Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Orthopedics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Tobias Winkler
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies & Julius Wolff Institute, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Interests: arthroplasty; periprosthetic joint infection; regenerative orthopaedics; orthobiologics; digital orthopaedics; advanced therapies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the introduction of the first functional hip implants by Sir John Charnley in the 1960s, arthroplasty has evolved into one of the most successful surgeries of our time. Tremendous research effort has contributed, above all, to progress in material research, biomechanical, and technical understanding as well as to growing insight in biological processes in the cross-talk between implant and patient.

Nevertheless, we are still confronted with unsolved problems such as periprosthetic infections, approach-related damage of periarticular musculature, instability of artificial joints, neglect of spino-pelvic interplay by traditional systems, and the biological burden of foreign material debris.

This Special Issue will focus on recent innovations, which are promoting the field of hip and knee arthroplasty and are addressing these unsolved problems. The aim is to update the reader on different aspects of modern arthroplasty.   

Dr. Tobias Winkler
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Knee arthroplasty
  • hip arthroplasty
  • revision arthroplasty
  • periprosthetic joint infection
  • muscle damage
  • joint function
  • alignment

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis to Assess the Outcomes in Pre- and Post-Fast-Track Hip and Knee Elective Prosthesis Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040741 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Fast-track surgery is a multimodal evidence-based approach to perioperative care aimed at reducing complications and recovery time. We compared a fast-track protocol to standard care in the setting of a small Italian general hospital. Propensity score estimation before and after the study was [...] Read more.
Fast-track surgery is a multimodal evidence-based approach to perioperative care aimed at reducing complications and recovery time. We compared a fast-track protocol to standard care in the setting of a small Italian general hospital. Propensity score estimation before and after the study was performed to compare pre-fast-track (pre-FT; January 2013–March 2014) and fast-track (FT; January 2016–December 2016) patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery with a three-year follow-up (up to January 2020). The primary endpoints were the mean hemoglobin drop, mean predischarge hemoglobin, transfusion and reinfusion rates, pain, ambulation day, hospital length of stay (LOS), and discharge to home/outpatient care or rehabilitation hospital center. The secondary endpoints were the adherence measures to the FT protocol, namely, tourniquet and surgical times, use of drains and catheters, type of anesthesia administered, and complications within three years. The risk difference (RD) and the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) were calculated for each outcome. After the propensity score estimation, we analyzed 59 patients in the pre-FT and 122 in the FT categories. The FT patients, with respect to the pre-FT patients, ameliorated their mean hemoglobin drop from 3.7 to 3.1 g/dl (p < 0.01) and improved their predischarge mean hemoglobin (10.5 g/dL versus 11.0 g/dL; p = 0.01). Furthermore, the aOR of being transfused was reduced by 81% (p < 0,01); the RD of being reinfused was reduced by 63% (p < 0.01); the aOR of having low pain on the first day was increased by more than six times (p < 0.01); the RD of ambulating the first day increased by 91% (p < 0.01); the aOR of admission to a rehabilitation hospital center was reduced by 98% (p < 0.01); the aOR of home discharge increased by 42 times (p < 0.01); the median LOS, tourniquet and surgical times, and use of catheters and drains significantly decreased. Patients with complications at 1 month were 43.1% and 38.2%, respectively, of pre-FT and FT patients (p = 0.63). Complications at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were significantly lower for the FT patients. This study showed that the uptake of enhanced recovery practices was successful and resulted in the improvement of clinical and organizational outcomes. The fast-track concept and related programs may optimize perioperative care and streamline surgical and rehabilitation care paths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Soluble Pecam-1 as a Biomarker in Periprosthetic Joint Infection
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040612 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
A reliable workup with regard to a single diagnostic marker indicating periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) with sufficient sensitivity and specificity is still missing. The immunologically reactive molecule Pecam-1 is shed from the T-cell surface upon activation via proinflammatory signaling, e.g., triggered by specific [...] Read more.
A reliable workup with regard to a single diagnostic marker indicating periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) with sufficient sensitivity and specificity is still missing. The immunologically reactive molecule Pecam-1 is shed from the T-cell surface upon activation via proinflammatory signaling, e.g., triggered by specific pathogens. We hypothesized that soluble Pecam-1 (sPecam-1) can hence function as a biomarker of PJI. Fifty-eight patients were prospectively enrolled and assigned to one of the respective treatment groups (native knees prior to surgery, aseptic, and septic total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision surgeries). Via synovial sample acquisition and ELISA testing, a database on local sPecam-1 levels was established. We observed a significantly larger quantity of sPecam-1 in septic (n = 22) compared to aseptic TKA revision surgeries (n = 20, p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, a significantly larger amount of sPecam-1 was found in septic and aseptic revisions compared to native joints (n = 16, p ≤ 0.001). Benchmarking it to the gold standard showed a high predictive power for the detection of PJI. Local sPecam-1 levels correlated to the infection status of the implant, and thus bear a strong potential to act as a biomarker of PJI. While a clear role of sPecam-1 in infection could be demonstrated, the underlying mechanism of the molecule’s natural function needs to be further unraveled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
The Effect of Hypotensive Anesthesia on Hemoglobin Levels during Total Knee Arthroplasty
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010057 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Introduction: Hypotensive epidural anesthesia (HEA) is used in total joint arthroplasty as a safe and effective blood-saving modality. In order to maintain the blood pressure and heart rate patients, receive 1000 to 1500 mL of lactated Ringer’s solution during surgery. While HEA reduces [...] Read more.
