Special Issue "Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. David W. Hagstrum
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
Interests: ecology and behavior of stored product insects; insect monitoring; insect pest management
Prof. Christos G. Athanassiou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, Plant Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Phytokou str., 38443, N. Ionia, Magnesia, Greece
Interests: stored product protection; chemical control; non-chemical control; stored product insect biology and ecology; trapping and sampling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Integrated pest management involves monitoring, risk-benefit analysis and multiple control methods and often can be done more cost-effectively with knowledge of current and predicted future pest distribution and abundance. Monitoring program can provide information on current pest density and distribution, and knowledge of pest behavior, life history and population ecology can be used to predict future distribution and density. Determining whether pest population has exceeded an economic threshold is generally more practical than estimating actual insect density.

In this Special Issue, we invite manuscripts that develop decision aids that optimize timing of application and targeting of infested locations, integrate control methods or have examples of decision making during implementation of pest management programs for stored product pests.

Prof. Dr. David W. Hagstrum
Prof. Christos G. Athanassiou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sampling
  • predictive models
  • resistance management
  • cost-benefit analysis
  • environmental monitoring
  • facility design and maintenance
  • regulatory control
  • areawide pest management

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management: From Theory to Practice
Insects 2019, 10(10), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10100332 - 04 Oct 2019
Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM) is being more widely used for managing stored product insects [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Emigration Effects Induced by Radio Frequency Treatment to Dates Infested by Carpophilus hemipterus
Insects 2019, 10(9), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090273 - 27 Aug 2019
Abstract
The dried fruit beetle (Carpophilus hemipterus) is considered a key pest of dates, infesting fruits both in the field and during storage. Control measures against the species rely on the use of chemicals or heat treatments based on sunlight, hot air [...] Read more.
The dried fruit beetle (Carpophilus hemipterus) is considered a key pest of dates, infesting fruits both in the field and during storage. Control measures against the species rely on the use of chemicals or heat treatments based on sunlight, hot air or radio frequency (RF) applications. Previous investigations that have aimed to define control procedures for a total disinfestation using RF treatments with different exposure durations have shown the typical behavior of adults in some trials, which, under the influence of temperature increases, started to escape from infested fruits. We focused on the application of different RF voltage-time combinations to induce the emigration of C. hemipterus adults from dates in order to produce a complete disinfestation. The results showed that the application of 2500 V RF for 8–10 min to infested dates resulted in nearly 100% of adults escaping from fruits, thereby cleaning the commodity with low or no mortality inside and outside the dates. These achievements provide a new strategy for controlling key insect pests of dates that could be applied at an industrial scale, allowing for the quick disinfestation of fruits without affecting the fruit with harmful substances, such as residues from chemical treatments, and without unwanted side effects on date quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Gamma Irradiated Galleria mellonella L. and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) Larvae to Optimize Mass Rearing of Parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Insects 2019, 10(8), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10080223 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
We evaluated possible improvements to the mass rearing of the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated host wax moth Galleria mellonella L. and Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. The use of irradiated G. mellonella and P. [...] Read more.
We evaluated possible improvements to the mass rearing of the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on irradiated host wax moth Galleria mellonella L. and Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. The use of irradiated G. mellonella and P. interpunctella larvae at the dose of 150 Gy proved useful for enhancing the parasitism and adult emergence of H. hebetor due to the absence of negative repercussions on parasitoid development. Overall, parasitism was increased as the host larvae was irradiated with higher doses, while significantly higher parasitism was recorded at 150 and 300 Gy compared to lower doses. The female parasitoids preferred the irradiated larvae and significantly higher numbers of larvae were parasitized compared with non-irradiated larvae. The results also showed that irradiated larvae of G. mellonella served better as hosts for H. hebetor as compared with irradiated larvae of P. interpunctella. The implementation of these findings would be helpful for improving the mass production of parasitoids and the effectiveness of releases of biocontrol agents for the control of stored product pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Purdue Improved Crop Storage Triple Layer Hermetic Storage Bag against Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Insects 2019, 10(7), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070204 - 12 Jul 2019
Abstract
