Next Article in Journal
Bionomics and Ecological Services of Megaloptera Larvae (Dobsonflies, Fishflies, Alderflies)
Next Article in Special Issue
Using Long-term Capture Data to Predict Trogoderma variabile Ballion and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) Population Patterns
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Different Drying Methods on Nutrient Quality of the Yellow Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sanitation Improves Stored Product Insect Pest Management
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae as Tools in Post-Harvest Integrated Pest Management

Agricultural Research Station, Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA 31030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(4), 85;
Submission received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Stored Product Insect Pest Management)


Consumers are increasingly demanding pesticide-free grain/legumes and processed foods. Additionally, there are more restrictions, or complete loss, of insecticides labelled for use in managing stored grain insects in post-harvest ecosystems. Suppression of post-harvest pests using parasitic wasps is a more sustainable alternative than chemical pesticides. Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Pteromalus cerealellae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are two important parasitoids that limit economically important pests of stored products. Host searching ability and reproductive performances of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae depend on a wide range of factors, such as host species, commodities, and environmental conditions. Further, use of entomopathogens can complement the ability of parasitoids to regulate pest populations. This review provides information on aspects of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae biology and successful regulation of post-harvest pest populations.

1. Introduction

Stored product pests cause severe economic losses due to the infestation of commodities in stored grain ecosystems including silos, bakeries, food processing industries, flourmills, and pet food factories. Stored grain managers rely substantially on strategies involving the application of synthetic insecticides to manage stored product pests [1,2]. Although insecticides can be effective, their repeated and indiscriminative use will cause insecticide resistance and detrimental non-target effects, potentially leading to the loss of biodiversity [3]. Insecticide use patterns in post-harvest integrated pest management (IPM) could expose farmers and commodity warehouse workers to acute or chronic exposure to fumigant volatiles [4]. Additionally, consumers could potentially be exposed to pesticide residues in foods [4]. Furthermore, restrictions on insecticide use patterns and increasing consumer demand for pesticide-free foods are catalyzing the search for safe, non-toxic, and sustainable pest management strategies in post-harvest systems [5,6].
Parasitic wasps present an alternative and environmentally compatible approach to overcoming the challenges of synthetic insecticide use in post-harvest systems. Parasitoids do not negatively affect the environment, humans or beneficial organisms. These natural enemies can reproduce continuously for as long as the hosts or alternative hosts are available, thus ensuring sustainability of their populations for long-term regulation of pest populations [7]. Moreover, released parasitoid wasps have the ability to disperse very quickly and locate hosts in hidden corners and crevices in the storage structures [8,9]. In addition, potential allergens including insect exuviae and fragments are significantly reduced when parasitoids are used compared with other IPM strategies [10]. The parasitoids Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Pteromalus cerealellae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are among the important ectoparasitoids of stored product moths and beetles, respectively.
This paper examines the distribution, life history, host range, behavior, and mode of parasitism of the two parasitoids. The efficacies of the parasitoids in laboratory experiments and field trials were also reviewed. The information provided here will assist in designing IPM programs utilizing biological control.

2. Distribution

Habrobracon hebetor and P. cerealellae are cosmopolitan in distribution [11,12]. The taxonomy of H. hebetor has been revised several times and this species is also known under the following synonyms: Bracon hebetor Say, Bracon juglandis Ashmead, and Hebrabracon junglandis Ashmead [13]. In the older literature this wasp is commonly called B. hebetor. The post-harvest populations of H. hebetor fluctuate throughout the year [14,15]. While environmental conditions in spring are not particularly conducive to H. hebetor, high summer temperatures favor population increases, and wasp populations generally reach maximum numbers in autumn.
Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) has other synonyms including Habroaytus cerealellae (Ashmead 1902) and Pteromalus semota (Walker 1834) [16]. Documented distribution of P. cerealellae extends to Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Europe and North America [16].

