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Special Issue "Sarcopenia in Older Adults"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology & Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. David Scott

Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash Medical Centre, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: falls prevention; fractures; sarcopenia; physical activity; vitamin D; ageing; body composition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

“Sarcopenia” describes the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function which has been associated with increased risk for disability, loss of independence, falls and mortality in older adults. In the past decade, several consensus groups have developed operational definitions of sarcopenia in an effort to increase clinical attention to this condition, and the assignment of an ICD-10-CM code in 2016 may be an important step in achieving this goal. Nevertheless, there remains substantial conjecture in the research literature, and subsequent confusion among clinician colleagues, regarding appropriate operational definitions, measurements and thresholds for sarcopenia. Furthermore, the causes and consequences of sarcopenia are multifactorial and appear to differ according to the definition applied. This Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine will focus on addressing existing evidence gaps in this field with a view to increasing clinician awareness and knowledge of sarcopenia. Topics may include, but not be limited to, those listed below:

  • Aetiology of sarcopenia
  • Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions for sarcopenia
  • Novel techniques for assessment of sarcopenia
  • Sarcopenia consequences according to different operational definitions
  • Integrating sarcopenia case-finding into clinical practice
  • Sarcopenia in specialised populations (eg. Type 2 diabetes)
  • Health economics of sarcopenia
Dr. David Scott
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sarcopenia
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Ageing
  • Physical function
  • Falls
  • Disability
  • Muscle strength
  • Muscle quality

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Serum Zinc Concentration and Sarcopenia: A Close Linkage in Chronic Liver Diseases
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(3), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8030336
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
We sought to investigate the influence of serum zinc (Zn) concentration on sarcopenia in chronic liver diseases (CLDs, n = 372, median age = 65 years, 147 liver cirrhosis (LC) cases (39.5%)). Sarcopenia was defined by low grip strength and low skeletal muscle [...] Read more.
We sought to investigate the influence of serum zinc (Zn) concentration on sarcopenia in chronic liver diseases (CLDs, n = 372, median age = 65 years, 147 liver cirrhosis (LC) cases (39.5%)). Sarcopenia was defined by low grip strength and low skeletal muscle mass. Study subjects were divided into the following three groups (High-, Intermediate-, and Low-Zn groups) based on the baseline serum Zn level. The impacts of serum Zn concentration on sarcopenia were examined. The median (interquartile range) serum Zn concentration for all cases was 72.85 (63.7, 81.45) μg/dL. The proportions of sarcopenia in the High-Zn, Intermediate-Zn, and Low-Zn groups were 10.75% (10/93), 11.23% (21/187), and 27.17% (25/92), respectively (P = 0.9046 (High vs. Intermediate), P = 0.0007 (Intermediate vs. Low), P = 0.0044 (High vs. Low), overall P value = 0.0009). The median serum Zn concentrations in patients with sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and control were 66.35, 73.1 and 73.8 μg/dL, respectively (P = 0.0234 (sarcopenia vs. pre-sarcopenia), P = 0.2116 (pre-sarcopenia vs. control), P = 0.0002 (sarcopenia vs. control), overall P value = 0.0016). In the multivariate analyses of factors linked to the presence of sarcopenia, Low-Zn was an independent predictor for all cases (P = 0.0236) and LC cases (P = 0.0082). In conclusion, Zn deficiency can be an independent predictor for sarcopenia in patients with CLDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Open AccessArticle
Blood-Flow Restriction Resistance Exercise for Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020265
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
In a pilot randomized clinical trial, participants aged ≥60 years (n = 35) with physical limitations and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were randomized to 12 weeks of lower-body low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) or moderate-intensity resistance training (MIRT) to evaluate [...] Read more.