Hermetic technologies are being promoted in Africa as safer and more effective methods of grain storage on smallholder farms. However, farmers and policy makers lack knowledge of their efficacy in controlling major stored grain pests. An on-station study was conducted to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Hermetic technologies are being promoted in Africa as safer and more effective methods of grain storage on smallholder farms. However, farmers and policy makers lack knowledge of their efficacy in controlling major stored grain pests. An on-station study was conducted to evaluate the triple layer Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) airtight bags against two major storage insect pests. Two sets each of PICS, jute and polypropylene bags were filled with 50 kg maize grain per bag. Each set was replicated four times. One set of PICS bags was each infested with 50 insects each of the larger grain borer P. truncatus and the maize weevil S. zeamais; while the other set was not. One set of jute and polypropylene woven bags was treated with a cocktail of 1.6% Pirimiphos methyl and 0.3% Permethrin, serving as positive controls; while the remaining sets with untreated maize grain formed negative controls. Gas analysis in the PICS bags followed the expected trend with oxygen levels falling sharply below 10% and carbon dioxide increasing to almost 10% after 12 weeks hence resulting in insect death. After 16 weeks, increase in oxygen levels may be attributed to perforation of the bags from outside by the P. truncatus. Results showed that PICS bags were significantly (P < 0.05) superior to treated and untreated controls of polypropylene and jute bags in suppressing insect development, maize grain damage and weight loss during storage. Weight loss in polypropylene and jute bags reached 40% and 41%, respectively, at 24 weeks after storage compared to PICS (2.4–2.9%). These results demonstrate that PICS bags can be used to store maize against P. truncatus and S. zeamais attack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Andean Flora as a Source of New Repellents against Insect Pests: Behavioral, Morphological and Electrophysiological Studies on Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Insects 2019, 10(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10060171 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) is considered as one of the most destructive foodstuff pests. Due to their efficiency, low toxicity for mammalians and low environmental impact, plant-derived essential oils (EOs) are promising tools for pest control. In particular, the OEs extracted from Lamiaceae are [...] Read more.
Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) is considered as one of the most destructive foodstuff pests. Due to their efficiency, low toxicity for mammalians and low environmental impact, plant-derived essential oils (EOs) are promising tools for pest control. In particular, the OEs extracted from Lamiaceae are considered among the most bioactive in terms of repellent and/or insecticidal effect. Here, we investigated the repellence of the EOs extracted from two aromatic plant species typical of the flora of the Ecuadorian Andes, Clinopodium tomentosum and C. nubigeum, against adults of S. zeamais. The behavioral assays carried out at concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 23.9 μL L−1 air in a two-way static olfactometer showed a significant repellent effect starting from the concentration of 8.4 mL L−1 air both for the EO of C. nubigenum and C. tomentosum. We also carried out a complete structural analysis of the antenna of S. zeamais using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to characterize the olfactory sensilla equipment. In this species, there is no sexual dimorphism also as regards to the antennal morphology and the sensilla type and distribution. We identified six type of sensilla, among which at least three types (Sensillum Trichoideum 1, Sensillum Trichoideum 2 and Grooved Peg Sensillum) can be considered as olfactory. Electroantennography (EAG) recordings carried out on S. zeamais revealed a positive dose-response to both EOs, without differences between the two sexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Compared Efficiency of the Traditional Method, Radiography without Contrast and Radiography with Contrast in the Determination of Infestation by Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) in Maize Seeds
Insects 2019, 10(6), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10060156 - 01 Jun 2019
Abstract
Technologies that increase safety and efficiency, while facilitating and streamlining the work of seed analysts, are increasingly required by the seed industry. X-ray image analysis is a technique that has been used in the analysis of grain and seeds because it is fast, [...] Read more.
Technologies that increase safety and efficiency, while facilitating and streamlining the work of seed analysts, are increasingly required by the seed industry. X-ray image analysis is a technique that has been used in the analysis of grain and seeds because it is fast, accurate and non-destructive. The traditional method to verify the presence of insect damage in seeds involves manual cutting of the seeds, which endangers the safety of the analyst and is time-consuming and repetitive work that leads to visual fatigue. The objective of this study was to compared the efficiency of radiographic analysis with and without contrast in the determination of infestation by Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at different stages of development, in maize seeds, compared to the traditional method required by seed legislation, which consists of cutting and visual evaluation. Seeds were evaluated regarding the presence of eggs/oviposition signs, larvae, pupae, adult insects, insect damage in five infestation periods (5, 18, 33 and 35 days after infestation), while evaluating the total number of seeds infested, comparing the three methods. For characterization of the oviposition stage, the use of contrast was best at all times of infestation. For the larval stage, there was no difference between the evaluation methods; however, at 18 days, larger infestations were observed by the traditional method. At 5 days, the identification of pupae was better by the traditional method and radiography without contrast, while for the identification of adult insects the best method was the use of radiography without contrast. The characterization of the level of infestation with maize weevil damage was best verified using contrast radiography. Radiographic analysis is efficient in the detection of damage caused by S. zeamais in maize seeds. This method of radiographic analysis (with or without contrast) is thus an auxiliary tool to assess the damage and presence of S. zeamais in maize seeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential for Acanthoscelides obtectus to Adapt to New Hosts Seen in Laboratory Selection Experiments
Insects 2019, 10(6), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10060153 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
Effective pest management strategies for a targeted pest species must rely on accurate, reliable and reproducible estimates of population dynamics. Importance of such approaches is even more conspicuous when assessing pest’s potential to utilize other stored products. Using an experimental evolution approach, we [...] Read more.