3. Life History and Mating Behavior of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Habrobracon hebetor is a small parasitic wasp that is only 2 mm in length, weighs less than 1 mg, is known to have cryptic sibling species that attacks the crop pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and completes its development in about 9 days when reared on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) at 25 ± 2 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and 14:10 (L:D) [17,18,19]. Female wasps preferably parasitize fourth or fifth instars of moth hosts for egg laying. At 28 °C, female H. hebetor lays 17.46 and 9.64 eggs per day on diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella, respectively [20]. Eggs (0.52 mm length and 0.12 mm width) of H. hebetor are hymenopteriform in shape and are typically attached to paralyzed host larvae. H. hebetor has an extremely short duration of development that lasts only 12 days from egg to adult [21,22]. The last instar (2.64 mm in length, 0.29 mm head capsule, and 0.95 mm width) lasts about 4 days before spinning small white cocoons for pupation [21]. The pupal stage lasts about a week [23]. Free-living adult parasitoids begin to search for host larvae to parasitize and lay eggs on immediately after pupation [24]. The mean number of lifetime adult progeny per female is 173.7 in 22 days, with an offspring sex ratio of 1:1 [25]. Male adults have long antennae with 18–20 cylindrical flagellar segments, while females have shorter antennae and are larger in size [26,27,28].
Habrobracon hebetor displays the arrhenotokous haplo-diploid sex determination mechanism [29,30]. Haploid male offspring develop from unfertilized eggs parthenogenetically, while diploid males or females emerge from fertilized eggs [29]. Females that copulate with diploid males have lower fertility and produce more male-biased broods, compared with those copulated to haploid males [29]. Females avoid mating with males of the same brood; further, newly emerged females have the ability to recognize their brood mates [11,29]. H. hebetor are synovigenic, displaying increased egg production when provisioned diapausing larval P. interpunctella [20]. Female H. hebetor reared on non-diapausing larvae mature more eggs after three days, while those reared on diapausing P. interpunctella larvae mature more eggs from the second day [20]. In addition, oviposition peaks on the third day when H. hebetor are reared on diapausing host larvae and on the fourth day if reared on non-diapausing host larvae [20].
Adults of H. hebetor are capable of entering photoperiod-induced diapause if exposed to a 10L:14D light regimen at 17.5 °C or 20 °C [31]. Adult wasps, particularly those that are diapausing, are less susceptible to low temperatures and can survive at −5 °C for up to seven days [31]. Egg and pupal stages of H. hebetor had supercooling points below −25 °C, but no pupae survived up to 12 d at −5 °C [32].
The pteromalid ectoparasitoid P. cerealellae parasitizes a broad host range of pests that develop inside cereal grains and legumes [33]. Adult females oviposit on the late instar of hosts inside the cereal kernels or legume seeds [33,34]. P. cerealellae eggs are also hymenopteriform in shape with dimensions of 0.54 × 0.19 mm [12]. Freshly deposited eggs have a transparent chorion [35] that becomes opaque and white after 24–36 h [35]. Eggs hatch into 13-segmented first instars with a head capsule width that ranges from 0.30 ± 0.02 mm to 0.32 ± 0.01 mm [12]. P. cerealellae has four larval stages and the larvae have distinct tusk-shaped mandibles, while the pupae and adults have toothed mandibles [35]. Larvae complete development in about 7 days [12]. Adults start to emerge following completion of pupation in 5 days and male adults emerge first [12]. The developmental period from egg to adult at 30 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH, and 12:12 (L:D) h photoperiod lasts about 11 and 12 days for males and females, respectively [35]. Adult male and female P. cerealellae can be differentiated based on length of the antennae. The females have longer antennae (1328 ± 15.2 µm) than males (1308 ± 21.9 µm) [12].

4. Hosts of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Habrobracon hebetor mainly attacks larvae of Lepidopteran stored product pests including P. interpunctella, Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller), Ephestia cautella (Walker), Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller), Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus), and Amyelois transitella (Walker) [35]. Some strains of H. hebetor also attack field pests such as H. armigera, Maruca testulalis (Geyer), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), and Earias vittella (Fabricius) [36].
Pteromalus cerealellae is a parasitoid of internally developing insects including Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius), Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), and Sitophilus spp. [34].

5. Mode of Parasitism of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Habrobracon hebetor relies on an insecticidal toxin present in its venom gland for paralyzing the host larvae [17]. The wasp’s venom glands are composed of a single layer of eight elongated cells that are connected to the ovipositor [37]. Adult females inject toxin into host larvae by stinging through the cuticle [23]. In H. hebetor, the toxin contains five polypeptides, Brh-I, II, III, IV, and V, with a molecular weight of about 70 kDa [17]. These polypeptides block glutamatergic neuromuscular transmission at the presynaptic nerve terminal, resulting in the death of host larvae within 15 min [38,39,40]. In addition, the venom of H. hebetor also affects other physiological activities of paralyzed host larvae including decline in the production of reactive oxygen species, suppression of phenoloxidase activity in host hemolymph, and reduced encapsulation of hemocytes [41].
Only female parasitoids feed on the hemolymph of paralyzed host larvae during oviposition. Male wasps can feed on artificial diets including diluted honey [37]. Larvae of H. hebetor feed and develop on the cuticle of the paralyzed host until pupation [41]. Larvae of H. hebetor can switch to another paralyzed host larva for feeding upon the depletion of nutrients in the immediate host larva [37].
While laying eggs, P. cerealellae females inject venom proteins into the host larvae using a stinging apparatus [34]. Injection of venom into the host results in fatal paralysis, which ultimately causes death of the host [34]. Adult and larval stages of P. cerealellae derive nutrients from the host hemolymph that oozes from the punctured integument [34].

6. Factors Influencing Host Parasitism and Reproductive Efficacies of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

6.1. Effect of Host Density on Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Numerous laboratory studies have reported the effect of host density on the biology of H. hebetor [20,42,43,44]. Generally, parasitism by H. hebetor increases with the host densities up to an optimum parasitoid-host ratio [43]. In a previous study by Sanower et al., percentage mortality of non-diapausing host larvae resulting from parasitism by H. hebetor decreased beyond an optimum parasitoid-host density ratio, but mortality of diapausing larvae was more than 95% at all host densities investigated [20].
Host density also affects the reproductive efficacy and weight of F1 progeny of H. hebetor. Egg dispersion by H. hebetor on larvae of P. interpunctella has been shown to decrease as the host density increased [43]. In a study by Rotary and Gerling, a high host parasitoid ratio increased the percentage egg hatch and adult emergence by H. hebetor when reared on G. mellonella [45]. In a study by Ghimire and Phillips, progeny numbers of H. hebetor parasitizing late instars of P. interpunctella were higher at high host densities compared to lower densities [44]. The influence of host density on the sex ratio of H. hebetor has also been investigated [44,45,46,47]. A previous study showed that the offspring sex ratio (male/total) increased with decreasing host/parasitoid ratio [47]. In addition, it has been reported that the egg laying potential of the wasp increased with an increase in host density and this resulted in male biased progeny [43,48].
Host density has been shown to strongly influence the host mortality and progeny of P. cerealellae. A previous study showed that the mortality of host larvae, C. maculatus, increased with host density [49]. The attack response of P. cerealella to weevil larvae was best described by a type III functional response using an egg limitation model [50]. In this model, the mean attack rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be 1.7 and the upper limit of the response was 24 weevil larvae per individual parasitoid within a 48-h period [50]. The presence of P. cerealella resulted in reduced weight losses of cowpea resulting from weevil infestation [50].

