Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 14 March 2024 | Viewed by 9835

Special Issue Editors

Chair of Committee on Concrete Dams at USSD, US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO, USA
Interests: concrete dams; appurtenant structures for dams; seismic analysis; finite element analysis; nonlinear models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Rector of Mudanya University, Bursa, Turkey
2. President of Turkish Society on Dam Safety, Ankara, Turkey
Interests: dam safety; embankment dams; internal erosion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, Dam Safety and Surveillance, Pulverstrasse 13, CH-3063 Ittigen, Switzerland
Interests: climate change; concrete; rock and soil material sciences; construction works; dam engineering; design criteria; emergency planning; hydro-operations; numerical analyses; renewable energy; risk mitiga
Prof. Dr. Zeping Xu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, 20 West Chegongzhuang Road, Beijing 100044, China
2. Chair, Dam Safety Committee of ICOLD, 20 West Chegongzhuang Road, Beijing 100044, China
Interests: embankment dams; numerical analysis; dam safety; geotechnical engineering
Prof. Dr. Camilo Marulanda E.
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
INGETEC, Cra 6 # 30 a - 30, 110311 Bogotá, Colombia
Interests: rockfill dams (CFRD, ECRD, ACRD); embankment dams; tailings dams; numerical analysis; seismic analysis; geotechnical engineering; instrumentation and monitoring; laboratory and insitu testing; liquefaction; grouting
1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
2. College of Computer, Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Interests: advanced analysis of infrastructures; earthquake engineering; scientific machine learning; coupled systems mechanics; uncertainty quantification and resilience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dam construction and operations have evolved greatly, and the goals of dam engineering have been refined over the past decades, primarily affected by increased demand for fresh water and clean energy production, hydrologic extremes caused by climate change, ageing infrastructure, a need for more economical use of resources, and higher expectations for ecological and safety standards. Therefore, the role and the responsibility of the engineering community in the 21st century has been influenced by all these challenges.

Thanks to the recent, accelerated technological progress, primarily in the analysis and design methods for dams, laboratory and field-testing techniques, manufacturing and quality control of materials for dams, new construction techniques, monitoring and surveillance techniques, and a comprehensive dam safety approach, engineers can offer attractive solutions to the appearing problems.

In this Special Issue on “Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century”, we would like to invite researchers and engineers to submit papers focused on the latest advances in dam engineering. We welcome both theoretical and practical papers of high technical standard for various aspects of dam engineering, thus facilitating an awareness of modern techniques and methods in the area of interest. We sincerely invite high-quality submissions of original research as well as review articles that have the potential for practical application.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Design and construction of new high and ultra high dams;
  • Raising of existing concrete, embankment, rockfill, and CFRD dams;
  • Design of dams in challenging geological conditions and foundation improvements;
  • Advances in construction methods for dams;
  • Condition assessments for aging dams, including material degradation such as concrete swelling, etc.;
  • Rehabilitation and strengthening of dams and dam appurtenant structures;
  • Advances in analysis techniques for dams, including verification and validation procedures;
  • New construction materials and ecofriendly design measures;
  • Progress in soil and rock mechanics;
  • Piping in embankment dams and dispersive soil phenomena;
  • Implementation of geomembranes and other techniques in seepage prevention for embankment, rockfill, and concrete dams;
  • Incidents and accidents in dams (i.e., lessons learned);
  • Instrumentation, monitoring, surveillance, collection and processing of data, and the use of BIM technologies;
  • Advances in techniques for hydrologic and hydraulic analysis;
  • Flood safety, including overtopping of dams, foundation erosion, and design of countermeasures;
  • New perspectives on seismology, geodesy, and seismic load determination;
  • Quantification of various hazard sources (e.g., earthquake, flood, aging);
  • Dam safety and risk-informed decision making;
  • Emergency planning;
  • Impact of climate change on dams and reservoirs.

