Migraines in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Brain Injury".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 13653

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Headache Center, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy
Interests: children; headache; migraine; pain; clinical neurophysiology
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Guest Editor
Children Epilepsy and EEG Center, PO, San Paolo ASL (Azienda Sanitaria Locale), Bari, Italy
Interests: headache in childhood; migraines; headache treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Migraines represent the most prevalent neurological disease in childhood, involving almost 10% of children and adolescents. When the frequency of the attacks increases, possibly indicating a chronic condition, migraines can severely impact on the quality of life of the young patients and their families. In spite of this heavy burden, migraines in children have been underestimated for a long time. Randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effects of medication are scarcely available for pediatric age. Therefore, children with migraines usually undergo pharmacological treatments that are merely transferred from adult patients, often without any demonstrated evidence of efficacy or safety in the youngest population. Recent studies (Power et al., 2017; Papetti et al., 2020) have even suggested that psychological mechanisms, including the placebo effect, can be more effective than medications at improving migraines in children and adolescents. This Special Issue will offer a place to publish original research, review articles, and commentaries concerning migraines, but also other primary and secondary headaches, of childhood. Studies concerning pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve the quality of life of these young patients will be particularly welcome.

Dr. Massimiliano Valeriani
Dr. Vittorio Sciruicchio
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • migraine
  • children
  • adolescents
  • headache
  • treatment
  • pain
  • medication

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 399 KiB  
Article
Sleep Disorders in Pediatric Migraine: A Questionnaire-Based Study
by Alessandra Voci, Oliviero Bruni, Michela Ada Noris Ferilli, Laura Papetti, Samuela Tarantino, Fabiana Ursitti, Giorgia Sforza, Federico Vigevano, Luigi Mazzone, Massimiliano Valeriani and Romina Moavero
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(16), 3575; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163575 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4359
Abstract
There is a high comorbidity between migraine and sleep disorders (SD), with a mutual dependence between sleep and headache. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between headache features (migraine frequency and severity, migraine equivalents, use and efficacy of treatments) and sleep in [...] Read more.
There is a high comorbidity between migraine and sleep disorders (SD), with a mutual dependence between sleep and headache. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between headache features (migraine frequency and severity, migraine equivalents, use and efficacy of treatments) and sleep in pediatric migraine. Parents of children and adolescents with migraine completed the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD) and answered questions about headache characteristics. The presence of SD was defined according to CSHQ score. SD were detected in 72.9% of 140 subjects, but only 5.0% already received a diagnosis. Patients with SD presented statistically significant higher headache frequency (p = 0.031) and higher prevalence of migraine equivalents (p = 0.007). A higher CSHQ total score was associated with higher frequency of severe attacks (p = 0.012) and lower acute drug efficacy (p = 0.003). Significant positive correlations of sleep onset delay, sleep duration and nightwakings subscales with migraine frequency emerged. Our findings indicate that SD are highly prevalent in pediatric migraine and frequently associated with a higher headache severity and lower response to acute therapy, but often remain underdiagnosed. Improving sleep quality could help to reduce migraine intensity and disability and vice versa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migraines in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis)
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Review

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11 pages, 934 KiB  
Review
The Pediatric Trochlear Migraine: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications
by Vincenzo Raieli, Federica Reina, Daniela D’Agnano, Giovanna Martina Nocera, Mariarita Capizzi, Francesca Marchese and Vittorio Sciruicchio
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(10), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11102826 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Trochlear Migraine has been recently described as the concurrence of strictly unilateral migraine and ipsilateral trochleodynia with relief of migraine after successful treatment of trochleodynia. This disorder has been interpreted as “cluster-tic syndrome” or “seizure-triggered migraine”. Trochlear Migraine is unrecognized and rarely described [...] Read more.
Trochlear Migraine has been recently described as the concurrence of strictly unilateral migraine and ipsilateral trochleodynia with relief of migraine after successful treatment of trochleodynia. This disorder has been interpreted as “cluster-tic syndrome” or “seizure-triggered migraine”. Trochlear Migraine is unrecognized and rarely described in childhood. The aim of this study is to review the few cases of Trochlear Migraine reported in the literature in addition to the cases observed in our clinical experience. In particular, our cases showed recurrent attacks of severe and pulsating headache associated with nausea, vomiting, phonophobia, photophobia, and strict trochlear localization of pain. They often presented with alternating side attacks. Therefore, we suggest that the term “Trochlear Migraine” should be reserved for clinical migraine attacks strictly localized in the trochlear region, and we assume that the excessive increase in descriptions of new primary headache syndromes, according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, can be probably be ascribed to the common physiopathological mechanisms characterizing these forms of migraine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migraines in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis)
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11 pages, 496 KiB  
Review
The Vitamin D Role in Preventing Primary Headache in Adult and Pediatric Population
by Giovanni Battista Dell’Isola, Eleonora Tulli, Rossella Sica, Valerio Vinti, Elisabetta Mencaroni, Giuseppe Di Cara, Pasquale Striano and Alberto Verrotti
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5983; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245983 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4587
Abstract
Headache is among the main neurological disorders with a great impact on both adults and children. The diagnosis of primary headache and proper management is often delayed with a great impact on work productivity and overall quality of life. Chronic headache often requires [...] Read more.
Headache is among the main neurological disorders with a great impact on both adults and children. The diagnosis of primary headache and proper management is often delayed with a great impact on work productivity and overall quality of life. Chronic headache often requires prophylactic therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks and the use of abortive medications. Besides the use of several classes of drugs, another treatment modality is the use of Nutraceuticals. Some studies have suggested a possible role of vitamin D in headache prophylaxis. Indeed, vitamin D is involved in several pathways of brain development, neuroprotection and neurotransmission. Moreover, there is data suggesting a close relationship between primary headache and vitamin D deficiency, both in children and in adults. To date, a few studies have evaluated the effect of vitamin D on headaches. The aim of this review is to summarize the data collected on headache prophylaxis with vitamin D comparing the effects of vitamin D in pediatric and adult populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migraines in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis)
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10 pages, 530 KiB  
Review
How to Assess the Headache—Sleep Disorders Comorbidity in Children and Adolescents
by Agnese Onofri, Michela Ada Noris Ferilli, Elisabetta Tozzi, Fabiana Ursitti, Giorgia Sforza, Luca Olivieri, Martina Proietti Checchi, Federico Vigevano, Massimiliano Valeriani and Romina Moavero
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5887; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245887 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Sleep disorders and primary headaches are frequent health problems in childhood, and they are often comorbid in an individual, linked by a mutual and complex relationship. This comorbidity is frequent and well-documented, but the available literature is usually biased in favor of one [...] Read more.
Sleep disorders and primary headaches are frequent health problems in childhood, and they are often comorbid in an individual, linked by a mutual and complex relationship. This comorbidity is frequent and well-documented, but the available literature is usually biased in favor of one aspect or another, mainly depending on the expertise of the authors. The aim of this paper is to review existing literature on the diagnostic assessment of comorbid primary headaches and sleep disorders, so as to propose practical suggestions to accurately investigate the presence of comorbid conditions in children evaluated for primary headaches or for sleep disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migraines in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis)
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