6.2. Effect of Host Size on Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Host size is a key factor that influences functional responses of parasitic wasps [51]. H. hebetor has shown a ten-fold higher attraction toward larger mature wandering larvae than small young larvae [16]. In addition, H. hebetor prefers larger sized host larvae for egg laying [51]. In a previous study by Mbata et al., daily lifetime fecundity of H. hebetor was higher on the larger larvae of A. transitella (55.00 ± 1.90 mg) and G. mellonella (262.78 ± 15.17 mg) compared to smaller P. interpunctella larvae (20.15 ± 0.92 mg) [33]. Larger larvae provide better food resources and surface area, which influences oviposition in the wasp [23,36]. Furthermore, nutrient-rich diapausing larvae have higher body masses and provide better resources to H. hebetor for egg production [20,52].
Host mortality due to parasitism has been shown to vary linearly with increasing host size [53]. It has been reported that the host size influences the reproductive performances of P. cerealellae [54]. Larvae of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) have been found to be more susceptible to P. cerealellae than those of Sitophilus zeamais and this was ascribed to the larger size of S. cerealella larvae [53]. Weights of male and female offspring of this wasp correlated with the size of host, but the weights of female parasitoid progeny were more influenced by the size of host larvae [53,54].

6.3. Effect of Host Species, Physiological State of Host, and Maternal Diet of Parasitoid on Progeny of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Certain host species enhance reproductive performance of wasps better than others. For example, H. hebetor has been shown to perform better on stored product moths, such as E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella, than on crop pests including H. armigera and Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) [36,55].
Smith et al. showed that rearing P. cerealella on S. cerealellae resulted in higher progeny numbers compared with rearing the parasitoid on S. zeamais [53]. S. cerealellae was found to be highly susceptible to P. cerealellae when parent parasitoids were also reared on S. cerealellae, but when parent parasitoids were reared on S. zeamais, parasitism of S. cerealellae decreased [53].
The physiological state of the host has been shown to affect the fecundity and weight of parasitoid offspring [20]. H. hebetor reared on diapausing P. interpunctella larvae produced more offspring, which were heavier than offspring from parent parasitoids that were fed on diapausing host larvae.
Progeny production, development, and foraging behavior of H. hebetor are strongly affected by the diet of the host [56]. A study on the fecundity, developmental period, longevity of adults, and offspring sex ratio of H. hebetor on the larvae of E. kuehniella raised on four different diets (rice flour, corn flour, wheat flour, and barley flour) demonstrated that the highest number of F1 females was recorded when the host diet was rice flour [56]. However, the total number of adult progeny was significantly higher when H. hebetor was reared on the larvae of E. kuehniella fed on wheat flour combined with 20% glycerol diet [57]. Conversely, a lower number of progeny was obtained when the host diet was whole-wheat flour only [57].
Supplementing parasitoid hosts with sugar enhanced the survival of P. cerealellae and resulted in a female-biased sex ratio of offspring [58]. However, the longevity of female wasps was higher than those of the males, irrespective of whether parent parasitoids were provisioned with sugar supplement or not. Lifetime fecundity of P. cerealellae was not affected by diet [58].

6.4. Effect of Available Space on Efficiency of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

The results of container size on the efficacy of parasitoids with respect to the mortality of hosts have not been consistent. In a laboratory experiment, the proportion of paralyzed larvae did not vary remarkably in response to container size (0.0001672 to 0.00038 m3), and more than 90% of host larvae (diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of P. interpunctella) were parasitized by H. hebetor [59]. However, parasitization of E. kuehniella decreased as the volume of storage structures scaled up from 0.006415 to 8 m3 [60]. In another study, the mortality of P. interpunctella larvae exposed to H. hebetor in a cage (0.0029 m3) and a storage house (25–32 m3) also demonstrated that the mortality of hosts decreased as available storage space increased [61].
In a previous study by Mbata et al., mortality of C. maculatus larvae due to parasitism by P. cerealellae was significantly higher in small containers of about 5 cm3 compared with larger containers [49]. However, mortality was not significantly different in containers that ranged in size from 57.4 to 202.4 cm3 [49]. The spacing between seeds likely played a role in the differences in mortality [49]. It is probable that different parasitoids will have different search distances, and this is likely to influence parasitoid efficacy in large storage structures. The numbers of parasitoid progeny were not affected by size of storage structures. In previous studies, the numbers of adult progeny of H. hebetor were not different when the sizes of rearing containers were varied [20,44] and the results were consistent when P. interpunctella, E. kuehniella, or the combination of both species were offered to H. hebetor [51].

