due to limited resources the application of an EFF is a promising alternative for a better outcome and an improved quality of life for the patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Craniofacial Surgery)
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Article
A Retrospective Study on Single-Stage Reconstruction of the Ear following Skin Cancer Excision in Elderly Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030838 - 05 Feb 2022
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Abstract
Ear reconstructive surgery aims to solve the deformities caused by cancer excision. Despite the numerous surgical procedures described, recreating the complex anatomy of the ear still represents a challenge, particularly for young surgeons. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study is to review [...] Read more.
Ear reconstructive surgery aims to solve the deformities caused by cancer excision. Despite the numerous surgical procedures described, recreating the complex anatomy of the ear still represents a challenge, particularly for young surgeons. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study is to review our experience with single stage reconstruction of the partial defects of the auricle, and propose an algorithm based on defect size, location, and characteristics. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent ear reconstruction after cancer excision at our institution between February 2018 and November 2020. The data collected included patients’ demographics, defect characteristics, reconstructive technique used, complications, and outcomes. The patients were evaluated at a minimum follow-up time of 12 months. Forty-six patients were included in the study. The most common cause for ear reconstruction was basal cell carcinoma. The mean area of defect was 4.3 cm2 and the helix was the most frequent location of defect. Two patients experienced post-operative complications. At the one-year follow-up, difference in skin pigmentation was reported in 10 cases, a depressed contour of the ear was found in 4 cases, and moderate ear asymmetry was found in 11 cases. No patient needed a secondary procedure. In conclusion, the proposed reconstructive algorithm represents a reconstructive indication that is simple and characterized by low complication rates and good outcomes for both the patient and the surgeon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Craniofacial Surgery)
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Review

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Review
Intrusion of Maxillary Posterior Teeth by Skeletal Anchorage: A Systematic Review and Case Report with Thin Alveolar Biotype
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3787; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133787 - 30 Jun 2022
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Abstract
This study aimed to review the literature related to the intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth in subjects needing pre-prosthetic restoration or orthodontic treatment due to anterior open bite, and to report a thin alveolar biotype case needing a pre-prosthetic intrusion of maxillary teeth [...] Read more.
This study aimed to review the literature related to the intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth in subjects needing pre-prosthetic restoration or orthodontic treatment due to anterior open bite, and to report a thin alveolar biotype case needing a pre-prosthetic intrusion of maxillary teeth by introducing a novel, personalized method of intrusion measurement. An electronic search was conducted between February 2022 and March 2022 in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Lilacs; the terms “tooth movement techniques”, “orthodontic anchorage procedures”, “tooth intrusion”, “intrusion”, “molar”, “premolar”, and “human” were surveyed. Eighteen articles were included in this review; the mean amount of intrusion ranged from between 2.1 ± 0.9 mm and 4.57 ± 0.98 mm (being mostly 2–3 mm). The intrusion force varied between 100 and 500 g; 10 articles reported miniscrews (MS), 7 reported zygomatic plates (ZP), and 1 publication reported both anchorage types. The average treatment time was 6.9 months for MS and 7.9 months for ZP. Levelling the occlusal plane by intrusion of the upper posterior teeth can be achieved by skeletal anchorage. The stability of the obtained results, shortening treatment time, and controlling treatment outcome are the main goals for a complex surgical and orthodontic treatment approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Craniofacial Surgery)
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