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Special Issue "Tuberculosis: Clinical Applications in the Diagnosis and Treatment"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Daniela Maria Cirillo

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis; Tuberculosis transmission; Nontuberculous mycobacteria; diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis; multidrug resistant tuberculosis ; whole genome sequencing in diagnostic
Guest Editor
Dr. Enrico Tortoli

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Nontuberculous mycobacteria; mycobacterial microbiology; Mycobacterium phylogenesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major cause of human suffering more than a century after its causative agent was discovered and more than six decades since effective treatments were developed. It infects a third of humanity and is a leading infectious cause of death worldwide, rivaling the impact of HIV/AIDS.


In this special issue, we focus on strengths and limitations of newer tests that are available for the diagnosis of latent and active tuberculosis and rapid detection of drug resistance, specifically, tests that measure release of IFN-γ in response to stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, nucleic acid amplification for identification of M. tuberculosis complex, and rapid tests for detecting drug resistance.


On behalf of the Journal of Clinical Medicine you are cordially invited to contribute with an article to the special issue "Tuberculosis: Clinical Applications in the Diagnosis and Treatment". Research, Review, Mini Review, Case reports, Case Series, Clinical Cases will be considered for publication.

Dr. Daniela Maria Cirillo
Dr. Enrico Tortoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • TB diagnostics
  • Molecular diagnosis of TB
  • Conventional diagnosis of TB
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • Treatment of susceptible and resistant TB
  • Susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis Transmission
  • Tuberculosis pathogenesis

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Clinical Significance of Programmed Death-1, Regulatory T Cells and Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in Patients with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria-Lung Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050736
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
PDF Full-text (1181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Increasing expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD) has been reported, but its role in clinical characteristics and outcomes remains unclear. Methods: We enrolled 96 participants, including 46 with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-LD, 23 with M. [...] Read more.
Background: Increasing expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD) has been reported, but its role in clinical characteristics and outcomes remains unclear. Methods: We enrolled 96 participants, including 46 with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-LD, 23 with M. abscessus (MAB)-LD, and 27 controls. We measured expressions of PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and regulatory T (Treg) cells on CD4+ lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and analyzed their association with clinical features and radiographic outcomes. Results: The percentage of PD-1 on CD4+(PD-1+CD4+) lymphocytes and MDSCs were higher in the MAC-LD group than the controls. There were no intergroup differences regarding CTLA-4+CD4+ lymphocytes. Higher PD-1+CD4+ lymphocytes were found in M. intracellulare- and M. avium-LD than in other MAC-LD. Positive sputum acid-fast stains and fibrocavitary radiographic lesions were correlated with elevated PD-1+CD4+ lymphocytes and Treg cells. The percentage of PD-1+CD4+ lymphocytes at the initial and 2 months of follow-up significantly predicted subsequent radiographic progression. Conclusion: As markers of immune tolerance, PD-1+CD4+ lymphocytes and MDSCs were higher in MAC-LD patients. The levels of PD-1+CD4+ and Treg cells were correlated with high mycobacteria bacilli burden in NTM-LD. Monitoring the expressions of PD-1+CD4+ lymphocytes may predict radiographic progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis: Clinical Applications in the Diagnosis and Treatment)
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J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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