6.5. Effect of Semiochemicals on the Recruitment of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae to Storage Containers

The potential role of semiochemicals in the location of hosts or host habitats by parasitoids of the families Braconidae and Pteromalidae have been studied [33,62]. Volatile compounds emitted by the host, or host-related odor sources, such as feces, frass, debris, host habitat, or food, were identified as the stimuli eliciting the strongest attractions to female parasitoids of H. hebetor and P. cerealellae [33,62,63,64]. Stimuli have been identified to elicit short- and long-range responses by the parasitoids [62]. The stimuli that elicit long-range responses recruit parasitoids to the habitat of the hosts, while short-range responses lead the parasitoids to the host. Some authors hypothesize that integrating these semiochemicals with parasitoid mass release programs could enhance parasitoid efficiency [62].

6.6. Effect of Age on the Fecundity of Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Parasitoid age is a critical factor influencing the reproductive performances of H. hebetor [65]. Older females of H. hebetor (10 days old) have been shown to produce fewer progeny when reared on E. kuehniella and G. mellonella; progeny reduction when reared on E. kuehniella or G. mellonella was 34% and 26.7%, respectively [65]. Male-biases of parasitoid offspring became more pronounced with older parasitoids, irrespective of whether they were reared on E. kuehniella or G. mellonella [65].
With respect to P. cerealellae, progeny production has been shown to be significantly affected by the parasitoid age [55]. In a study by Onagbola et al., provisioning with supplemental food, such as glucose for P. cerealellae females, averted the effect of aging on oviposition, as 16–20-day-old female parasitoids that were fed on sugar solution produced significantly more progeny than starved females of the same age group [55].

6.7. Influence of Temperature on Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae

Host parasitism and life history traits of H. hebetor are affected by abiotic stresses including temperature, moisture, and light [66,67]. Foraging behavior and reproductive performance of H. hebetor are affected by temperature inside storage facilities [68,69,70]. Egg production by the Braconid ectoparasitoid has been shown to increase with temperature and maximum fecundity occurred at 25 °C [68], while egg laying capacity was observed to decline at cold temperatures of 3 and 5 °C [71,72,73]. In addition, cooler storage temperatures have the potential to decrease parasitism, resulting in a decrease in host mortality [72]. Though the developmental time of immature stages of H. hebetor have been shown to decrease with increases in temperature [72], the lower threshold observed for development was between 11–12 °C [74]. The larval stages of H. hebetor are very sensitive to temperature. H. hebetor can survive and complete its life cycle within a temperature range of 15–40 °C [75]. The sex ratio of H. hebetor is affected by temperature and exposure time [69]. For instance, the sex ratio of H. hebetor offspring skewed towards males when parents were kept at 3 or 5 °C for 4 or 3 weeks, respectively [72].

7. Combined Application of Parasitoids and Other Biocontrol Agents

7.1. Combination of Parasitoid Species

In a study by Castañé et al., Habrobracon hebetor was able to affect 30% and 40% mortality of E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella in small storage experiments; interestingly, combining H. hebetor and Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) against the same hosts in the same system did not generate host mortalities that were significantly higher than the application of H. hebetor alone [61].

7.2. Combination of Habrobracon hebetor and Bacillus thuringiensis

A study showed that combined application of H. hebetor and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) caused 86% mortality of the exposed P. interpunctella larvae, while deploying H. hebetor and Bt separately resulted in about 35% and 42% mortality, respectively [76]. It has been reported that the efficiency of H. hebetor as a parasitoid increased when the wasp was cultured with Bt [77]. For instance, 64%, 66%, and 73% mortality rates of Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Gelleridae) (Stainton) larvae were obtained when H. hebetor was reared on a diet fortified with LC25, LC10, and LC50 of Bt, respectively. Conversely, wasps reared without Bt resulted in 37% mortality of host larvae [77]. In addition, synergy has been demonstrated between Bt and H. hebetor in the management of the field pest Sodoptera littoralis Boisd (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) [78]. However, interaction between the wasp and Bt reduced the oviposition and progeny size of the parasitoid [73].

7.3. Habrobracon hebetor and Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs)

Entomopathogenic nematodes of the families of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae have been studied extensively for the management of a wide range of stored product pests [79]. Entomopathogens have the potential to be incorporated into biological control strategies of post-harvest IPM programs. Nematodes parasitize host larvae through their mutualistic relationship with bacteria (Xenorhabdus for Steinernematidae and Photorhabdus for Heterorhabditidae) that inhabit the intestine of the nematodes [80]. The infective juvenile (IJ) nematodes enter the hemocoel of the hosts through natural apertures including the mouth, anus, or spiracles and release pathogenic bacteria that multiply and kill the hosts within 48 h [80].
Larvae of P. interpunctella are highly susceptible to the combined application of Heterorhabditis indica IJs and the parasitoid H. hebetor. The interaction between the two has been reported to result in either additive or synergistic increases in the mortality of P. interpunctella [80]. Nematode–parasitoid interaction had no significant effect on the survival of adult and pupal parasitoids but affected the survival of the parasitoid larvae, suggesting that proper timing of the application of IJs of EPN and parasitoid release could circumvent the impact the nematodes could have on the larvae of parasitoids [80]. Moreover, it has also been noted that other parasitoids have been integrated with entomopathogenic nematodes for successful management of post-harvest pests [81].

