Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016) | Viewed by 54490

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of AGRARIA, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, 89123 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Interests: stored product pests; honey bee pests; novel pesticides; IPM

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Crop Production and Rural Environment, Department of Agriculture, University of Thessaly, Nea Ionia, Magnessia, Greece
Interests: pheromones and semiochemicals; insect parasitoids; population ecology; sampling and trapping; invasive biology; integrated pest management; microbial control; chemical control
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Guest Editor

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of AGRARIA, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, 89123 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Interests: stored product pests; botanical insecticides; IPM

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stored product pests include several orders of insects that can infest whole grains or processed food. The use of chemical insecticides for the control of these pests is being challenged, both by the new national and international rules and by the needs of the consumers, which always require residue-free food. Therefore, the development of methods that do not rely on neutotoxic pesticides to control stored products pests, is attracting more and more attention of researchers.

In this Special Issue, we aim to include original research articles and literature reviews focusing on alternatives to chemical insecticides in stored products pest control, such as botanical formulations, inert dusts, modified atmospheres, non-toxic gases, thermal treatments, environmental and economical aspects, and new methods for insecticide delivery.

Dr. Vincenzo Palmeri
Prof. Dr. Christos G. Athanassiou
Dr. Nickolas G. Kavallieratos
Dr. Orlando Campolo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Botanical insecticides
  • Heat treatments
  • Fumigations
  • Inert dusts
  • Pest management
  • Modified and Controlled Atmospheres
  • Post-Harvest biological control

