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Insects 2019, 10(3), 77;

Sanitation Improves Stored Product Insect Pest Management

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, 1515 College Ave., Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, 123 Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Department of Engineering, Kansas State University, 1046 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)
PDF [2878 KB, uploaded 20 March 2019]


There is a large suite of insects that attack anthropogenic agricultural goods after harvest. Proper sanitation programs for food facilities are now recognized as the foundation of good integrated pest management (IPM) programs for stored products throughout the post-harvest supply chain. While good sanitation programs are generally thought to reduce the abundance and diversity of insects, there has been less appreciation of the manifold ways that sanitation interacts with a range of other IPM tactics to modulate their efficacy. Here, we review the literature on how the effectiveness of chemical, physical/cultural, biological, and behaviorally-based control tactics varies with changes in sanitation. In addition, we discuss how sanitation may affect ongoing pheromone- and kairomone-based monitoring programs. Where possible, we quantitatively compile and analyze the impact of sanitation on the fold-change in the efficacy of IPM tactics. We found that decreased sanitation negatively affected the efficacy of most tactics examined, with a mean 1.3–17-fold decrease in efficacy under poorer sanitation compared to better sanitation. Sanitation had neutral or mixed impacts on a few tactics as well. Overall, the literature suggests that sanitation should be of the utmost importance for food facility managers concerned about the efficacy of a wide range of management tactics. View Full-Text
Keywords: sanitation; integrated pest management; behavior; efficacy; chemical control; biological control; cultural control; exclusion; monitoring sanitation; integrated pest management; behavior; efficacy; chemical control; biological control; cultural control; exclusion; monitoring

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Morrison, W.R., III; Bruce, A.; Wilkins, R.V.; Albin, C.E.; Arthur, F.H. Sanitation Improves Stored Product Insect Pest Management. Insects 2019, 10, 77.

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