7.4. Integration of Habrobracon hebetor with Entomopathogenic Fungi

Entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to contribute significantly to the suppression of stored insect pests. These fungi have also been investigated for integration with parasitoids [82,83,84]. Strains of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae have been found to be pathogenic to larvae of H. hebetor, but not the pupae [84]. However, some isolates of B. bassiana (EUT105) and M. anisopliae (M-396) did not show adverse effects on the larval and pupal stages of H. hebetor [84]. Stinging by H. hebetor has been shown to increase the susceptibility of G. mellonella to B. bassiana, because the H. hebetor attack increased the conidial germination of B. bassiana on host larvae resulting in reduced phenoloxidase (PO) activity and hemocyte encapsulation rate in G. mellonella larvae [85,86]. These entomopathogenic fungi strains could therefore be integrated with parasitic wasps in the management of stored product pests.

8. Commercial Applications of Parasitoids and Integration with Other Natural Enemies

A few studies have demonstrated the potential of parasitoid wasps in the management of post-harvest pests in commercial warehouses. For example, H. hebetor occurs naturally and was found with other hymenopteran wasps on E. kuehniella-infested wheat in Italy and was also reported in fig storage warehouses in California and Greece [87,88,89]. The use of H. hebetor with Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella in organic bakeries and mills in Germany and Austria has been demonstrated to be effective [90]. The combined use of H. hebetor and mating disruption (MD) to manage P. interpunctella populations in a chocolate factory (about 2000 m2 area and 5 m height) decreased moths captured on traps [91]. In a peanut stock warehouse, the release of H. hebetor alone resulted in the 66.1% and 97.3% reduction of P. interpunctella and C. cautella, respectively [92]. Combining H. hebetor with Trichogramma pretiosum increased mortality of P. interpunctella to 84.0% and that of C. cautella to 98.0% [92].

9. Conclusions

Extensive information is currently available regarding foraging behavior and functional responses of parasitoids to facilitate implementation of bio-rational integrated pest management strategies in post-harvest systems. These parasitoids should be deployed in the management of post-harvest pests in the organic food industries, especially when a few insect fragments could be tolerated. The integration of parasitoids and complimentary IPM tools can be deployed in the management of residual populations of stored product pests in warehouses and other grain or processed food storage structures. H. hebetor and P. cerealellae are cosmopolitan in distribution and well suited to a range of climatic and environmental conditions. Their integration into pest management can and should be more broadly implemented.