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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734 KiB  
Article
Periodic Physical Disturbance: An Alternative Method for Controlling Sitophilus zeamais (Maize Weevil) Infestation
by Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater and Bernard Chove
Insects 2016, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7040051 - 29 Sep 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4961
Abstract
Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to determine the practicality of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and its adoption by smallholder farmers in developing countries. In [...] Read more.
Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to determine the practicality of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and its adoption by smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this experiment, treatments and control were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and three storage times in three regions of Tanzania. Region was used as the blocking variable. A total of 108 clean 20-L plastic containers were each loaded with 10 kg of fresh white dent corn and 0.50 kg of maize infested with S. zeamais. For the treatment, containers were disturbed twice a day, whereas for the controls the containers were not disturbed until the end of storage. The overall mortality rate (%) after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage were 88%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed for the number of live S. zeamais between the control and experimental treatments. Additionally, the number of live S. zeamais in the treatment significantly decreased as storage time increased. This study shows the potential of a feasible, simple, affordable, and effective method of protecting maize grain for small-holder farmers in developing countries without using chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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247 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams
by Md. Mahbub Hasan, Michael J. Aikins, Wes Schilling and Thomas W. Phillips
Insects 2016, 7(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7030044 - 2 Sep 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4700
Abstract
Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O2) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3 [...] Read more.
Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O2) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3). Results showed that both low O2 and high CO2 levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O2 and high CO2 had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO2 and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O2. Both low O2 and high CO2 trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O3 has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O3 is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O2 or high CO2. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
1278 KiB  
Article
Improving Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Stored Grain Beetles with a Synergistic Co-Formulant
by Clare Storm, Freya Scoates, Adam Nunn, Olivier Potin and Aoife Dillon
Insects 2016, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7030042 - 26 Aug 2016
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5344
Abstract
The potential of a dry powder co-formulant, kaolin, to improve the control of storage beetles by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, isolate IMI389521, was investigated. The response of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults to the fungus when applied to wheat at 1 × 10 [...] Read more.
The potential of a dry powder co-formulant, kaolin, to improve the control of storage beetles by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, isolate IMI389521, was investigated. The response of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults to the fungus when applied to wheat at 1 × 1010 conidia per kg with and without kaolin at 1.74 g per kg wheat was assessed. Addition of kaolin increased control from 46% to 88% at day 7 and from 81% to 99% at day 14 post-treatment. Following this the dose response of O. surinamensis and Tribolium confusum to both kaolin and the fungus was investigated. Synergistic effects were evident against O. surinamensis at ≥0.96 g of kaolin per kg of wheat when combined with the fungus at all concentrations tested. For T. confusum, adult mortality did not exceed 55%, however, the larvae were extremely susceptible with almost complete suppression of adult emergence at the lowest fungal rate tested even without the addition of kaolin. Finally, the dose response of Sitophilus granarius to the fungus at 15 and 25 °C, with and without kaolin at 1 g per kg of wheat, was examined. Improvements in efficacy were achieved by including kaolin at every fungal rate tested and by increasing the temperature. Kaolin by itself was not effective, only when combined with the fungus was an effect observed, indicating that kaolin was having a synergistic effect on the fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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182 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Evaluating the Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) Methoprene on Packaging Films
by Frank H. Arthur
Insects 2016, 7(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7030033 - 7 Jul 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4903
Abstract
The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. [...] Read more.
The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum Jacquelin duVal, the confused flour beetle, two common insect species that infest stored products. Tests were conducted by creating arenas in which larvae were exposed on the packaging surface along with a flour food source, and assessments were made on adults emerging from the exposed progeny. Tests were also done by exposing adults, again with a flour food source, removing the adults after one week, and assessing adult emergence of progeny from those parental adults. In tests with larvae exposed on methoprene-treated birdseed bags, the outside surface had more activity compared to the inside surface, especially on T. confusum. In other studies with different types of packaging materials, there was generally 100% inhibition of adult emergence of exposed larvae or of progeny adults when parental adults were exposed on the methoprene-treated packaging. The best technique for evaluation was to expose late-stage larvae as the test life stage. Results show the potential of using methoprene-treated packaging for bagged storage of processed grains and grain products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
665 KiB  
Article
Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure
by Yan Yan, Scott B. Williams, Dieudonne Baributsa and Larry L. Murdock
Insects 2016, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7020026 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4682
Abstract
Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen [...] Read more.
Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres—2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen—and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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377 KiB  
Article
Combination of Methoprene and Controlled Aeration to Manage Insects in Stored Wheat
by Samuel S. Liu, Frank H. Arthur, Douglas VanGundy and Thomas W. Phillips
Insects 2016, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7020025 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4428
Abstract
A commercial formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene was applied to wheat stored in small bins either alone or in combination with controlled aeration of the bins, to lower grain temperature for insect pest management of stored wheat. Grain temperatures were monitored [...] Read more.
A commercial formulation of the insect growth regulator methoprene was applied to wheat stored in small bins either alone or in combination with controlled aeration of the bins, to lower grain temperature for insect pest management of stored wheat. Grain temperatures were monitored and modified by a computer-controlled thermocouple system that also activated the aeration system at programmed set-points to move cool ambient air through the grain mass to lower grain temperature. Results from sampling insect populations in experimental storage bins along with laboratory mortality bioassays of insects placed on wheat taken from the bins over the course of the storage period showed that methoprene was very effective in controlling infestation by the externally-feeding stored grain insects Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), the Indian meal moth Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), the rusty grain beetle, and also for the internal-feeding pest Rhyzopertha dominica( Fauvel), the lesser grain borer. Methoprene did not give good control of the internal-feeding pest Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the rice weevil. Aeration alone was somewhat effective in suppressing insect population development, while methoprene alone or when combined with aeration greatly enhanced insect control. Commercial grain grading for industry quality standards at the end of the storage period confirmed the impact of insect suppression on maintaining high quality of the stored wheat. This field experiment shows that methoprene combined with aeration to cool grain can be effective for pest management of stored wheat in the southern plains of the United States of America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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1285 KiB  
Communication
Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies
by Kishan R. Sambaraju, Sarah L. Donelson, Janko Bozic and Thomas W. Phillips
Insects 2016, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7010004 - 22 Jan 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6677
Abstract
The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting [...] Read more.
The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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Review

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580 KiB  
Review
Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control
by Lindsey C. Perkin, Sherry L. Adrianos and Brenda Oppert
Insects 2016, 7(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7030046 - 19 Sep 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 10669
Abstract
Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is [...] Read more.
Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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213 KiB  
Review
Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)—Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests
by Steffi Niedermayer, Marie Pollmann and Johannes L. M. Steidle
Insects 2016, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7030039 - 1 Aug 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5530
Abstract
Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: [...] Read more.
Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternatives to Chemical Control of Stored-Product Insects)
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