In a pilot randomized clinical trial, participants aged ≥60 years (n = 35) with physical limitations and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were randomized to 12 weeks of lower-body low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) or moderate-intensity resistance training (MIRT) to evaluate changes in muscle strength, pain, and physical function. Four exercises were performed three times per week to volitional fatigue using 20% and 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Study outcomes included knee extensor strength, gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) performance, and pain via the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC). Per established guidance for pilot studies, primary analyses for the trial focused on safety, feasibility, and effect sizes/95% confidence intervals of dependent outcomes to inform a fully-powered trial. Across three speeds of movement, the pre- to post-training change in maximal isokinetic peak torque was 9.96 (5.76, 14.16) Nm while the mean difference between groups (BFR relative to MIRT) was −1.87 (−10.96, 7.23) Nm. Most other directionally favored MIRT, though more spontaneous reports of knee pain were observed (n = 14) compared to BFR (n = 3). BFR may have lower efficacy than MIRT in this context—though a fully-powered trial is needed to definitively address this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Open AccessArticle
Multimodal Intervention to Improve Functional Status in Hypertensive Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020196
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was designed to provide the preliminary data necessary to conduct a full-scale trial to compare the efficacy of differing first-line antihypertensive medications in improving functional status in older adults, when combined with exercise. The primary objectives were [...] Read more.
This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was designed to provide the preliminary data necessary to conduct a full-scale trial to compare the efficacy of differing first-line antihypertensive medications in improving functional status in older adults, when combined with exercise. The primary objectives were to assess study feasibility, safety, and protocol integrity. Dependent outcomes included gait speed, exercise capacity, body composition, and systemic cardiometabolic biomarkers. Thirty-one physically inactive older adults (70.6 ± 6.1 years) with hypertension and functional limitations were randomly assigned to (1) Perindopril (8 mg/day n = 10), (2) Losartan (100 mg/day; n = 13), or (3) Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ: 25 mg/day; n = 8). Participants were also assigned to a 24-week multimodal exercise intervention, separated into an aerobic and concurrent (aerobic + resistance) phase to evaluate potential mode effects. Retention was 84% (26/31), and compliance was >90% and >79% with medication and exercise, respectively. A total of 29 adverse events (Perindopril = 5; Losartan = 12; HCTZ = 11) and one unrelated serious adverse event were observed throughout the trial. Overall, this pilot RCT provided critical data and identified several challenges to ultimately designing and implementing a fully powered trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Syndrome and Its Associations with Components of Sarcopenia in Overweight and Obese Older Adults
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020145
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
Ageing, obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may all contribute to poor muscle health (sarcopenia). This study aimed to determine the cross-sectional associations between MetS (International Diabetes Federation classification) and sarcopenia (revised European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition) in 84 [...] Read more.
Ageing, obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) may all contribute to poor muscle health (sarcopenia). This study aimed to determine the cross-sectional associations between MetS (International Diabetes Federation classification) and sarcopenia (revised European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition) in 84 overweight and obese older adults. Components of sarcopenia included muscle strength (hand grip and leg extension), physical performance (stair climb test and short physical performance battery (SPPB), including gait speed and repeated chair stands time), muscle mass (appendicular lean mass (ALM), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle size (peripheral quantitative computed tomography-determined calf and forearm cross-sectional area (CSA)) and muscle quality (muscle density and strength normalised to lean mass). Waist circumference was associated with greater muscle size, but poorer leg extension strength, chair stands and stair climb time, gait speed, SPPB scores and muscle quality measures (all p < 0.05). MetS was positively associated with ALM and forearm muscle CSA, and negatively associated with muscle quality measures and chair stands time (all p < 0.05). MetS is associated with larger muscle size, yet poorer muscle quality in overweight and obese older adults. Assessments of muscle function and quality should be considered for obese older adults and those with MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle
Low Volume, Home-Based Weighted Step Exercise Training Can Improve Lower Limb Muscle Power and Functional Ability in Community-Dwelling Older Women
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010041
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Stepping exercise can be used as a scalable form of high intensity exercise to enhance important aspects of physical fitness in older populations. The addition of supplementary weights increases the resistive element of stepping, with the potential for training improvements in muscular strength, [...] Read more.