Dr. Jerzy Salamon
Prof. Dr. Hasan Tosun
Dr. Russell Michael Gunn
Prof. Dr. Zeping Xu
Prof. Dr. Camilo Marulanda E.
Dr. M. Amin Hariri-Ardebili
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dams
  • dam appurtenant structures
  • raises and modifications to dams
  • aging
  • safety
  • advanced analysis methods
  • verification and validation process
  • earthquakes
  • new materials for dams
  • advances in soil and rock mechanics
  • foundation improvements
  • advances in construction techniques
  • monitoring
  • data acquisition and processing
  • hydrology
  • hydraulic
  • impact of climate change

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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29 pages, 14866 KiB  
Article
Modeling Variability in Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams: A Parametric Analysis of Koyna and Pine Flat Dams
Infrastructures 2024, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9010010 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 966
Abstract
This study addresses the vital issue of the variability associated with modeling decisions in dam seismic analysis. Traditionally, structural modeling and simulations employ a progressive approach, where more complex models are gradually incorporated. For example, if previous levels indicate insufficient seismic safety margins, [...] Read more.
This study addresses the vital issue of the variability associated with modeling decisions in dam seismic analysis. Traditionally, structural modeling and simulations employ a progressive approach, where more complex models are gradually incorporated. For example, if previous levels indicate insufficient seismic safety margins, a more advanced analysis is then undertaken. Recognizing the constraints and evaluating the influence of various methods is essential for improving the comprehension and effectiveness of dam safety assessments. To this end, an extensive parametric study is carried out to evaluate the seismic response variability of the Koyna and Pine Flat dams using various solution approaches and model complexities. Numerical simulations are conducted in a 2D framework across three software programs, encompassing different dam system configurations. Additional complexity is introduced by simulating reservoir dynamics with Westergaard-added mass or acoustic elements. Linear and nonlinear analyses are performed, incorporating pertinent material properties, employing the concrete damage plasticity model in the latter. Modal parameters and crest displacement time histories are used to highlight variability among the selected solution procedures and model complexities. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the adequacy and robustness of each method, specifying the scenarios in which they are most effectively applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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29 pages, 5318 KiB  
Article
Delving into Earth Dam Dynamics: Exploring the Impact of Inner Impervious Core and Toe Drain Arrangement on Seepage and Factor of Safety during Rapid Drawdown Scenarios
Infrastructures 2023, 8(10), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8100148 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The study examined the intricate relationships between embankment slope configurations, toe drain designs, and drawdown scenarios. It utilized a unique combination of numerical, physical, and mathematical models. The investigation involved 16 numerical models and 8 physical models with distinct characteristics. The research explored [...] Read more.
The study examined the intricate relationships between embankment slope configurations, toe drain designs, and drawdown scenarios. It utilized a unique combination of numerical, physical, and mathematical models. The investigation involved 16 numerical models and 8 physical models with distinct characteristics. The research explored the correlations of key parameters: matric suction, horizontal water conductivity, time, and factor of safety. The factor of safety values varied from 0.62 to 1.03 as a result of the different investigated combinations. For instance, a 1:2 embankment slope without a toe drain under instantaneous drawdown led to the factor of safety values ranging from 1.22 to 1.57. Additionally, incorporating elements like a 30 m toe drain and a 1 m per day drawdown rate influenced these values, with extremes recorded from 1.337 to 2.21, shedding light on embankment stability under diverse conditions and configurations. When subjected to a 1 m per day drawdown, water flow rates decreased significantly at the upstream face and increased downstream, accompanied by an increase in water mass flux at the upstream face and a decrease at the downstream toe, suggesting dynamic changes in water behavior in response to drawdown. Moreover, the findings unveiled significant correlations between matric suction and time (correlation coefficient of 0.950) and factor of safety and water conductivity (correlation coefficient of 0.750). Conversely, a distinct negative correlation emerged between matric suction and factor of safety (correlation coefficient of −0.864). The study’s distinctive insights contribute to our understanding of seepage behavior and dam stability across varied scenarios, offering valuable input for resilient dam construction approaches that will ensure the longevity and effectiveness of these essential structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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22 pages, 16894 KiB  
Article
Testing the Shear Strength of Mass Concrete Lift Lines: A Comparison of Procedures
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030055 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Accurately evaluating the break bond and sliding shear strength of mass concrete lift lines is critical for any structural analysis of a dam. Of paramount importance and difficulty is the determination of break bond strength and of realistic peak and residual sliding shear [...] Read more.
Accurately evaluating the break bond and sliding shear strength of mass concrete lift lines is critical for any structural analysis of a dam. Of paramount importance and difficulty is the determination of break bond strength and of realistic peak and residual sliding shear strength parameters, in order to develop the anticipated strength degradation with shear displacement. Traditional multistage direct shear testing repeatedly shears the same specimen surface under increasing normal loads. The first sliding stage post-break bond has the freshest shear surface, which then degrades with each subsequent sliding stage, resulting in an artificially lower sliding friction angle and higher apparent cohesion due to accumulated damage on the shear surface. A novel approach has been proposed that, when a group of specimens are assumed to have similar characteristics, utilizes a matrix-based variable normal loading schedule that develops unique insight into shear strength degradation with sliding displacement. To eliminate the uncertainty as to which approach should be used and when, this paper documents a unique laboratory testing program where two different direct shear procedures were used for two differently sized cores obtained from the Thief Valley Dam. The two procedures were: (1) a state-of-the-art matrix-oriented approach which varies the order of the normal loads applied to develop an understanding of the shear strength degradation with sliding displacement, and (2) the typical direct shear procedure outlined in ASTM D5607, where normal loads are applied in an increasing order. This paper presents the results from: (1) the two different direct shear testing procedures and (2) the obtained strength parameters of the different core sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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20 pages, 6095 KiB  
Article
On a Benchmark Problem for Modeling and Simulation of Concrete Dams Cracking Response
Infrastructures 2023, 8(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8030050 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Concrete dams are massive unreinforced quasi-brittle structures prone to cracking from multiple causes. The structural safety assessment of cracked concrete dams is typically performed using computational analysis through numerical methods, with adequate representation of the material model. Advances in the last decades including [...] Read more.
Concrete dams are massive unreinforced quasi-brittle structures prone to cracking from multiple causes. The structural safety assessment of cracked concrete dams is typically performed using computational analysis through numerical methods, with adequate representation of the material model. Advances in the last decades including computational processing power, novel material, and numerical models have enabled remarkable progress in the analysis of concrete dams. Nevertheless, classical benchmarks remain reliable references for the performance analysis of these structures. This paper presents the main aspects of modeling and simulation of a concrete gravity dam cracking response based on a broad literature survey. Emphasis is given to an in-depth review of the benchmark problem analyzed by Carpinteri et al. (1992). We then use the Abaqus concrete damage plasticity constitutive model to solve the benchmark problem and provide recommendations to obtain accurate results with an optimal computational cost. The best practices of modeling, simulation, verification, and validation are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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Review