The authors are thankful to Michael Toews, Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, USA, for painstakingly editing this manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. El-Aziz, S.E. Control strategies of stored product pests. J. Entomol. 2011, 8, 101–122. [Google Scholar]
  2. Dubey, N.K.; Srivastava, B.; Kumar, A. Current status of plant products as botanical pesticides in storage pest management. J. Biopestic. 2008, 1, 182–186. [Google Scholar]
  3. Champ, B.R.; Dyte, C.E. FAO global survey of pesticide susceptibility of stored grain pests. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 1977, 25, 49–67. [Google Scholar]
  4. Damalas, C.A.; Eleftherohorinos, I.G. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1402–1419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Wesseling, C.; Corriols, M.; Bravo, V. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2005, 207, 697–705. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Spadaro, D.; Gullino, M.L. State of the art and future prospects of the biological control of post-harvest fruit diseases. Int. J. Food Microbial. 2004, 91, 185–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Ueno, T.; Ueno, K. The effects of host-feeding on synovigenic egg development in an endoparasitic wasp, Itoplectis naranyae. J. Insect Sci. 2007, 7, 46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Quicke, D.L.; Fitton, M.G. Ovipositor steering mechanisms in parasitic wasps of the families Gasteruptiidae and Aulacidae (Hymenoptera). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 1995, 261, 99–103. [Google Scholar]
  9. Wang, X.; Yang, Z. Behavioral mechanisms of parasitic wasps for searching concealed insect hosts. Acta Ecol. Sin. 2008, 28, 1257–1269. [Google Scholar]
  10. Flinn, P.W.; Hagstrum, D.W. Augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps in stored wheat reduces insect fragments in flour. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2001, 37, 179–186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  11. Ode, P.J.; Antolin, M.F.; Strand, M.R. Brood-mate avoidance in the parasitic wasp Bracon hebetor Say. Anim. Behav. 1995, 49, 1239–1248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Onagbola, E. Studies on the Biology and host Location Behavior of Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a Parasitoid of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  13. Krombrien, P.D.; Hurd, P.D.; Smith, D.R.; Burks, B.D. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico Vol. I; Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC, USA, 1979. [Google Scholar]
  14. Antolin, M.F.; Strand, M.R. Mating system of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ecol. Entomol. 1992, 17, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Ode, P.J.; Antolin, M.F.; Strand, M.R. Constrained oviposition and female-biased sex allocation in a parasitic wasp. Oecologia 1997, 109, 547–555. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Hagstrum, D.W.; Subramanyam, B. Stored-Product Insect Resource; Woodhead Publishing and AACC International Press: St. Paul, MN, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  17. Quistad, G.B.; Leisy, D.J. Insecticidal Toxins from the parasitic wasp, Bracon hebetor. U.S. Patent US5554592A, 10 September 1996. [Google Scholar]
  18. Saxena, H.; Ponnusamy, D.; Asif Iquebal, M. Seasonal parasitism and biological characteristics of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)—A potential larval ectoparasitoid of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a chickpea ecosystem. Biocontrol. Sci. Technol. 2012, 22, 305–318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Heimpel, G.E.; Antolin, M.F.; Franqui, R.A.; Strand, M.R. Reproductive isolation and genetic variation between two strains of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biol. Control 1997, 9, 149–156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Sanower, W.; Mbata, G.N.; Payton, M.E. Improvement of reproductive performance of Habrobracon hebetor: Consideration of diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella. Biol. Control 2017, 118, 32–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Pezzini, C.; Jahnke, S.M.; Köhler, A. Morphological characterization of immature stages of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) ectoparasitoid of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). J. Hymenopt. Res. 2017, 60, 157–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Saadat, D.; Bandani, A.R.; Dastranj, M. Comparison of the developmental time of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on five different lepidopteran host species and its relationship with digestive enzymes. Eur. J. Entomol. 2014, 111, 495–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Ghimire, M.N. Reproductive Performance of the Parasitoid Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Various Host Species of Lepidoptera. Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  24. Desouhant, E.; Driessen, G.; Amat, I.; Bernstein, C. Host and food searching in a parasitic wasp Venturia canescens: A trade-off between current and future reproduction? Anim. Behav. 2005, 70, 145–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Youm, O.; Gilstrap, F.E. Life-fertility tables of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Heliocheilus albipunctella de Joannis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Int. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 1993, 14, 455–459. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Abbott, B.D.; Grosch, D.S. Antennal bud development in Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) examined by light and electron microscopy during the third and fourth instars. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1987, 80, 353–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Dweck, H.K.; Gadallah, N.S. Description of the antennal sensilla of Habrobracon hebetor. BioControl 2008, 53, 841–856. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Harvey, J.A.; Strand, M.R. Sexual size and development time dimorphism in a parasitoid wasp: An exception to the rule? Eur. J. Entomol. 2003, 100, 485–492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Antolin, M.F.; Ode, P.J.; Heimpel, G.E.; O’Hara, R.B.; Strand, M.R. Population structure, mating system, and sex-determining allele diversity of the parasitoid wasp Habrobracon hebetor. Heredity 2003, 91, 373–381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Altuntaş, H.; Kilic, A.Y.; Sivas, H. The effects of parasitism by the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on host hemolymph proteins in the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Turk. J. Zool. 2010, 34, 409–416. [Google Scholar]
  31. Chen, H.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, K.Y.; Throne, J.E. Induction of reproductive diapause in Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) when reared at different photoperiods at low temperatures. Environ. Entomol. 2012, 41, 697–705. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Carrillo, M.A.; Heimpel, G.E.; Moon, R.D.; Cannon, C.A.; Hutchison, W.D. Cold hardiness of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of pyralid moths. J. Insect Physiol. 2005, 51, 759–768. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Mbata, G.N.; Shu, S.; Phillips, T.W.; Ramaswamy, S.B. Semiochemical cues used by Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to locate its host, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2004, 97, 353–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Onagbola, E.O.; Fadamiro, H.Y. Assessment of frozen larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus as hosts for rearing Pteromalus cerealellae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Biol. Control 2009, 48, 36–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Ghimire, M.N.; Phillips, T.W. Oviposition and reproductive performance of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on six different pyralid host species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2014, 107, 809–817. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Dabhi, M.R.; Korat, D.M.; Vaishnav, P.R. Comparative biology of Bracon hebetor Say on seven lepidopteran hosts. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 2012, 24, 549–550. [Google Scholar]