Introduction: Hypotensive epidural anesthesia (HEA) is used in total joint arthroplasty as a safe and effective blood-saving modality. In order to maintain the blood pressure and heart rate patients, receive 1000 to 1500 mL of lactated Ringer’s solution during surgery. While HEA reduces the intraoperative blood loss, the effect of intravenous fluid loading on hemoglobin levels is not fully understood. The current study investigates the effect of HEA on perioperative hemoglobin levels. Materials and Methods: The study included 35 patients operated on by a single surgeon undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty under HEA. Intraoperatively, at least 300 mL of intravenous fluid were given every 15 min over the first 60 min after HEA. Blood samples were drawn before entering the operating room, after HEA, as well as after inflation of the tourniquet, every 15 min thereafter, as well as in the recovery room and on postoperative days one and two. In addition, fluid in- and outtake was recorded. Results: Patients received a mean 1275 mL during the 60 min of tourniquet time. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) 5 min after HEA dropped to 60 mmHg and reached a constant level of around 58 mmHg 15 min after HEA. The average hemoglobin level dropped from 13.9 g/dL prior to HEA, to 12.5 g/dL immediately after HEA (p < 0.001). Intraoperatively the hemoglobin level dropped further and reached 11.8 g/dL at 60 min in the absence of blood loss. Conclusions: Hypotensive epidural anesthesia and the resulting fluid substitution resulted in an average hemoglobin drop of 2.1 g/dL within the first 60 min. This needs to be taken into account when evaluating the need for blood transfusions after primary joint replacement surgery under HEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
Article
Recommendations for Patients with High Return to Sports Expectations after TKA Remain Controversial
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010054 - 26 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
(1) Background: Improved surgical techniques and implants in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have led to broader indications for surgical interventions of osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a growing young and active patient subgroup with high return to sports (RTS) expectations after TKA. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Improved surgical techniques and implants in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have led to broader indications for surgical interventions of osteoarthritis of the knee. There is a growing young and active patient subgroup with high return to sports (RTS) expectations after TKA. The current lack of evidence regarding RTS capacity in this patient cohort, requires the consolidation of experts’ opinions and experiences to address the special needs among these patients. The aim of this study was to assess current expert opinions in regard to preoperative patient assessment, surgical technique and decision-making and patient counseling for these patients. (2) Methods: We performed a survey among surgeons specialized in arthroplasty with a questionnaire designed to assess current recommendations, surgical techniques, and implant preferences as well as patient counseling in patients with high expectations for RTS after TKA. (3) Results: The majority of surgeons are in favor of return to low-impact sports after TKA within 3 to 6 months. Some even recommend return to high-impact sports. Despite improvement of surgical techniques and implants, we observed no clear preference for a single surgical technique or implant specification in active patients. (4) Conclusions: Current evidence for sports-associated complications after TKA is scarce. Despite a growing array of surgical techniques and implants, the available literature is still controversial with no single surgical technique or TKA design distinguishing itself clearly from others. Surgeons’ recommendations are mostly based on their experience and training. Nonetheless, we observed growing faith in modern implants with some surgeons even recommending high-impact sports after TKA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
A Potential Theragnostic Regulatory Axis for Arthrofibrosis Involving Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) Receptor 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2), TGFβ1, and Smooth Muscle α-Actin (ACTA2)
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113690 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
(1) Background: Arthrofibrosis is a common cause of patient debility and dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The diversity of molecular pathways involved in arthrofibrosis disease progression suggest that effective treatments for arthrofibrosis may require a multimodal approach to counter the complex cellular [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Arthrofibrosis is a common cause of patient debility and dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The diversity of molecular pathways involved in arthrofibrosis disease progression suggest that effective treatments for arthrofibrosis may require a multimodal approach to counter the complex cellular mechanisms that direct disease pathogenesis. In this study, we leveraged RNA-seq data to define genes that are suppressed in arthrofibrosis patients and identified adiponectin (ADIPOQ) as a potential candidate. We hypothesized that signaling pathways activated by ADIPOQ and the cognate receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 may prevent fibrosis-related events that contribute to arthrofibrosis. (2) Methods: Therefore, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were analyzed in a TGFβ1 inducible cell model for human myofibroblastogenesis by both loss- and gain-of-function experiments. (3) Results: Treatment with AdipoRon, which is a small molecule agonist of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, decreased expression of collagens (COL1A1, COL3A1, and COL6A1) and the myofibroblast marker smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) at both mRNA and protein levels in basal and TGFβ1-induced cells. (4) Conclusions: Thus, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 represent potential drug targets that may attenuate the pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis by suppressing TGFβ-dependent induction of myofibroblasts. These findings also suggest that AdipoRon therapy may reduce the development of arthrofibrosis by mediating anti-fibrotic effects in joint capsular tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
What Opinions Do Tumor Reconstructive Surgeons Have about Sports Activity after Megaprosthetic Replacement in Hip and Knee? Results of the MoReSports Expert Opinion Online Survey
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3638; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113638 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 450
Abstract
Sports activity has many benefits in cancer survivors. A key one is having sport activity contribute to the well-being of the individual. However, there are no guidelines about the intensity and kind of postoperative mobility workouts after hip or knee megaprosthetic treatment. Opinion [...] Read more.