Effective pest management strategies for a targeted pest species must rely on accurate, reliable and reproducible estimates of population dynamics. Importance of such approaches is even more conspicuous when assessing pest’s potential to utilize other stored products. Using an experimental evolution approach, we have focused our attention on a common bean pest, the seed beetle (Acanthoscelides obtectus). We looked into the potential to invade and sustain population growth on two suboptimal host plants (chickpeas and mung beans). Such an approach simulates steps of the host-shift process in storages. By analyzing population dynamics during initial encountering with a new host plant, we detected a population drop for both novel hosts. However, transgenerational development in a novel environment resulted in a constant population growth in chickpeas, but not in mung bean populations. Reversal of chickpea selected populations to original host plant has led to a severe decrease in population parameters due to low viability of immatures, while the opposite trend was detected in mung bean populations. This paper highlights the importance of good practice in estimating population dynamics for economically important species. With special emphasis on storage pest species, we discuss how this approach can be useful for estimating invading potential of pest insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Insecticidal Properties of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogon winterianus against Acanthoscelides obtectus, Insect Pest of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050151 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. The control of this insect is still poor and involves the use of conventional insecticides. There is an increasing demand in the search [...] Read more.
The bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), causes severe post-harvest losses in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. The control of this insect is still poor and involves the use of conventional insecticides. There is an increasing demand in the search for new active substances and products for pest control towards reduction of adverse effects on human health and the environment. The protection of grains with alternative products, such as essential oils, is a possible alternative to meet the needs described above. Therefore, this investigation evaluated the applications of basil, Ocimum basilicum, and citronella, Cymbopogon winterianus, essential oils for A. obtectus control. These essential oils significantly reduced the bean weight losses and the number of beans damaged by A. obtectus at higher doses than 60 or 120 μL/sample. The number of holes per bean did not differ between the doses of basil essential oil, not even at the dose of 60 μL, while it was higher at 120 μL, probably due to a lower capacity of movement of the insects treated with this dose and/or the oil’s direct or indirect effects on the insects. Basil and citronella oils exhibited similar patterns of insecticidal activity over the insect, both directly in adult insects or indirectly over bean seeds. These essential oils affected the development of A. obtectus since the greatest doses applied on beans decreased the emergence of the bean weevil. The results prove the insecticidal capacity of the tested essential oils and hence their potential as active substances against A. obtectus in environmentally low risk pest control strategies. Supplementary trials should be conducted under real storage conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study: A Practical Application of an Aerosol Treatment in a Commercial Mill
Insects 2019, 10(5), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050150 - 25 May 2019
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest and need for alternatives to structural fumigations, and one alternative that has been used across the industry is aerosol insecticides. Previous tests inside a pilot-scale mill demonstrated that aerosol particle size, delivery method, and [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest and need for alternatives to structural fumigations, and one alternative that has been used across the industry is aerosol insecticides. Previous tests inside a pilot-scale mill demonstrated that aerosol particle size, delivery method, and the spatial configuration of the mill all influenced effectiveness. However, there is no research conducted inside large commercial facilities. The objective of this research was to evaluate a pyrethrin-plus-methoprene aerosol application inside a commercial mill on adult Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duVal, confused flour beetle, directly exposed to the aerosol and residual effects on larvae. Additionally, five aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometers were placed in the facility and recorded instantaneous spray concentration and estimated aerosol deposition. Adult T. confusum exposed nearest to the aerosol application points had the highest percentage of affected adults (>60%). The aerosol also had vertical movement when released at the top of a three-story open room; instantaneous concentrations were recorded on the ground floor. The aerosol residual was highly effective after 6-weeks post aerosol exposure, as 80% of the bioassays did not have any adult emergence from exposed larvae. This research demonstrates a practical use of aerosol insecticides and their potential to be an effective alternative to structural fumigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioassays and Methodologies for Insecticide Tests with Larvae of Trogoderma granarium (Everts), the Khapra Beetle
Insects 2019, 10(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050145 - 22 May 2019
Abstract
New insecticide treatment options would be beneficial for control programs for Trogoderma granarium Everts, the khapra beetle, in the United States. Two insecticides were evaluated, the Polyzone® formulation of deltamethrin and a formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene combined with deltamethrin [...] Read more.