Stepping exercise can be used as a scalable form of high intensity exercise to enhance important aspects of physical fitness in older populations. The addition of supplementary weights increases the resistive element of stepping, with the potential for training improvements in muscular strength, power, and functional abilities alongside other fitness outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a low-volume, home-based weighted step exercise programme on muscular strength, power, and functional ability in previously inactive community-dwelling older women. Eleven participants, aged between 65–74 years, independently completed a six-week individualised and progressive step exercise training programme wearing a weighted vest. Knee extensor strength, lower limb power output, and physical function using a battery of functional tests were measured at baseline, following a 6-week control period, and again following the 6-week training programme. Following training, lower limb power output improved by 10–11% (p < 0.05) and was accompanied by a corresponding 9% (p < 0.01) improvement in stair climb time and 10% (p < 0.01) improvement in normalised stair climbing power, highlighting the beneficial effects of weighted stepping for transferable improvements in functional fitness. The magnitude of observed training improvements suggest that weighted step training has the potential to prolong independence and prevent age-related health conditions such as sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training Combined with L-Citrulline Supplementation on Functional Capacities and Muscle Function in Dynapenic-Obese Older Adults
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(12), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120561
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: To compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) alone vs. HIIT combined with L-citrulline (CIT) supplementation on functional capacity and muscle function in dynapenic-obese elderly. Methods: A total of 56 obese (fat mass: men > 25%, women > 35%) and dynapenic [...] Read more.
Background: To compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) alone vs. HIIT combined with L-citrulline (CIT) supplementation on functional capacity and muscle function in dynapenic-obese elderly. Methods: A total of 56 obese (fat mass: men > 25%, women > 35%) and dynapenic (grip strength/body weight: women < 0.44, men < 0.61) subjects were recruited and divided in two groups: HIIT+CIT (n = 26; age: 6 5 ± four years) vs. HIIT+Placebo (PLA, n = 30; age: 68 ± four years). Participants followed a 12-week HIIT using an elliptical trainer. Participants took a single and isocaloric 10 g-dose of CIT or PLA every day. Body composition; functional and aerobic capacities; absolute or relative upper and lower limbs muscle strength, muscle power; and energy balance were measured pre and post intervention. Results: Both groups significantly improved functional capacity and muscle function. However, HIIT+CIT demonstrated greater improvements in fast-paced Timed Up & Go (p = 0.04) and upper limbs muscle strength (absolute and relative) (p = 0.05) than HIIT+Placebo. Conclusion: CIT supplementation when combined with HIIT seems to induce greater improvements in upper limbs muscle strength and walking speed in dynapenic-obese elderly. Further studies are needed to confirm our results, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of CIT and to define the long-term impact of CIT/HIIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Group and Home-Based Exercise Programs in Elderly with Sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(12), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120480
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
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Abstract
Physical exercise is effective for sarcopenic elderly but evidence for the most effective mode of exercise is conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-month group-based versus home-based exercise program on muscular, functional/physical performance and quality of [...] Read more.
Physical exercise is effective for sarcopenic elderly but evidence for the most effective mode of exercise is conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-month group-based versus home-based exercise program on muscular, functional/physical performance and quality of life (QoL) across elderly with sarcopenia. 54 elderly (47 women, 7 men aged 72.87 ± 7 years) were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: supervised group (n = 18), individualized home-based exercise (n = 18) and control group (n = 18). Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, calf measurement with inelastic tape and strength assessments (grip and knee muscle strength) via hand-held and isokinetic dynamometers. Functional assessments included four-meter (4 m), Τimed-Up and Go (TUG) and chair stand (CS) tests. QoL was assessed with Greek Sarcopenia Quality of Life (SarQol_GR) questionnaire. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention (week 12), and 3 months post-intervention (week 24). Significant group x time interactions (p < 0.001) were observed in QoL, calf circumference, TUG, CS, and 4 m tests, grip and knee muscle strength. Group-based compared to home-based exercise yielded significant improvements (p < 0.05) in muscle mass index, CS and 4 m tests, calf circumference, muscle strength at 12 weeks. Most improvements at 24 weeks were reported with grouped exercise. No changes were found across the control group. Results suggest group-based exercise was more effective than home-based for improving functional performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle
Physical Frailty and Cognitive Functioning in Korea Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(11), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110405
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Cognitive frailty is a heterogeneous clinical manifestation characterized by the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical frailty and cognitive function in rural community-dwelling older Korean adults, taking four cognitive [...] Read more.