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17 pages, 1160 KiB  
Review
Dam Safety History and Practice: Is There Room for Improvement?
Infrastructures 2023, 8(12), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures8120171 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1578
Abstract
Dams and reservoirs have always been of interest to human beings, playing a crucial role given the importance of securing water for sanitary use, irrigation, navigation, flood control and energy generation, among others. The main focus of this article is to perform a [...] Read more.
Dams and reservoirs have always been of interest to human beings, playing a crucial role given the importance of securing water for sanitary use, irrigation, navigation, flood control and energy generation, among others. The main focus of this article is to perform a historical review of dam safety practices. For this purpose, the historical periods are divided into homogeneous periods in terms of dam safety paradigms and, following the narrative of this evolution, the paper considers the fundamentals of the two most important conceptual frameworks applied nowadays: the standard-based approach and the risk-informed one. As a matter of fact, after more than 90 years of experience in the application of dam safety assessment techniques and more than 50 years of recognising and studying the implications of human activity for the environment, today, the industry may have sufficient information and knowledge to take dam safety practice to another stage, being this the core of the discussion that follows the historical review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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Other

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22 pages, 7929 KiB  
Technical Note
Seismic Behavior of Rock-Filled Concrete Dam Compared with Conventional Vibrating Concrete Dam Using Finite Element Method
Infrastructures 2024, 9(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures9020023 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
A rock-filled concrete (RFC) dam is an original dam construction technology invented in China nearly 20 years ago. The technology has been continuously improved and innovated upon, and the accumulated rich practical experience gradually formed a complete dam design and construction technology. Seismic [...] Read more.
A rock-filled concrete (RFC) dam is an original dam construction technology invented in China nearly 20 years ago. The technology has been continuously improved and innovated upon, and the accumulated rich practical experience gradually formed a complete dam design and construction technology. Seismic design is a key design area for RFC dams that still requires more investigation; therefore, this article attempts to address some questions in this area. In the article, the seismic design for a curved gravity dam, currently under construction, is compared for RFC and conventional vibrating concrete (CVC) dam alternatives based on American design documents. The conclusions drawn from investigations include the following: The displacement and stress distributions in both the CVC and RFC alternatives are similar, but the maximum computed values for the RFC dam model are slightly smaller than those for the CVC one, while the sliding resistance of both dam alternatives can meet the requirements of the specifications. Regarding the nonlinear seismic analysis results, the extent of damage in the RFC dam model is significantly reduced when compared with the CVC model, which can be explained by the higher cracking resistance of RFC. In general, the seismic performance of the investigated dam made of RFC appears to be better than that of CVC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dam Engineering of the 21st Century)
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