New insecticide treatment options would be beneficial for control programs for Trogoderma granarium Everts, the khapra beetle, in the United States. Two insecticides were evaluated, the Polyzone® formulation of deltamethrin and a formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene combined with deltamethrin and the synergist piperonyl butoxide. In the test with Polyzone® deltamethrin, concrete arenas were treated with a low and high rate, and held outside, inside a shed, or inside a lab. Compared to storage in the lab, residue degradation increased slightly in the shed, and then further outside, as evidenced by greater larval survival and adult emergence. Across all environmental treatments, the high rate was more effective than the lower rate. For the combination methoprene product, the effect of food contact with treated surfaces was examined. When treating arenas with food and transferring the food to clean dishes, there was no immediate effect on larval survival, but there was a reduction in survival and emergence to the adult stage after one month. For both tests, larvae apparently often went into diapause after they were introduced onto the treatment arenas. Both treatments could be utilized in management programs if T. granarium infestations are detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Residual Efficacy of Pyrethrin + Methoprene Aerosol on Two Dermestids: Impact of Particle Size, Species, and Temperature
Insects 2019, 10(5), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050142 - 17 May 2019
Abstract
Residual effects of pyrethrin + methoprene aerosol dispensed at 4 and 16-µm particle sizes and an untreated control, was assessed against late-stage larvae of Trogoderma inclusum (LeConte), the larger cabinet beetle, and T. variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle. Treated arenas were stored at [...] Read more.
Residual effects of pyrethrin + methoprene aerosol dispensed at 4 and 16-µm particle sizes and an untreated control, was assessed against late-stage larvae of Trogoderma inclusum (LeConte), the larger cabinet beetle, and T. variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle. Treated arenas were stored at 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C and bioassays were conducted at 1, 3, or 6 weeks post-treatment. Larval development was monitored through adult emergence to compare the efficacy of treatments by using both the percentage of normal adult emergence and a developmental index as dependent variables. There was no overall effect of temperature on residual activity as measured using either adult emergence or developmental index values. Both the 4 and 16-µm particle sizes resulted in reduced adult emergence and low developmental index values compared to untreated controls. The insecticide was more effective on T. variabile than on T. inclusum. The impact of particle size varied between species, both particle sizes reduced adult emergence and developmental index in T. variabile, but only the 16-µm particle size resulted in reduction of adult emergence of T. inclusum. Furthermore, there was a reduction in activity of methoprene with residual exposure time. The variations in susceptibility of species to methoprene, differences in efficacy of particle sizes, and decrease in residual persistence at smaller particle sizes highlight the need for attaining optimal particle size to improve overall efficacy of aerosol mixtures containing methoprene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Knockdown Bioassay Methods to Assess Phosphine Resistance in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
Insects 2019, 10(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050140 - 16 May 2019
Abstract
Resistance to the fumigant phosphine in Tribolium castaneum occurs worldwide. This study evaluated tests based on adult knockdown time, the time for a beetle to become immobile, when exposed to a high concentration of phosphine. We recorded knockdown times of beetles that remained [...] Read more.
Resistance to the fumigant phosphine in Tribolium castaneum occurs worldwide. This study evaluated tests based on adult knockdown time, the time for a beetle to become immobile, when exposed to a high concentration of phosphine. We recorded knockdown times of beetles that remained completely still for 30 s when exposed to 3000 ppm of phosphine in a large, gas-tight glass tube. Beetles were used from 12 populations, of which six were ‘susceptible’ to phosphine, three were ‘weakly resistant’, and three were ‘strongly resistant’. Knockdown times were determined for single beetles, as well as for groups of ten beetles for which the time to knockdown for either five beetles (KT50) or ten beetles (KT100) were recorded. Similar knockdown times occurred across susceptible and resistant populations. However, the KT100 tests generated conservative times for diagnosing strong vs. weak resistance. The strong resistant populations were all over 100 min with KT100, compared to 60 min or less for susceptible and weak resistant populations. Special tests on single beetles revealed higher knockdown times in insects that were deliberately disturbed compared to those without any disturbances. Work reported here suggests a knockdown test conducted on beetles in a matter of minutes or hours could help classify phosphine resistance status prior to decisions on phosphine fumigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Wireless Phosphine Sensors for Monitoring Fumigation Gas in Wheat Stored in Farm Bins
Insects 2019, 10(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050121 - 27 Apr 2019
Abstract
Fumigation of grain bins with phosphine tablets is one method of insect control for stored products. Monitoring the concentration of the toxic gas at many locations over several days for a given structure or container can be challenging. In this study, a commercially-available [...] Read more.