Sports activity has many benefits in cancer survivors. A key one is having sport activity contribute to the well-being of the individual. However, there are no guidelines about the intensity and kind of postoperative mobility workouts after hip or knee megaprosthetic treatment. Opinion research about sports after modular bone and joint replacement may provide an understanding of surgeons’ attitudes on sports activity after megaprostheses of the hip and knee joint. A web survey with members of three international professional organizations of orthopedic tumor reconstructive surgeons was conducted between September 2016 and January 2018. Members were invited via personalized emails by the European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society (EMSOS), the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS), and the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS). The questionnaire included 26 questions. A total of 149 surgeons started the survey, and 76 finished the entire survey (American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) second response rate (RR2) EMSOS: 12.3%; ISOLS: 21.9%; MSTS: n/a). More than half of the respondents encourage sarcoma survivors after megaprosthetic treatment to reach an activity level that would allow them to regularly participate in active sporting events of University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity level 7 and higher. Orthopedic tumor reconstructive surgeons do fear a number of complications (periprosthetic fracture, allograft failure/fracture, loosening, prosthetic or bearing failure, and early polyethylene wear) due to sports activity after modular bone–joint replacement, but they actually witness fewer complications than they conceptually anticipated. According to the surgeons’ opinions, between four to seven types of sports after surgery could reasonably be recommended depending on the type of hip or knee procedures. This survey provides insights into opinions on what could be recommended, what could be allowed if surgeons and their patients agree on the potential negative outcome, and which sports should definitely not be allowed after hip and knee megaprostheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Metal on Metal Bearing in Total Hip Arthroplasty and Its Impact on Synovial Cell Count
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3349; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103349 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Introduction: The effect of different bearings on synovial white blood cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear percentage (PMN%) in aspirations remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of aseptic Metal-on-Metal (MoM) bearing on synovial fluid. Methods: We searched our arthroplasty registry for aseptic [...] Read more.
Introduction: The effect of different bearings on synovial white blood cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear percentage (PMN%) in aspirations remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of aseptic Metal-on-Metal (MoM) bearing on synovial fluid. Methods: We searched our arthroplasty registry for aseptic painful THAs with MoM bearings between 2011 and 2018. Then, a case-matched control group was selected with septic and aseptic Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) with ceramic on a polyethylene (PE) bearing. The matching criteria consisted of gender, age +/−10 years, and time of aspiration (+/−2years). Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) was defined according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) using bacterial cultures, sonication and histology. Results: In total, 19 patients who underwent hip aspiration with MoM bearing were identified. Five patients had to be excluded due to insufficient synovial fluid obtained (n = 2) or bacterial growth after sonication that was initially negative with the standard microbiological cultures (n = 3). As such, 14 were included. These patients were matched with 14 aseptic and 14 septic THAs with ceramic on a PE bearing, which constituted the control group. The mean serum chrome level was 20.0 ± 15.5 nmol/L and cobalt level 18.4 ± 22.1 nmol/L. The synovial WBC and PMN% varied significantly between MoM bearing group and the aseptic THA ceramic PE group (both p < 0.001), as well as the septic THA group (WBC p = 0.016, PMN% p < 0.001). Furthermore, the septic THA group had significantly higher CRP values than the aseptic MoM group (p = 0.016). Conclusion: MoM bearing shows significantly higher synovial WBC and PMN% when compared to aseptic THA with ceramic on PE bearing above the MSIS cut-off. This is an important consideration when diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection using the MSIS guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
Article
Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Patients Following Small Diameter Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Replacement at Long-Term Follow-Up
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092877 - 06 Sep 2020
Viewed by 580
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with small diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) and elevated blood metal ion concentrations at long-term follow-up. The hypothesis was that increased blood metal ion [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with small diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) and elevated blood metal ion concentrations at long-term follow-up. The hypothesis was that increased blood metal ion levels or the presence of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR) would be associated with changes in the peripheral expression of lymphocyte subpopulations, which could potentially serve as early diagnostic markers for metal wear related complications. (2) Methods: Peripheral blood samples were analyzed for leucocyte subgroups (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+, CD16+/CD56+, CD25+/CD127, CD19+, IFN-γ+, IL-4+ and IL-17A+ cells) in 34 patients with elevated blood metal ion levels (combined cobalt and chromium levels >2 µg/L) following small head MoM THA at a mean follow-up of 15.6 years. Fifteen patients with small head MoM THA and blood metal ion levels within the normal range and 15 patients with conventional ceramic-on-polyethylene THA served as control groups. In addition, blood metal ion levels and leucocyte subpopulations were compared between patients with and without adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR), which was investigated by MRI in 27 patients of the study cohort. (3) Results: There was a significant decrease in the levels of IFN-γ+ Type-1 T helper cells (Th1) in patients with MoM THA compared to the ceramic-on-polyethylene control group (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in the cell counts of other lymphocyte subpopulations were found between the three groups. Cobalt ion levels were significantly higher in patients with ALTR (p < 0.001) compared to the non-ALTR group, but no differences in the levels of lymphocyte subsets were found between the two groups. (4) Conclusions: No adverse systemic effects with respect to peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations could be detected in the present study in patients following THA with a small diameter MoM articulation at long-term follow-up. We found a significant decrease of IFN-γ+ Th1 cells in patients with MoM THA compared to the control group, but no differences in the peripheral expression of leucocyte subpopulations were seen between patients with and without ALTR. Future studies with larger patient cohorts and additional histopathological investigations could help to better understand the role of Th1 cells and other cell lines of the adaptive immune system in the development of metal wear related complications after total joint replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Bacterial Colonization of Irrigation Fluid during Aseptic Revision Knee Arthroplasty
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2746; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092746 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Surgical risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are the subjects of ongoing research. It is unclear if there are specific locations of the surgical area that might act as a pathogen source. Due to the fact that [...] Read more.
Surgical risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are the subjects of ongoing research. It is unclear if there are specific locations of the surgical area that might act as a pathogen source. Due to the fact that bacterial replication occurs preferably under humid conditions, it was our aim to investigate if irrigation fluid reservoirs on the surgical covers are subject to bacterial colonization. We prospectively observed 40 patients with scheduled aseptic 1-stage TKA revision. At time intervals of 30 min, irrigation samples were tested for microbiological colonization. Additionally, the suction tip was investigated at the end of surgery. Overall, a bacterial detection rate of 25% was found (57/232 samples). Analysis for any positive microbial detection revealed pathogen findings of irrigation fluid in 41.7% of samples after 30 min with a constant increase up to 77.8% after 90 min. Twenty-three percent of suction tips showed bacterial colonization. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, accounting for the majority of PJI, were the predominant pathogens. After an average follow-up of 17 months, no PJI was confirmed. Despite the substantial bacterial load of irrigation fluid, PJI rates were not elevated. Nevertheless, we recommend that irrigation fluid reservoirs should be prevented and not withdrawn by suction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Correlation of the Subjective Hip Value with Validated Patient-Reported Outcome Measurements for the Hip
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072179 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 490
Abstract
Background: The subjective hip value (SHV) was developed as a patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) that is easily and quickly performed and interpreted. The SHV is defined as a patient’s subjective hip measurement tool expressed as a percentage of an entirely normal hip joint, [...] Read more.
Background: The subjective hip value (SHV) was developed as a patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) that is easily and quickly performed and interpreted. The SHV is defined as a patient’s subjective hip measurement tool expressed as a percentage of an entirely normal hip joint, which would score 100%. The hypothesis is that results of the subjective hip value correlate with the results of the modified Harris hip score and the International Hip Outcome Tool in patients with hip-related diseases. Methods: 302 patients completed the modified Harris hip score (mHHS), the International Hip Outcome Tool (iHot-33) as well as the SHV. The SHV consist of only one question: “What is the overall percent value of your hip if a completely normal hip represents 100%?”. The patients were divided into five different groups depending on the diagnosis. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between the different PROMs and linear regression analysis was used to calculate R2. Results: 302 complete datasets were available for evaluation. There was a high correlation between the SHV and the iHOT-33 (r = 0.847; r2 = 0.692, p < 0.001) and the mHHS (r = 0.832; r2 = 0.717, p < 0.001). The SHV showed a medium (r = 0.653) to high (r = 0.758) correlation with the mHHS and the iHOT-33 in all diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The SHV offers a useful adjunct to established hip outcome measurements, as it is easily and quickly performed and interpreted. The SHV reflects the view of the patient and is independent of the diagnosis. Further research with prospective studies is needed to test the psychometric properties of the score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
High Revision Rates of a Cementless Beta-Titanium Alloy Stem with Contamination-Free Roughened Surface in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072138 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
Optimal osseointegration of cementless total hip arthroplasty is essential for high stability and long-term survival. The purpose of this follow-up study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome, the complications, and survival rates of a beta-titanium alloy stem with a specific grit-blasted-free [...] Read more.
Optimal osseointegration of cementless total hip arthroplasty is essential for high stability and long-term survival. The purpose of this follow-up study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome, the complications, and survival rates of a beta-titanium alloy stem with a specific grit-blasted-free surface. In 192 patients (mean age of 64.4 years), 202 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties were performed using a cementless Hipstar® stem (Stryker, Duisburg, DE). The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was assessed pre-operatively and post-operatively. Radiolucent lines were evaluated and the implant survival rate was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The mean follow-up was 7.71 years (range of 5.0–14.0 years). Overall, 15 revisions were performed. Early aseptic stem loosening was observed in six cases (2.97%). Radiolucent-lines adjacent to the stem were detected in 73 cases (83.02%), especially (70.46%) in the Gruen zones 1, 7, 8, and 14. The mean postoperative HHS was 92.65 points (range 42–100). The cumulative survival probability of the stem was 94.4% (95% CI 90.3 to 98.5%). Considering aseptic failure as an endpoint, the cumulative survival rate of the stem was 95.3% (95% CI 0.914 to 0.992) at six years of follow-up. Overall, an inferior mid-term implant survival was observed in comparison to well-established cementless stem designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Elongation Patterns of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament after Total Knee Arthroplasty
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072078 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
This study aimed to understand the ability of fixed-bearing posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-retaining implants to maintain functionality of the PCL in vivo. To achieve this, elongation of the PCL was examined in six subjects with good clinical and functional outcomes using 3D kinematics [...] Read more.