  37. Beard, R.L. Toxicology of Habrobracon venom: A study of natural insecticides. Conn. Agric. Exp. Stn. New Haven Bull. 1952, 562, 1–27. [Google Scholar]
  38. Hagstrum, D.W.; Smittle, B.J. Host utilization by Bracon hebetor. Environ. Entomol. 1978, 7, 596–600. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Usherwood, P.T.; Machili, P. Chemical transmission at the insect excitatory neuromuscular synapse. Nature 1966, 210, 634–636. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Walther, C.; Rathmayer, W. The effect of Habrobracon venom on excitatory neuromuscular transmission in insects. J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 1974, 89, 23–38. [Google Scholar]
  41. Kryukova, N.A.; Dubovskiy, I.M.; Chertkova, E.A.; Vorontsova, Y.L.; Slepneva, I.A.; Glupov, V.V. The effect of Habrobracon hebetor venom on the activity of the prophenoloxidase system, the generation of reactive oxygen species and encapsulation in the haemolymph of Galleria mellonella larvae. J. Insect Physiol. 2011, 57, 796–800. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Eliopoulos, P.A.; Stathas, G.J. Life tables of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Anagasta kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Effect of host density. J. Econ. Entomol. 2008, 101, 982–988. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Yu, S.H.; Ryoo, M.I.; Na, J.H.; Choi, W.I. Effect of host density on egg dispersion and the sex ratio of progeny of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 2003, 39, 385–393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Ghimire, M.N.; Phillips, T.W. Mass rearing of Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Effects of host density, parasitoid density, and rearing containers. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2010, 46, 214–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Alam, M.; Alam, S.; Miah, M.; Mian, M.; Hossain, M. Mass rearing of Bracon hebetor (Hym.: Braconidae) on wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lep.: Pyralidae) with varying density of parasitoid and the host. J. Crop Prot. 2015, 5, 39–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Rotary, N.; Gerling, D. The influence of some external factors upon the sex ratio of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ. Entomol. 1973, 2, 134–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Benson, J.F. Intraspecific competition in the population dynamics of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Anim. Ecol. 1973, 42, 105–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Jamil, A.; Ul Abdin, Z.; Arshad, M.; Falabella, P.; Abbas, S.K.; Tahir, M.; Jamil, A.; Manzoor, A.; Shaina, H. Multiple effects of host density on egg density and the sex ratio of progeny of Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Pak. J. Zool. 2015, 47, 455–460. [Google Scholar]
  49. Mbata, G.N.; Thomas, A.; Fadamiro, H.F. Parasitism by Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on the Cowpea weevil, Callosbruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Host density, temperature effects, and host finding ability. Biol. Control 2005, 33, 286–292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Mbata, G.N.; Brewster, C.C. Functional response of Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on the cowpea weevil, Callosbruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), and interaction between parasitism and cowpea varietal susceptibility. Biocontrol 2009, 54, 751–761. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Akinkurolere, R.O.; Boyer, S.; Chen, H.; Zhang, H. Parasitism and host-location preference in Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Role of refuge, choice, and host instar. J. Econ. Entomol. 2009, 102, 610–615. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. Mbata, G.N.; Pascual-Villalobos, M.J.; Payton, M.E. Comparative mortality of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) exposed to monoterpenoids and low pressure. J. Econ. Entomol. 2012, 105, 679–685. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Smith, L.; Weaver, D.K.; Arbogast, R.T. Suitability of the maize weevil and angoumois grain moth as hosts for the parasitoids Anisopteromalus calandrae and Pteromalus cerealellae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 1995, 76, 171–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Wen, B.; Weaver, D.K.; Brower, J.H. Size preference and sex ratio for Pteromalus cerealellae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored corn. Environ. Entomol. 1995, 24, 1160–1166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Rafiee, D.H.; Hejazi, M.J.; Nouri, G.G.; Saber, M. Toxicity of some biorational and conventional insecticides to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Le-pidoptera: Noctuidae) and its ectoparasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Entomol. Soc. Iran 2008, 28, 27–73. [Google Scholar]
  56. Faal, M.A.H.; Shishehbor, P. Biological parameters of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Effect of host diet. J. Crop Prot. 2013, 2, 411–419. [Google Scholar]
  57. Eslampour, L.; Aramideh, S. Adult longevity, fertility and sex ratio of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Effect of host artificial diets. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 2016, 4, 189–192. [Google Scholar]
  58. Onagbola, E.O.; Fadamiro, H.Y.; Mbata, G.N. Longevity, fecundity, and progeny sex ratio of Pteromalus cerealellae in relation to diet, host provision, and mating. Biol. Control 2007, 40, 222–229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Warsi, S.; Mbata, G.N. Impact of peanut depth and container size on the parasitism of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Indian Meal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environ. Entomol. 2018, 47, 1226–1232. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Paust, A.; Reichmuth, C.; Büttner, C.; Prozell, S.; Adler, C.; Schöller, M. Spatial effects on competition between the larval parasitoids Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitising the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In Proceedings of the 9th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 15–18 October 2006; pp. 797–803. [Google Scholar]
  61. Castañé, C.; Riudavets, J.; Lucas, E. Parasitism of single or combined pyralid populations by Venturia canescens and Habrobracon hebetor in laboratory and storeroom conditions. J. Pest Sci. 2018, 91, 1421–1428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Mbata, G.N.; Eason, J.; Payton, M.E.; Davis, M.F. Putative host volatiles used by Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to locate larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Insect Behav. 2017, 30, 287–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Vet, L.E.; Groenewold, A.W. Semiochemicals and learning in parasitoids. J. Chem. Ecol. 1990, 16, 3119–3135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Blassioli-Moraes, M.C.; Borges, M.; Michereff, M.F.F.; Magalhães, D.M.; Laumann, R.A. Semiochemicals from plants and insects on the foraging behavior of Platygastridae egg parasitoids. Pesquisa Agropecuária Bras. 2016, 51, 454–464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  65. Gündüz, E.A.; Gülel, A. Investigation of fecundity and sex ratio in the parasitoid Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in relation to parasitoid age. Turk. J. Zool. 2005, 29, 291–294. [Google Scholar]