Cognitive frailty is a heterogeneous clinical manifestation characterized by the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical frailty and cognitive function in rural community-dwelling older Korean adults, taking four cognitive domains into account. We carried out a cross-sectional population-based study which enrolled 104 community-dwelling elderly. Physical frailty phenotype, as well as its individual criteria, were used. Cognitive functioning was examined in the four domains of memory, processing speed, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. Demographic data, lipid profile, muscle strength, physical function, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration collected from questionnaire interviews and assessments were included. Of the 104 older adults (77% female), 24.3% were classified as robust, 49.6% as prefrail, and 16.5% as frail. Linear regression analyses showed that the severity of frailty index was associated with four cognitive domains Muscle strength (i.e., Grip strength, Knee extensor and flexor), physical function (i.e., SPPB and Gait speed), and 25[OH]D were associated with poorer cognitive function. Within our population of Korean rural community-dwelling older adults, physical frailty status, muscle strength, physical functions, and biochemical measurements were associated with poorer cognitive function. Synchronicity of physical frailty and cognitive dysfunction may contribute to the negative health-related effects associated with aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle
The Comparative Associations of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography Estimates of Muscle Quality with Physical Performance and Metabolic Parameters in Older Men
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(10), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100340
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
Estimates of muscle tissue composition may have greater prognostic value than lean body mass levels regarding health-related outcomes. Ultrasound provides a relatively low cost, safe, and accessible mode of imaging to assess muscle morphology. The purpose of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Estimates of muscle tissue composition may have greater prognostic value than lean body mass levels regarding health-related outcomes. Ultrasound provides a relatively low cost, safe, and accessible mode of imaging to assess muscle morphology. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity of muscle echogenicity as a surrogate measure of muscle quality in a sample of older, predominantly African American (AA) participants. We examined the association of rectus femoris echogenicity with mid-thigh computed tomography (CT) scan estimates of intra- and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), basic metabolic parameters via blood sample analysis, muscle strength, and mobility status. This observational study was conducted at a federal medical center and included 30 community-dwelling men (age, 62.5 ± 9.2; AA, n = 24; Caucasian, n = 6). IMAT estimates were significantly associated with echogenicity (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). Echogenicity and IMAT exhibited similar associations with the two-hour postprandial glucose values and high-density lipoproteins values (p < 0.04), as well as grip and isokinetic (180°/s) knee extension strength adjusted for body size (p < 0.03). The significant relationship between ultrasound and CT muscle composition estimates, and their comparative association with key health-related outcomes, suggests that echogenicity should be further considered as a surrogate measure of muscle quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Open AccessArticle
Polish Validation of the SarQoL®, a Quality of Life Questionnaire Specific to Sarcopenia
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(10), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100323
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Recently, SarQoL® (Sarcopenia and Quality of Life), a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire specific to sarcopenia, was successfully developed. For practical reasons, there is a great interest in validating this questionnaire in other populations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to [...] Read more.
Recently, SarQoL® (Sarcopenia and Quality of Life), a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire specific to sarcopenia, was successfully developed. For practical reasons, there is a great interest in validating this questionnaire in other populations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to translate and adjust the SarQoL® into Polish and to standardize the validity of this method for the assessment of sarcopenic individuals in Poland with regard to psychometric properties. The English version was used for the translation process. A total of 106 community-dwelling Caucasian subjects aged 73.3 ± 5.94 years (65.1% females) were studied, with 60 participants being diagnosed sarcopenic. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation was carried out in five phases according to specific standard guidelines. There were no major linguistic issues in the translation process. The data confirmed a good discriminant validity, i.e., significantly lower scores for all domains (reduced global QoL in sarcopenic subjects compared to non-sarcopenic ones; 54.9 ± 16.5 vs. 63.3 ± 17.1, p = 0.013), and high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.92). The significant correlation of the SarQoL® scores with those of other questionnaires (SF-36v2® Health Survey and EuroQoL-5-Dimension) that are supposed to have similar dimensions indicated the consistent construct validity of the SarQoL®-PL questionnaire. No floor/ceiling effects were found. An excellent agreement was found between the test and the re-test (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC): 0.99). The first Polish version of the SarQoL® questionnaire is valid and consistent and therefore may be used with reliability for clinical and research purposes regarding QoL assessment of sarcopenic individuals. However, further research, in particular prospective studies, is needed to determine potential limitations and the suitability of the new tool for the Polish scenario and specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle
The Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and CT-Measured Skeletal Muscle Mass
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(10), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7100310
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
A relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia has been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass measured by computed tomography (CT). The clinical records of individuals visiting our center for [...] Read more.
A relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia has been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass measured by computed tomography (CT). The clinical records of individuals visiting our center for a routine health check-up who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to body mass index (BMI)-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, which was measured by CT (CT-measured skeletal muscle index (SMICT)). Of the 1828 subjects (1121 males; mean age 54.9 ± 9.5 years), 487 (26.6%) were obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), and 454 (24.8%) had low muscle mass. Sarcopenic subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD than nonsarcopenic subjects, regardless of obesity (35.9% vs. 26.8%, p = 0.004 in the nonobese group; 76.6% vs. 63.0%, p = 0.003 in the obese group). Sarcopenia was significantly associated with the risk of NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)), 1.51 (1.15–1.99)), and the risk of NAFLD increased with increasing severity of sarcopenia (adjusted OR (95% CI), 1.45 (1.09–1.92) vs. 2.51 (1.16–5.56), mild vs. severe sarcopenia, respectively). When the risk of NAFLD was analyzed according to the SMICT quartiles, the adjusted OR and 95% CI for the lowest muscle mass quartile compared to the highest were 1.78 (1.17–2.72) in males and 2.39 (1.13–5.37) in females. Low skeletal muscle mass, which was precisely measured by CT, is independently associated with NAFLD, suggesting that sarcopenia is a risk factor for NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Creatine Supplementation on Aging Muscle and Bone: Focus on Falls Prevention and Inflammation
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040488
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength and physical performance, is associated with reduced bone mass and elevated low-grade inflammation. From a healthy aging perspective, interventions which overcome sarcopenia are clinically relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation has [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength and physical performance, is associated with reduced bone mass and elevated low-grade inflammation. From a healthy aging perspective, interventions which overcome sarcopenia are clinically relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation has the potential to increase aging muscle mass, muscle performance, and decrease the risk of falls and possibly attenuate inflammation and loss of bone mineral. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: (1) summarize the effects of creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, in aging adults and discuss possible mechanisms of action, (2) examine the effects of creatine on bone biology and risk of falls, (3) evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of creatine and (4) determine the safety of creatine supplementation in aging adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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Open AccessReview
Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Outcomes in Sarcopenia Research: A Literature Review
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7040070
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
By the sixth decade of life, nearly one quarter of the population has substantial muscle atrophy, or sarcopenia. Despite the creation of a standardized definition of sarcopenia by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, variability may exist in the diagnostic [...] Read more.
By the sixth decade of life, nearly one quarter of the population has substantial muscle atrophy, or sarcopenia. Despite the creation of a standardized definition of sarcopenia by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, variability may exist in the diagnostic criteria utilized for clinical sarcopenia research. The primary objectives of this review were to characterize diagnostic criteria used for measurement of sarcopenia in original studies, and to describe associations between sarcopenia and important clinical outcomes. We performed a literature review of the term “sarcopenia” in PubMed. Inclusion criteria were English language, original data, a clear and specific definition for diagnosing sarcopenia, and the analysis of sarcopenia’s effect on a clinical outcome. A total of 283 studies met inclusion criteria. More than half of the included sarcopenia investigations were level IV studies (54.1%), while 43.1% provided level II evidence. Under one third (27.6%) of studies examined sarcopenia with regard to surgical outcomes. In terms of diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, 264 (93.3%) studies used measures of skeletal muscle mass, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) being the most common modality (43.6%). Sarcopenia was found to be a consistent predictor of chronic disease progression, all-cause mortality, poorer functional outcomes, and postoperative complications. In conclusion, there is substantial evidence that sarcopenia impacts both medical and surgical outcomes. However, current research has utilized heterogeneous diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Further efforts to standardize the modalities used to diagnose sarcopenia in clinical research and practice will help strengthen our ability to study this important phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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