Fumigation of grain bins with phosphine tablets is one method of insect control for stored products. Monitoring the concentration of the toxic gas at many locations over several days for a given structure or container can be challenging. In this study, a commercially-available system that wirelessly measures phosphine was evaluated in small-scale and large-scale tests. Small-scale testing was performed to study the repeatability and accuracy of the sensors. The wireless sensors were within 30 ppm of each other, over a range of 700 ppm phosphine. Large-scale testing evaluated the system during the fumigation of wheat stored in 7 m diameter, 120 metric ton, steel grain bins. As a reference, monitoring lines were distributed at several positions and depths in the bin in order to sample phosphine gas concentrations. A series of three fumigation trials were performed, with each lasting for over six days. The wireless devices collected local phosphine concentrations and temperatures every two hours without assistance from personnel. Although the fumigation trials were significantly different in terms of patterns in gas concentration over time, the two sampling methods gave similar trendlines. However, the automated data provided a more detailed picture of the fumigation process. This information may help fumigation managers to better evaluate fumigations and assure successful insect control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensory Quality of Essential Oils and Their Synergistic Effect with Diatomaceous Earth, for the Control of Stored Grain Insects
Insects 2019, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040114 - 20 Apr 2019
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) have gained increasing interest as a low-toxic, eco-friendly alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides against insect pests. However, they have scarce practical application in the protection of stored grain because of their limited efficacy and their interference with the organoleptic [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) have gained increasing interest as a low-toxic, eco-friendly alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides against insect pests. However, they have scarce practical application in the protection of stored grain because of their limited efficacy and their interference with the organoleptic properties of the grain. In this study, we evaluated the olfactory profile of the EOs of Foeniculum vulgare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Ocimum basilicum, and their toxicity against the main stored grain pest Sitophilus granarius. Trained assessors identified O. basilicum and F. vulgare, as more suitable than the P. lentiscus EO for the wheat treatment. In laboratory tests, the most toxic EO was the P. lentiscus (LC50 = 36.36 μL∙kg−1) while, the least toxic, was the F. vulgare one (LC50 = 77.59 μL∙kg−1). The EOs were also tested combined with diatomaceous earths (DEs) showing synergistic effects (co-toxicity coefficient values ranging from 1.36 to 3.35 for O. basilicum and F. vulgare EOs, respectively). Overall, O. basilicum resulted as the best EO for the wheat treatment, considering its insect toxicity and olfactory profile. In real storage conditions, the wheat co-treated with O. basilicum EO and DEs showed a significantly lower mean infestation (1.5 insect kg−1) than the non-treated wheat (7.0 insect kg−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Acoustic, Pitfall Trap, and Visual Surveys of Stored Product Insect Pests in Kenyan Warehouses
Insects 2019, 10(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040105 - 12 Apr 2019
Abstract
Grain production is an important component of food security in Kenya but due to environmental conditions that favor rapid growth of insect populations, farmers and other agricultural stakeholders face ongoing and novel challenges from crop and stored product pest insects. To assist development [...] Read more.
Grain production is an important component of food security in Kenya but due to environmental conditions that favor rapid growth of insect populations, farmers and other agricultural stakeholders face ongoing and novel challenges from crop and stored product pest insects. To assist development of methods to reduce economic losses from stored product insect pests in Kenya, acoustic, visual, and pitfall trap surveys were conducted in five grain storage warehouses. Two commercially available acoustic systems successfully detected the pests of greatest economic importance, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) and Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). Other insects of lesser economic importance also were observed in the visual surveys, including Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). This study demonstrated that the use of acoustic technology with visual surveys and pitfall traps can help managers to identify and target infestations within their warehouses, enabling them to reduce postharvest losses. With most warehouses being located in relatively noisy urban or peri-urban areas, background noise considerations are being incorporated into the design of future acoustic detectors for stored pest infestations. Kenya must import grain yearly to meet consumption needs; however, if the current yearly postharvest losses of 20–30% in warehouses decreased, import costs could be reduced considerably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Residual Efficacy of a Deltamethrin Emulsifiable Concentrate Formulation against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) after Partial Treatment of Brown Rice
Insects 2019, 10(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040095 - 01 Apr 2019
Abstract
Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), the lesser grain borer, and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), the Angoumois grain moth, are internally feeding stored product insects that can infest raw grains. In this test, brown rice was treated with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm of a new emulsifiable concentrate [...] Read more.
Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), the lesser grain borer, and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), the Angoumois grain moth, are internally feeding stored product insects that can infest raw grains. In this test, brown rice was treated with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm of a new emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation of the pyrethroid deltamethrin and stored for 12 months. One day after treatment, and every 3 months for 12 months, treated rice was mixed with untreated brown rice in the following ratios: 0:100 (untreated controls), 10:90, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 (all treated). Bioassays were conducted by exposing 10 parental adults of each species on the rice mixtures and assessing progeny production, feeding damage, and weight loss. The progeny of S. cerealella ranged from 105.6 F1 adults on untreated brown rice to 69.4 F1 adults on 100% treated rice, but there was little feeding damage or weight loss. The progeny production of R. dominica declined from 177.4 F1 adults on untreated rice to 9.8 F1 adults on 100% treated rice. Weight loss and feeding damage were correlated with progeny production. The results show that the new deltamethrin formulation could be used for protection of brown rice, but S. cerealella may be less susceptible to deltamethrin compared to R. dominica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Long-term Capture Data to Predict Trogoderma variabile Ballion and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) Population Patterns
Insects 2019, 10(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040093 - 30 Mar 2019
Abstract
Insects can infest facilities that house and process post-harvest grains and grain-based products. Integrated pest management tactics rely on tracking insect populations and using this information to select and target management tactics. Our ability to predict when and where to best focus treatment [...] Read more.
Insects can infest facilities that house and process post-harvest grains and grain-based products. Integrated pest management tactics rely on tracking insect populations and using this information to select and target management tactics. Our ability to predict when and where to best focus treatment relies on an understanding of long-term trends, but often any available monitoring data are limited in its duration. Here we present data collected over a 10-year period at a flour mill in the central part of the United States. Using traps placed both inside and outside a flour mill and baited with pheromone-lures for Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Indianmeal moth, and Trogoderma variabile Ballion, warehouse beetle, we examine environmental and spatial variability in insect captures. We find that both species, inside and outside the mill, are highly influenced by seasonal patterns, with peaks of insect captures during the warm season (April through September). There is also consistency across time and space in trap capture for P. interpunctella with traps in an open location consistently capturing high numbers of insects. In contrast, T. variabile lacked consistency in trap capture but were most often not found in the same trap locations as P. interpunctella. Fumigations conducted within the facility appeared to have little impact on insect captures inside, with dynamics appearing to be driven more by broader seasonal patterns in activity. These data and analyses suggest that there is a larger population of these insects that are readily moving in and out of the structures, while fumigation treatments are only impacting a small portion of the overall population and tactics targeting immigration may be an important addition to the pest management program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Combinations of Methoprene and Deltamethrin as Long-Term Commodity Protectants
Insects 2019, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10020050 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wheat, corn, and brown rice were treated with different combinations of a deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC) formulation and a new emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation, at rates of either 0.5 or 1.0 ppm alone or in combination with 1.25 and 2.5 ppm methoprene (10 [...] Read more.
Wheat, corn, and brown rice were treated with different combinations of a deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC) formulation and a new emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation, at rates of either 0.5 or 1.0 ppm alone or in combination with 1.25 and 2.5 ppm methoprene (10 treatments in all, including an untreated control). Treated commodities were stored at ambient conditions on the floor of an empty grain bin in Manhattan, KS, USA, in 5-kg lots for individual replicates. The commodities were sampled and bio-assayed every three months for 15 months by exposing 10 mixed-sex parental adults of selected adult stored product insects on 70–80 g of the commodity. For all treatments, there was no regression of declining efficacy with respect to the month. Therefore, the data were combined for analysis. On wheat and brown rice, there was no reproduction of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) in any of the treatments, and there was no weight loss in either commodity that was caused by feeding of the parental adults or developing progeny. There was reproduction of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) on wheat but, for several combinations, the EC formulation gave better suppression of progeny compared to the standard SC. However, on brown rice, only the combination of 1.0 ppm deltamethrin EC and 2.5 ppm methoprene was different than other treatments with respect to progeny development, sample weight loss caused by feeding, and weight of the feeding damage itself. Progeny production was correlated with grain damage. No progeny of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) developed on the treated corn, but there was some variation in insect damage, with less damage in those treatments involving the EC formulation. Progeny production of Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) was at the lowest in the combination of 1.0 ppm deltamethrin EC and 2.5 ppm methoprene. The resulting insect damage was the lowest in this combination as well. Results of this study were used by the registrant (Central Life Sciences) in the United States (US) to modify the commercial formulation to replace the deltamethrin SC with the EC, at label rates of either 0.5 ppm EC + 1.25 ppm methoprene, or 1.0 ppm EC + 2.5 ppm methoprene, on wheat, corn, and rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessArticle
Testing the Insecticidal Activity of Nanostructured Alumina on Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Under Laboratory Conditions Using Galvanized Steel Containers
Insects 2018, 9(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9030087 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Most stored-grain pest insects increase their population within a relatively short time, causing serious damage to stored products. Sitophilus oryzae (L.) is one of the world’s major stored-grain pest insects and was chosen as the model insect for our studies. This study compared [...] Read more.
Most stored-grain pest insects increase their population within a relatively short time, causing serious damage to stored products. Sitophilus oryzae (L.) is one of the world’s major stored-grain pest insects and was chosen as the model insect for our studies. This study compared the efficacy of three different dusts under laboratory conditions: aluminum dust (nanostructured alumina), DiatomiD®, and Protect-It® (commercial diatomaceous earth). Parental survival, grain damage, and progeny production were measured at 250 and 500 ppm in treated wheat. The tests were conducted in 400 mL galvanized steel jars, an experimental model used for the first time to measure the effectiveness of nanostructured alumina, since most studies have been typically performed in small petri dishes. Parental survival obtained was highest in the untreated controls, followed in decreasing order by DiatomiD®, Protect-It®, and nanostructured alumina (NSA). NSA caused the greatest mortality. All treatments significantly reduced grain weight loss and frass production in wheat infested by S. oryzae. The degree of progeny (F1) suppression was directly related to the product and treatment rate, progeny being significantly suppressed by NSA in wheat followed by Protect-It® and DiatomiD®. Therefore, NSA had a greater impact on insect population dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Minimal Thermal Requirements for Development and Activity of Stored Product and Food Industry Pests (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera and Blattodea): A Review
Insects 2019, 10(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050149 - 23 May 2019
Abstract
Low temperatures play an important role in arthropods because they affect both the individual and population development of all physiological and behavioural activities. Manipulation with low temperatures is a primary nonchemical pest control method. For stored product and food industry practitioners, a knowledge [...] Read more.
Low temperatures play an important role in arthropods because they affect both the individual and population development of all physiological and behavioural activities. Manipulation with low temperatures is a primary nonchemical pest control method. For stored product and food industry practitioners, a knowledge of pest thermal requirements, in particular threshold temperatures at which development and other activities of a particular pest species cease, is of crucial importance. This review presents summary data regarding the lower temperature thresholds of 121 species of stored product and food industry pests from six arthropod taxa (Acari, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera, and Blattodea). In particular, this review collected and summarized information regarding the lower development thresholds, lower population thresholds, lower acoustic or respiratory thresholds, lower walking and flying thresholds and lower trap capture thresholds for flying and walking arthropods. The average lower development threshold (LDT) differed among orders: the lowest was reported for Acari (6.8 °C) and Diptera (8.1 °C), followed by Lepidoptera (11.3 °C) and Psocoptera (13.8 °C), and the highest was reported for Coleoptera (14 °C) and Blattodea (15 °C). An exclusion-function was established showing the percentage of pest species (n = 112) that were developmentally suppressed (excluded) due to temperatures reaching the LDT in the range of decreasing temperatures from 25 °C to 0 °C. We scaled various temperature thresholds from the lowest to highest temperature as follows: the walking threshold, the trap capture threshold for walking insects, the lower development threshold, lower population threshold, lower flying threshold and the lower trap capture threshold for flying pests. Important pest species were identified for which information regarding the lower temperature threshold is missing, or for which the information is too variable and should be refined in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessReview
Influences of Stored Product Insect Movements on Integrated Pest Management Decisions
Insects 2019, 10(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040100 - 07 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Insect movement inside and outside grain bulks and processed products influences pest management decisions. Movement allows insects to find essential food resources, shelters (refuges), warmer and/or humid locations, mating and egg-laying sites, even when they are rare in fields, buildings, mills, warehouses, and [...] Read more.