  66. Abram, P.K.; Cusumano, A.; Peri, E.; Brodeur, J.; Boivin, G.; Colazza, S. Thermal stress affects patch time allocation by preventing forgetting in a parasitoid wasp. Behav. Ecol. 2015, 26, 1326–1334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  67. Huey, R.B.; Kingsolver, J.G. Evolution of thermal sensitivity of ectotherm performance. Trends Ecol. Evol. 1989, 4, 131–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Asl, M.H.A.; Talebi, A.A.; Kamali, H.; Kazemi, S. Stored product pests and their parasitoid wasps in Mashhad, Iran. Adv. Environ. Biol. 2009, 3, 239–243. [Google Scholar]
  69. Arthur, F.H.; Hagstrum, D.W.; Flinn, P.W.; Reed, C.R.; Phillips, T.W. Insect populations in grain residues associated with commercial Kansas grain elevators. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2006, 42, 226–239. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Puttarudriah, M.; Basavanna, G.C. A study on the identity of Bracon hebetor Say and Bracon brevicornis Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 1956, 47, 183–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Ahmed, M.S.H.; Al-Maliky, S.K.; Al-Taweel, A.A.; Jabo, N.F.; Al-Hakkak, Z.S. Effects of three temperature regimes on rearing and biological activities of Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 1985, 21, 65–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Askari Seyahooei, M.; Mohammadi-Rad, A.; Hesami, S.; Bagheri, A. Temperature and exposure time in cold storage reshape parasitic performance of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2018, 111, 564–569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  73. Forouzan, M.; Amir, M.M.; Sahragard, A. Temperature-dependent development of Habrobracon hebetor (Hym.: Braconidae) reared on larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lep.: Pyralidae). J. Entomol. Soc. Iran. 2008, 28, 67–78. [Google Scholar]
  74. Golizadeh, A.; Alikhani, M.; Hassanpour, M.; Enkegaard, A.; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, H.; Razmjou, J. Comparative biology and life table of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at five constant temperatures. Int. J. Pest Manag. 2017, 63, 364–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Noor-ul-Ane, M.; Mirhosseini, M.A.; Crickmore, N.; Saeed, S.; Noor, I.; Zalucki, M.P. Temperature-dependent development of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its larval parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for species interactions. Bull. Entomol. Res. 2018, 108, 295–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Oluwafemi, A.R.; Rao, Q.; Wang, X.Q.; Zhang, H.Y. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on Habrobracon hebetor during combined biological control of Plodia interpunctella. Insect Sci. 2009, 16, 409–416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Mathew Isaac, L.; Deepak, S.; Tripathi, C.P.M. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on oviposition and parasitization by parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Int. J. Sci. Res. Rev. 2018, 7, 439–452. [Google Scholar]
  78. Sneh, B.; Gross, S.; Gasith, A. Biological control of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lep., Noctuidae) by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus and Bracon hebetor Say (Hym., Braconidae). Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 1983, 96, 408–412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Poinar, G.O., Jr. Taxonomy and biology of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. In Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control; Gaugler, R., Kaya, H.K., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1990; pp. 23–61. [Google Scholar]
  80. Mbata, G.N.; Shapiro-Ilan, D.I. Compatibility of Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Habrobracon hebetor (hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Biol. Control 2010, 54, 75–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Rumbos, C.I.; Athanassiou, C.G. The use of entomopathogenic nematodes in the control of stored-product insects. J. Pest Sci. 2017, 90, 39–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Rossoni, C.; Kassab, S.O.; De Souza Loureiro, E.; Pereira, F.F.; Costa, D.P.; Barbosa, R.H.; Zanuncio, J.C. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) are compatible with Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Fla. Entomol. 2014, 97, 1794–1804. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Rossoni, C.; Pereira, F.F.; Kassab, S.O.; Rodrigues, A.; Barbosa, R.H.; Zanuncio, J.C. Development of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera) parasitoids in Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) pupae exposed to entomopathogenic fungi. Can. Entomol. 2016, 148, 716–723. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Mahdavi, V.; Saber, M.; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, H.; Mehrvar, A. Susceptibility of the Hymenopteran parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Braconidae) to the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae Sorokin. J. Biol. Sci. 2013, 6, 17–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Kryukov, V.Y.; Kryukova, N.A.; Glupov, V.V. Susceptibility of Galleria mellonella larvae to anamorphic entomopathogenic ascomycetes under envenomation and parasitization by Habrobracon hebetor. Russ. J. Ecol. 2013, 44, 89–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Kryukov, V.Y.; Kryukova, N.A.; Tyurin, M.V.; Yaroslavtseva, O.N.; Glupov, V.V. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females. Insect Sci. 2018, 25, 643–654. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Suma, P.; Amante, M.; Bella, S.; La Pergola, A.; Russo, A. Stored-product insect natural enemies in wheat industry in Sicily. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 2014, 98, 227–233. [Google Scholar]
  88. Johnson, J.A.; Valero, K.A.; Hannel, M.M.; Gill, R.F. Seasonal occurrence of post-harvest dried fruit insects and their parasitoids in a culled fig warehouse. J. Econ. Entomol. 2000, 93, 1380–1390. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Eliopoulos, P.A.; Athanassiou, C.G. Seasonal occurrence of dried fig pests and their parasitoids in a fig warehouse in Greece. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 2004, 27, 159–171. [Google Scholar]
  90. Prozel, S.; Schöller, M. Five years of biological control of stored-product moths in Germany. In Advances in Stored Product Protection; Credland, P.F., Armitage, D.M., Bell, C.H., Cogan, P.M., Highley, E., Eds.; CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, 2003; pp. 322–324. [Google Scholar]
  91. Trematerra, P.; Oliviero, A.; Savoldelli, S.; Schöller, M. Controlling infestation of a chocolate factory by Plodia interpunctella by combining mating disruption and the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor. Insect Sci. 2017, 24, 503–510. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Brower, J.H.; Press, J.W. Interaction of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Suppressing Stored-Product Moth Populations in Small Inshell·Peanut Storages. J. Econ. Entomol. 1990, 83, 1096–1101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Mbata, G.N.; Warsi, S. Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae as Tools in Post-Harvest Integrated Pest Management. Insects 2019, 10, 85.

AMA Style

Mbata GN, Warsi S. Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae as Tools in Post-Harvest Integrated Pest Management. Insects. 2019; 10(4):85.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mbata, George N., and Sanower Warsi. 2019. "Habrobracon hebetor and Pteromalus cerealellae as Tools in Post-Harvest Integrated Pest Management" Insects 10, no. 4: 85.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop