Special Issue "Long-Term COVID-19: The Lasting Health Impacts of COVID-19"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology & Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor in Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: fatigue; chronic pain; disability; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; COVID-19
Dr. Natalie Lambert
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Research Professor at Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
Interests: COVID-19; patient experienes; precision medicine; natural language processing
Prof. Dr. Jonas Bergquist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Professor in Analytical Chemistry and Neurochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Interests: neuroinflammation; autoimmunity; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; post-COVID-19 fatigue

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A new SARS-CoV-2 virus causes severe infections resulting in both hospitalization and mortal outcomes or “mild to moderate” infections, for which people with COVID-19 are encouraged to recover at home, often while under little medical supervision. Even though as many as one in ten COVID-19 survivors suffer from long-term sequelae for many weeks or months after clearing the initial infection, this group has not received enough attention in clinical practice and research. The first datasets capturing the COVID-19 health experiences of these self-named “long haulers” were gathered based on these sufferers’ own initiative in the early summer of 2020 using social media. However, we still do not have healthcare structures meeting these patients’ healthcare demands for long-term follow up and rehabilitation.

Therefore, this Special Issue published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine will gather up-to-date information on long-term COVID-19 sufferers and, hopefully, will contribute to greater awareness among clinicians, scientists, and researchers.

Some of the health impacts of long-term COVID-19 resemble post-viral fatigue or myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). The latter condition is associated with persistent symptoms following infection and affects many functions in the body, disrupting patients’ everyday functioning. Considering the severe health impact of long-term COVID-19 and the fact that little data have been collected about non-hospitalized COVID-19 survivors, the first challenge is to characterize long-term COVID-19 in clinical and epidemiological terms. The second challenge is to develop treatment and rehabilitation standards of care, with the goal of normalizing physiological functions and finding strategies to continue daily life activities with as high a quality of life as possible. The third challenge is to adapt and improve existing healthcare structures for long-term COVID-19 patients in order to optimize the management of this patient group.

Dr. Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar
Dr. Natalie Lambert
Prof. Dr. Jonas Bergquist
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Long-term COVID-19
  • Post-COVID-19 syndrome
  • “Long hauler” syndrome
  • Post-viral fatigue syndrome
  • Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)
  • Disability

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Review
Dysautonomia and Implications for Anosmia in Long COVID-19 Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(23), 5514; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235514 (registering DOI) - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Long COVID-19 patients often reported anosmia as one of the predominant persisting symptoms. Recent findings have shown that anosmia is associated with neurological dysregulations. However, the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which can aggregate all the long COVID-19 neurological symptoms, including [...] Read more.
Long COVID-19 patients often reported anosmia as one of the predominant persisting symptoms. Recent findings have shown that anosmia is associated with neurological dysregulations. However, the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which can aggregate all the long COVID-19 neurological symptoms, including anosmia, has not received much attention in the literature. Dysautonomia is characterized by the failure of the activities of components in the ANS. Long COVID-19 anosmia fatigue could result from damage to olfactory sensory neurons, leading to an augmentation in the resistance to cerebrospinal fluid outflow by the cribriform plate, and further causing congestion of the glymphatic system with subsequent toxic build-up in the brain. Studies have shown that anosmia was an important neurologic symptom described in long COVID-19 in association with potential COVID-19 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 can either travel via peripheral blood vessels causing endothelial dysfunction, triggering coagulation cascade and multiple organ dysfunction, or reach the systemic circulation and take a different route to the blood–brain barrier, damaging the blood–brain barrier and leading to neuroinflammation and neuronal excitotoxicity. SARS-CoV-2 entry via the olfactory epithelium and the increase in the expression of TMPRSS2 with ACE2 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism and then dysautonomia in long COVID-19 patients. Due to this effect, patients with anosmia persisting 3 months after COVID-19 diagnosis showed extensive destruction of the olfactory epithelium. Persistent anosmia observed among long COVID-19 patients may be involved by a cascade of effects generated by dysautonomia leading to ACE2 antibodies enhancing a persistent immune activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term COVID-19: The Lasting Health Impacts of COVID-19)
Review
Changes in EEG Recordings in COVID-19 Patients as a Basis for More Accurate QEEG Diagnostics and EEG Neurofeedback Therapy: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061300 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Introduction and purpose: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is able to cause abnormalities in the functioning of the nervous system and induce neurological symptoms with the features of encephalopathy, disturbances of consciousness and concentration and a reduced ability to sense taste and smell as well [...] Read more.
Introduction and purpose: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is able to cause abnormalities in the functioning of the nervous system and induce neurological symptoms with the features of encephalopathy, disturbances of consciousness and concentration and a reduced ability to sense taste and smell as well as headaches. One of the methods of detecting these types of changes in COVID-19 patients is an electroencephalogram (EEG) test, which allows information to be obtained about the functioning of the brain as well as diagnosing diseases and predicting their consequences. The aim of the study was to review the latest research on changes in EEG in patients with COVID-19 as a basis for further quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) diagnostics and EEG neurofeedback training. Description of the state of knowledge: Based on the available scientific literature using the PubMed database from 2020 and early 2021 regarding changes in the EEG records in patients with COVID-19, 17 publications were included in the analysis. In patients who underwent an EEG test, changes in the frontal area were observed. A few patients were not found to be responsive to external stimuli. Additionally, a previously non-emerging, uncommon pattern in the form of continuous, slightly asymmetric, monomorphic, biphasic and slow delta waves occurred. Conclusion: The results of this analysis clearly indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes changes in the nervous system that can be manifested and detected in the EEG record. The small number of available articles, the small number of research groups and the lack of control groups suggest the need for further research regarding the short and long term neurological effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the need for unquestionable confirmation that observed changes were caused by the virus per se and did not occur before. The presented studies described non-specific patterns appearing in encephalograms in patients with COVID-19. These observations are the basis for more accurate QEEG diagnostics and EEG neurofeedback training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term COVID-19: The Lasting Health Impacts of COVID-19)
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