This study aimed to understand the ability of fixed-bearing posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-retaining implants to maintain functionality of the PCL in vivo. To achieve this, elongation of the PCL was examined in six subjects with good clinical and functional outcomes using 3D kinematics reconstructed from video-fluoroscopy, together with multibody modelling of the knee. Here, length-change patterns of the ligament bundles were tracked throughout complete cycles of level walking and stair descent. Throughout both activities, elongation of the anterolateral bundle exhibited a flexion-dependent pattern with more stretching during swing than stance phase (e.g., at 40° flexion, anterolateral bundle experienced 3.9% strain during stance and 9.1% during swing phase of stair descent). The posteromedial bundle remained shorter than its reference length (defined at heel strike of the level gait cycle) during both activities. Compared with loading patterns of the healthy ligament, postoperative elongation patterns indicate a slackening of the ligament at early flexion followed by peak ligament lengths at considerably smaller flexion angles. The reported data provide a novel insight into in vivo PCL function during activities of daily living that has not been captured previously. The findings support previous investigations reporting difficulties in achieving a balanced tension in the retained PCL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
The Migration Pattern of a Cementless Hydroxyapatite-Coated Titanium Stem under Immediate Full Weight-Bearing—A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Model-Based RSA
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072077 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 773
Abstract
(1) Background: High primary stability is important for the long-term survival of cementless femoral stems in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The objective of this study was to investigate the migration pattern of a hydroxyapatite-coated cementless hip stem developed for minimally invasive surgery using [...] Read more.
(1) Background: High primary stability is important for the long-term survival of cementless femoral stems in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The objective of this study was to investigate the migration pattern of a hydroxyapatite-coated cementless hip stem developed for minimally invasive surgery using model-based radiostereometric analysis (RSA). (2) Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 44 patients with an indication for cementless primary THA were randomly allocated to receive either the SL-PLUS MIA stem, developed for minimally invasive surgery, or the SL-PLUS stem (Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics, Baar, Switzerland) which served as a control group. Unlimited weight-bearing was permitted postoperatively in both groups. Model-based RSA was performed after six weeks and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. (3) Results: Mean total stem subsidence at two-year follow-up was 0.40 mm (SD 0.66 mm) in the SL-PLUS group and 1.08 mm (SD 0.93 mm) in the SL-PLUS MIA group (p = 0.030). Stem subsidence occurred during the first six weeks after surgery, indicating initial settling of the stem under full weight-bearing. Both stem designs showed good osseointegration and high secondary stability with no further migration after initial settling. (4) Conclusions: Settling of a cementless straight femoral stem occurs during the first six weeks after surgery under full weight-bearing. Although initial stem migration was higher in the SL-PLUS MIA group, it had no influence on secondary stability. All implants showed good osseointegration and high secondary stability with no signs of implant loosening during this two-year follow-up period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Prospective Short-Term and Return-to-Sports Results of a Novel Uncemented Short-Stem Hip Prosthesis with Metaphyseal Anchorage
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061972 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Short-stem hip prostheses were developed to treat active patients requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study provides short-term data about a short-stem total hip arthroplasty system. Functional and radiological outcomes as well as return to sports and activity level were assessed. A series [...] Read more.
Short-stem hip prostheses were developed to treat active patients requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study provides short-term data about a short-stem total hip arthroplasty system. Functional and radiological outcomes as well as return to sports and activity level were assessed. A series of 55 patients was primarily included. Data were available for 47 patients at an average follow-up of 38 ± 4.6 months. The back-to-sports analysis showed a 98% return-to-sports rate (46/47 patients). The average time for return to sports was 13 weeks (± 8) postoperatively. Five patients (10.6%) were more active postoperatively. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) improved from 34.8 (±9.4) preoperatively to 94.7 (±8.4, p ≤ 0.001) and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score improved from 4.5 (±1.8) to 6.9 (±1.9) (p ≤ 0.001). The High Activity Arthroplasty Score (HAAS) was 12 (±3.6) at 3-year follow-up. Pre- and postoperative UCLA and postoperative HHS and HAAS scores had a positive influence on the return-to-sports rate (p ≤ 0.05). The collection of radiographic data during all postoperative follow-ups showed no signs of radiolucent lines or bone fissures. The complication rate was at 5%. Short-stem systems are equaling conventional prostheses and offer benefits regarding soft tissue and bone stock preservation. Fast recovery and return to sports can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Defining the Most Effective Patient Blood Management Combined with Tranexamic Acid Regime in Primary Uncemented Total Hip Replacement Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061952 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
The application of patient blood management (PBM) combined with tranexamic acid administration (TXA) results in decreased total blood loss volume (TVB) and transfusions in total hip replacements (THRs). Dosages, timing, and routes of administration of TXA are still under debate as all these [...] Read more.
The application of patient blood management (PBM) combined with tranexamic acid administration (TXA) results in decreased total blood loss volume (TVB) and transfusions in total hip replacements (THRs). Dosages, timing, and routes of administration of TXA are still under debate as all these aspects, as well as interpatient variations, may affect the efficacy of the protocol. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of timing and route of administration of TXA in combination with PBM by reducing the TBV following THR surgery. Consecutive primary uncemented THRs operated by a single surgical and anaesthetic team had the data prospectively collected and then retrospectively studied. Five treatment groups were formed, reflecting the progressive evolution of our protocol. Group 1 included patients managed with PBM alone (preoperative erythrocyte mass optimisation to at least 14 g/dL haemoglobin (Hb), hypotensive spinal anaesthesia and restrictive red blood cell transfusion criteria). Group 2 included patients with PBM and topical 3 g TXA diluted in normal saline to a total volume of 50 mL. Group 3 were patients with PBM and an IV dose of 20 mg/kg TXA at induction, followed by 20 mg/kg TXA as a continuous infusion for the duration of the operation. Group 4 consisted of patients managed as per Group 3 plus another 20 mg/kg TXA at three-hour post-procedure. Group 5 (combined): PBM and IV TXA as per Group 4 and topical TXA as per Group 2. A generalised linear model with the treatment group as an independent variable was modelled, using TBV as the dependent variable. The transfusion rate for all groups was 0%. TBV at 24 h, oscillated from 613.5 ± 337.63 mL in Group 1 to 376.29 ± 135.0 mL in Group 5. TBV at 48 h oscillated from 738.3 ± 367.3 mL (PBM group) to 434 ± 155.2 mL (PBM + combined group). The multivariate regression model confirmed a significant decrease of TBV in all groups with TXA compared with the PBM-only group. Overweight and preoperative Hb were confirmed to significantly influence TBV. The optimal regime to achieve the least TBV and a transfusion rate of 0% requires PBM and one loading 20 mg/kg dose of TXA, followed by continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg for the duration of the operation in uncemented THRs. Additional doses of TXA did not add a clear benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Functional Assessment and Patient-Related Outcomes after Gluteus Maximus Flap Transfer in Patients with Severe Hip Abductor Deficiency
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061823 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
(1) Background: Degeneration of the hip abductor mechanism, a well-known cause of functional limitation, is difficult to treat and is associated with a reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The gluteus maximus muscle flap is a treatment option to support a severely degenerative [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Degeneration of the hip abductor mechanism, a well-known cause of functional limitation, is difficult to treat and is associated with a reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The gluteus maximus muscle flap is a treatment option to support a severely degenerative modified gluteus medius muscle. Although several reports exist on the clinical outcome, there remains a gap in the literature regarding HRQOL in conjunction with functional results. (2) Methods: The present study consists of 18 patients with a mean age of 64 (53‒79) years, operatively treated with a gluteus maximus flap due to chronic gluteal deficiency. Fifteen (83%) of these patients presented a history of total hip arthroplasty or revision arthroplasty. Pre and postoperative pain, Trendelenburg sign, internal rotation lag sign, trochanteric pain syndrome, the Harris Hip Score (HHS), and abduction strength after Janda (0‒5) were evaluated. Postoperative patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life, according to the Short Form 36 (SF-36), were used as patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs). Postoperative MRI scans were performed in 13 cases (72%). (3) Results: Local pain decreased from NRS 6.1 (0–10) to 4.9 (0–8) and 44% presented with a negative Trendelenburg sign postoperatively. The overall HHS results (p = 0.42) and muscular abduction strength (p = 0.32) increased without significance. The postoperative HRQOL reached 46.8 points (31.3–62.6) for the mental component score and 37.1 points (26.9–54.7) for the physical component score. The physical component results presented a high level of positive correlation with HHS scores postoperatively (R = 0.88, p < 0.001). Moreover, 72% reported that they would undergo the operative treatment again. The MRI overall showed no significant further loss of muscle volume and no further degeneration of muscular tissue. (4) Conclusions: Along with fair functional results, the patients treated with a gluteus maximus flap transfer presented satisfying long-term PROMs. Given this condition, the gluteus maximus muscle flap transfer is a viable option for selected patients with chronic gluteal deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Imageless Computer-Assisted Navigation—2-Year Follow-Up of a Prospective Randomized Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061620 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to compare computer-assisted to manual implantation-techniques in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to find out if the computer-assisted surgery is able to improve the clinical and functional results and reduce the dislocation rate in short-terms after THA. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to compare computer-assisted to manual implantation-techniques in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to find out if the computer-assisted surgery is able to improve the clinical and functional results and reduce the dislocation rate in short-terms after THA. We performed a concise minimum 2-year follow-up of the patient cohort of a prospective randomized study published in 2014 and evaluated if the higher implantation accuracy in the navigated group can be seen as an important determinant of success in total hip arthroplasty. Although a significant difference was found in mean postoperative acetabular component anteversion and in the outliers regarding inclination and anteversion (p < 0.05) between the computer-assisted and the manual-placed group, we could not find significant differences regarding clinical outcome or revision rates at 2-years follow-up. The implantation accuracy in the navigated group can be regarded as an important determinant of success in THA, although no significant differences in clinical outcome could be detected at short-term follow-up. Therefore, further long-term follow-up of our patient group is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Predicting Total Knee Replacement from Symptomology and Radiographic Structural Change Using Artificial Neural Networks—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI)
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051298 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate symptomatic and structural factors prior to total knee replacement (TKR) surgery in order to identify influential factors that can predict a patient’s need for TKR surgery. In total, 165 participants (60% females; 64.5 ± [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to longitudinally investigate symptomatic and structural factors prior to total knee replacement (TKR) surgery in order to identify influential factors that can predict a patient’s need for TKR surgery. In total, 165 participants (60% females; 64.5 ± 8.4 years; 29.7 ± 4.7 kg/m2) receiving a TKR in any of both knees within a four-year period were analyzed. Radiographic change, knee pain, knee function and quality of life were annually assessed prior to the TKR procedure. Self-learning artificial neural networks were applied to identify driving factors for the surgical procedure. Significant worsening of radiographic structural change was observed prior to TKR (p ≤ 0.0046), whereas knee symptoms (pain, function, quality of life) worsened significantly only in the year prior to the TKR procedure. By using our prediction model, we were able to predict correctly 80% of the classified individuals to undergo TKR surgery with a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Our prediction model offers the opportunity to assess a patient’s need for TKR surgery two years in advance based on easily available patient data and could therefore be used in a primary care setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
Lower Activity and Function Scores Are Associated with a Higher Risk of Preoperative Deep Venous Thrombosis in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051257 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between patients’ activity and function levels and the incidence of preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prior to total hip arthroplasty (THA). We retrospectively reviewed 500 patients admitted for primary or revision THA from July 2014 [...] Read more.
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between patients’ activity and function levels and the incidence of preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prior to total hip arthroplasty (THA). We retrospectively reviewed 500 patients admitted for primary or revision THA from July 2014 to October 2018. The diagnosis of DVT was confirmed using Doppler ultrasonography 1 month before THA. The patients’ activity and hip function were evaluated using several clinical scores: the Harris Hip Score (HHS), Oxford Hip Score (OHS), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. Those scores and the medical history were examined for correlations with preoperative DVT using univariate and multivariate models. Univariate regression analysis showed that older age, current steroid use, anticoagulant use, a history of DVT, collagen disease, a lower UCLA activity score, and a lower OHS were associated with an elevated risk of preoperative DVT. The multivariate analyses showed that a higher UCLA activity score (odds ratio (OR): 0.0049–0.012) and higher OHS (OR: 0.0012–0.0088) were associated with a lower risk of preoperative DVT in each model. Age (OR: 1.07 in both models), current steroid use (OR: 9.32–10.45), and a history of DVT (OR: 27.15–74.98) were associated with a higher risk of preoperative DVT in both models. Older age, current steroid use, a history of DVT, a lower UCLA activity score, and a lower OHS were risk factors for preoperative DVT before THA, even when controlling for potential confounders. Patients exhibiting low activity and low function levels were more likely to have DVT, even before surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Article
High Levels of Kinesiophobia at Discharge from the Hospital May Negatively Affect the Short-Term Functional Outcome of Patients Who Have Undergone Knee Replacement Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030738 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Background: Kinesiophobia is a psycho-cognitive factor that hampers recovery after orthopedic surgery. No evidence exists on the influence of kinesiophobia on the short-term recovery of function in patients with knee replacement (KR). Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background: Kinesiophobia is a psycho-cognitive factor that hampers recovery after orthopedic surgery. No evidence exists on the influence of kinesiophobia on the short-term recovery of function in patients with knee replacement (KR). Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of kinesiophobia on short-term patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) and performance-based measures (PBMs). Methods: Forty-three KR patients filled in the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) at time of discharge. Patients with TSK ≥ 37 were allocated to the kinesiophobia group (n = 24), others to the no-kinesiophobia group (n = 19). Patients were asked to complete PROMs and to execute PBMs at discharge and at 6-weeks follow-up. An independent samples t-test was used to compare group differences for PROMs and PBMs at both measurement sessions. Multiple linear regression analysis models were used to model PBM outcomes from age, pain and TSK scores. Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for PROMs and PBMs. Kinesiophobia significantly contributed to the reduced functional outcomes. Conclusion: At discharge from the hospital, 55.8% of KR patients demonstrated high levels of kinesiophobia (TSK ≥ 37). This may negatively influence short-term recovery of these patients, by putting them at higher risk for falling and reduced functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
New Technologies in Knee Arthroplasty: Current Concepts
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010047 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an effective treatment for severe osteoarthritis. Despite good survival rates, up to 20% of TKA patients remain dissatisfied. Recently, promising new technologies have been developed in knee arthroplasty, and could improve the functional outcomes. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an effective treatment for severe osteoarthritis. Despite good survival rates, up to 20% of TKA patients remain dissatisfied. Recently, promising new technologies have been developed in knee arthroplasty, and could improve the functional outcomes. The aim of this paper was to present some new technologies in TKA, their current concepts, their advantages, and limitations. The patient-specific instrumentations can allow an improvement of implant positioning and limb alignment, but no difference is found for functional outcomes. The customized implants are conceived to reproduce the native knee anatomy and to reproduce its biomechanics. The sensors have to aim to give objective data on ligaments balancing during TKA. Few studies are published on the results at mid-term of these two devices currently. The accelerometers are smart tools developed to improve the TKA alignment. Their benefits remain yet controversial. The robotic-assisted systems allow an accurate and reproducible bone preparation due to a robotic interface, with a 3D surgical planning, based on preoperative 3D imaging or not. This promising system, nevertheless, has some limits. The new technologies in TKA are very attractive and have constantly evolved. Nevertheless, some limitations persist and could be improved by artificial intelligence and predictive modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Review
Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Total Knee Replacement in Patients <65 Years of Age—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103150 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
An increasing number of total knee replacements (TKRs) are being performed in response to the growing burden of osteoarthritis. Patients <65 years of age represent the fastest growing group of TKR recipients and are expected to account for an increasing number of primary [...] Read more.