Insect movement inside and outside grain bulks and processed products influences pest management decisions. Movement allows insects to find essential food resources, shelters (refuges), warmer and/or humid locations, mating and egg-laying sites, even when they are rare in fields, buildings, mills, warehouses, and inside grain masses. This review discussed the advantages and disadvantages of stored product insect movements, and the influence of insect mobility on some integrated pest management practices. Insect movement (1) results in clumped insect spatial distributions and thus makes large sample sizes necessary for monitoring; (2) makes trapping more efficient, but is influenced by many factors; (3) allows control methods to be effective, but requires pest management programs to be area-wide; (4) makes eradication of quarantine pests difficult and commodities are quickly re-infested; and (5) results in a diverse genetic pool and speeds the development of resistance to pesticides. Any element of an IPM approach should use the knowledge of insect movement. Reasons for the difficult interpretation of cryptic movement behaviours of insects were provided and future research areas were suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessReview
Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae as Tools in Post-Harvest Integrated Pest Management
Insects 2019, 10(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040085 - 27 Mar 2019
Abstract
Consumers are increasingly demanding pesticide-free grain/legumes and processed foods. Additionally, there are more restrictions, or complete loss, of insecticides labelled for use in managing stored grain insects in post-harvest ecosystems. Suppression of post-harvest pests using parasitic wasps is a more sustainable alternative than [...] Read more.
Consumers are increasingly demanding pesticide-free grain/legumes and processed foods. Additionally, there are more restrictions, or complete loss, of insecticides labelled for use in managing stored grain insects in post-harvest ecosystems. Suppression of post-harvest pests using parasitic wasps is a more sustainable alternative than chemical pesticides. Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Pteromalus cerealellae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are two important parasitoids that limit economically important pests of stored products. Host searching ability and reproductive performances of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae depend on a wide range of factors, such as host species, commodities, and environmental conditions. Further, use of entomopathogens can complement the ability of parasitoids to regulate pest populations. This review provides information on aspects of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae biology and successful regulation of post-harvest pest populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
Open AccessReview
Sanitation Improves Stored Product Insect Pest Management
Insects 2019, 10(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10030077 - 17 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is a large suite of insects that attack anthropogenic agricultural goods after harvest. Proper sanitation programs for food facilities are now recognized as the foundation of good integrated pest management (IPM) programs for stored products throughout the post-harvest supply chain. While good [...] Read more.
There is a large suite of insects that attack anthropogenic agricultural goods after harvest. Proper sanitation programs for food facilities are now recognized as the foundation of good integrated pest management (IPM) programs for stored products throughout the post-harvest supply chain. While good sanitation programs are generally thought to reduce the abundance and diversity of insects, there has been less appreciation of the manifold ways that sanitation interacts with a range of other IPM tactics to modulate their efficacy. Here, we review the literature on how the effectiveness of chemical, physical/cultural, biological, and behaviorally-based control tactics varies with changes in sanitation. In addition, we discuss how sanitation may affect ongoing pheromone- and kairomone-based monitoring programs. Where possible, we quantitatively compile and analyze the impact of sanitation on the fold-change in the efficacy of IPM tactics. We found that decreased sanitation negatively affected the efficacy of most tactics examined, with a mean 1.3–17-fold decrease in efficacy under poorer sanitation compared to better sanitation. Sanitation had neutral or mixed impacts on a few tactics as well. Overall, the literature suggests that sanitation should be of the utmost importance for food facility managers concerned about the efficacy of a wide range of management tactics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Commercially Available Essential Oil Formulas as Repellents Against the Stored-Product Pest Alphitobius diaperinus
Insects 2019, 10(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040096 - 01 Apr 2019
Abstract
The main aim of the presented paper is to assess the potential repellent effect of selected essential oils (EOs) against the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus), which can cause economic losses in storage and in the poultry industry. Due to the development [...] Read more.
The main aim of the presented paper is to assess the potential repellent effect of selected essential oils (EOs) against the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus), which can cause economic losses in storage and in the poultry industry. Due to the development of pesticide resistance in A. diaperinus populations, as well as an attempt to limit extensive use of potentially harmful pesticides in food-related industries, there is a strong need for the development of alternative methods of dealing with A. diaperinus infestations. Because of their cost-effectiveness, availability and low vertebrate toxicity, EOs are promising agents in pest management. In the presented paper four off-the-shelf EOs: mint, vanilla, lemon and citronella (and mixtures of them) were tested as potential repellents. Moreover, a novel preference assay, providing an extended analysis of the preference and the locomotor response, was used. The most effective EOs were: citronella and lemon. EOs mixtures were generally more repellent than individual EOs, with the lemon and vanilla 1:1 mixture acting as the strongest repellent. A few of the tested EOs caused significant alterations to the locomotor activity, although no direct relation was observed. In conclusion, EOs can be potentially used as repellent agents in A. diaperinus management. Additionally, data on the locomotor activity may lead to designing better push-pull strategies in pest management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
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