An increasing number of total knee replacements (TKRs) are being performed in response to the growing burden of osteoarthritis. Patients <65 years of age represent the fastest growing group of TKR recipients and are expected to account for an increasing number of primary and revision procedures. Concerns have been raised about the outcomes that can be expected by this age demographic who are more active, physically demanding, and have longer life expectancies compared to older TKR recipients. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of TKR for osteoarthritis in patients <65 years of age, compared to older individuals. A systematic search of Embase and Medline was conducted to identify studies which examined patient-reported outcomes measured using disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life instruments. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These studies comprised 1747 TKRs performed between 1977 and 2014. In the meta-analysis of two prospective studies (288 TKRs), patients <65 years of age were able to attain large and clinically meaningful improvements in pain, function, and quality of life. One of these studies (61 TKRs) suggested that patients <55 years of age attained a larger degree of improvement compared to older individuals. Results into the second postoperative decade were less certain, with some data suggesting a high prevalence of pain and patterns of functional decline. Further research is required to investigate longer-term outcomes following TKR for osteoarthritis in younger patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Review
The Impact of Spinopelvic Mobility on Arthroplasty: Implications for Hip and Spine Surgeons
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082569 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Spinopelvic mobility represents the complex interaction of hip, pelvis, and spine. Understanding this interaction is relevant for both arthroplasty and spine surgeons, as a predicted increasing number of patients will suffer from hip and spinal pathologies simultaneously. We conducted a comprehensive literature review, [...] Read more.
Spinopelvic mobility represents the complex interaction of hip, pelvis, and spine. Understanding this interaction is relevant for both arthroplasty and spine surgeons, as a predicted increasing number of patients will suffer from hip and spinal pathologies simultaneously. We conducted a comprehensive literature review, defined the nomenclature, summarized the various classifications of spinopelvic mobility, and outlined the corresponding treatment algorithms. In addition, we developed a step-by-step workup for spinopelvic mobility and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Normal spinopelvic mobility changes from standing to sitting; the hip flexes, and the posterior pelvic tilt increases with a concomitant increase in acetabular anteversion and decreasing lumbar lordosis. Most classifications are based on a division of spinopelvic mobility based on ΔSS (sacral slope) into stiff, normal, and hypermobile, and a categorization of the sagittal spinal balance regarding pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL) mismatch (PI–LL = ± 10° balanced versus PI–LL > 10° unbalanced) and corresponding adjustment of the acetabular component implantation. When performing THA, patients with suspected pathologic spinopelvic mobility should be identified by medical history and examination, and a radiological evaluation (a.p. pelvis standing and lateral femur to L1 or C7 (if EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) is available), respectively, for standing and sitting radiographs) of spinopelvic parameters should be conducted in order to classify the patient and determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Spine surgeons, before planned spinal fusion in the presence of osteoarthritis of the hip, should consider a hip flexion contracture and inform the patient of an increased risk of complications with existing or planned THA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Review
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Based Therapy—An Alternative to Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis? A State of the Art Review of Clinical Trials
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072062 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disorder worldwide and to date no regenerative treatment has been established in clinical practice. This review evaluates the current literature on the clinical translation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy in OA management with a [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disorder worldwide and to date no regenerative treatment has been established in clinical practice. This review evaluates the current literature on the clinical translation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy in OA management with a focus on safety, outcomes and procedural specifics. PubMed, Cochrane Library and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for clinical studies using MSCs for OA treatment. 290 articles were initially identified and 42 articles of interest, including a total of 1325 patients, remained for further examination. Most of the included studies used adipose tissue-derived MSCs or bone-marrow-derived MSCs to treat patients suffering from knee OA. MSC-based therapy for knee OA appears to be safe and presumably effective in selected parameters. Yet, a direct comparison between studies was difficult due to a pronounced variance regarding methodology, assessed outcomes and evidence levels. Intensive scientific engagement is needed to identify the most effective source and dosage of MSCs for OA treatment in the future. Consent on outcome measures has to be reached and eventually patient sub-populations need to be identified that will profit most from MSC-based treatment for OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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Review
Biomechanical and Clinical Effect of Patient-Specific or Customized Knee Implants: A Review
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051559 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
(1) Background: Although knee arthroplasty or knee replacement is already an effective clinical treatment, it continues to undergo clinical and biomechanical improvements. For an increasing number of conditions, prosthesis based on an individual patient’s anatomy is a promising treatment. The aims of this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Although knee arthroplasty or knee replacement is already an effective clinical treatment, it continues to undergo clinical and biomechanical improvements. For an increasing number of conditions, prosthesis based on an individual patient’s anatomy is a promising treatment. The aims of this review were to evaluate the clinical and biomechanical efficacy of patient-specific knee prosthesis, explore its future direction, and summarize any published comparative studies. (2) Methods: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases for articles published prior to 1 February 2020, with the keywords “customized knee prosthesis” and “patient-specific knee prosthesis”. We excluded patient-specific instrument techniques. (3) Results: Fifty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. In general, clinical improvement was greater with a patient-specific knee prosthesis than with a conventional knee prosthesis. In addition, patient-specific prosthesis showed improved biomechanical effect than conventional prosthesis. However, in one study, patient-specific unicompartmental knee arthroplasty showed a relatively high rate of aseptic loosening, particularly femoral component loosening, in the short- to medium-term follow-up. (4) Conclusions: A patient-specific prosthesis provides a more accurate resection and fit of components, yields significant postoperative improvements, and exhibits a high level of patient satisfaction over the short to medium term compared with a conventional prosthesis. However, the tibial insert design of the current patient-specific knee prosthesis does not follow the tibial plateau curvature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty)
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