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Special Issue "Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guido R.M.M. Haenen

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31 43 3882109
Fax: +31 43 3884146
Interests: molecular biology; cell biology; biochemistry; analytical chemistry; pharmacy; medical chemistry; clinical pharmacology; toxicology; reactive oxygen species; free radicals; antioxidants; oxidative stress; redox modulation; nutrition; flavonoids; thiols; glutathione; reactive intermediates; lipid peroxidation; kinetics; structure activity relationship; biomarkers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our first Special Issue on “Traditional Medicine” clearly showed the need to connect Traditional Medicine to Western medicine. The common denominators of the contributions to the first Special Issue are:

  • The broadness of the pallet of the bioactives found in Traditional Medicine that reveal new and—from a Western perspective—unexpected and even counterintuitive effects.
  • The interplay between the bioactives in herb combinations that proved to boost the therapeutic effects and mitigate adverse effects of traditional medicine.

As the limitations of Western medicine are more realized, the reappraisal of Traditional Medicine can open new avenues for treatments. A major advantage is that Traditional Medicine has developed over several centuries and has therefore matured much more than Western medicine, which only has a relatively short history.  For example, the principle of personalized medicine, one of the pillars of Traditional Medicine, was only quite recently adopted by Western Medicine. We hope that the second issue on Traditional Medicine proceeds on the path started with the first issue, and forms a platform for new research to further strengthen the connection of the world of Traditional Medicine to the Western world.

Prof. Dr. Guido Haenen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxic Acetogenins from the Roots of Annona purpurea
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081870
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
Annona purpurea, known in Mexico as “cabeza de negro” or “ilama”, belongs to the Annonaceae family. Its roots are employed in folk medicine in several regions of Mexico. Taking that information into account, a chemical and biological analysis of the components present [...] Read more.
Annona purpurea, known in Mexico as “cabeza de negro” or “ilama”, belongs to the Annonaceae family. Its roots are employed in folk medicine in several regions of Mexico. Taking that information into account, a chemical and biological analysis of the components present in the roots of this species was proposed. Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane (DCM) extract was exclusively constituted by a mixture of five new acetogenins named annopurpuricins A–E (15). These compounds have an aliphatic chain of 37 carbons with a terminal α,β unsaturated γ-lactone. Compounds 1 and 2 belong to the adjacent bis-THF (tetrahydrofuran) α-monohydroxylated type, while compounds 3 and 4 belong to the adjacent bis-THF α,α’-dihydroxylated type; only compound 5 possesses a bis-epoxide system. Complete structure analysis was carried out by spectroscopy and chemical methods. All compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on three human tumor cell lines (MSTO-211H, HeLa and HepG2). Compounds 14 inhibited significantly the growth of HeLa and HepG2 cells, showing GI50 values in the low/subnanomolar range, while 5 was completely ineffective under the tested conditions. The investigation of the mechanism of action responsible for cytotoxicity revealed for the most interesting compound 1 the ability to block the complex I activity on isolated rat liver mitochondria (RLM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
HgS Inhibits Oxidative Stress Caused by Hypoxia through Regulation of 5-HT Metabolism Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061364
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to reveal the potential relationship between 5-HT and oxidative stress in the organism. Our in vitro experiments in RIN-14B cells showed that anoxia leads the cells to the state of oxidative stress. Administration of exogenous 5-HT exacerbated this effect, whereas [...] Read more.
This study aims to reveal the potential relationship between 5-HT and oxidative stress in the organism. Our in vitro experiments in RIN-14B cells showed that anoxia leads the cells to the state of oxidative stress. Administration of exogenous 5-HT exacerbated this effect, whereas the inhibition of Tph1, LP533401 alleviated the oxidative stress. Several research articles reported that Cinnabar (consists of more than 96% mercury sulfide, HgS), which is widely used in both Chinese and Indian traditional medicine prescriptions, has been involved in the regulation of 5-HT. The present research revealed that HgS relieved the level of oxidative stress of RIN-14B cells. This pharmacological activity was also observed in the prescription drug Zuotai, in which HgS accounts for 54.5%, and these effects were found to be similar to LP533401, an experimental drug to treat pulmonary hypertension. Further, our in vivo experiments revealed that the administration of cinnabar or prescription drug Zuotai in zebrafish reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hypoxia and cured behavioral abnormalities. Taken together, in organisms with hypoxia induced oxidative stress 5-HT levels were found to be abnormally elevated, indicating that 5-HT could regulate oxidative stress, and the decrease in the 5-HT levels, behavioral abnormalities after treatment with cinnabar and Zuotai, we may conclude that the therapeutic and pharmacologic effect of cinnabar and Zuotai may be based on the regulation of 5-HT metabolism and relief of oxidative stress. Even though they aren’t toxic at the present dosage in both cell lines and zebrafish, their dose dependent toxicities are yet to be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Eleutherococcus Extract Mixture on Endochondral Bone Formation in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051253
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Eleutherococcus extract mixture (EEM) is an herbal mixture of dried stem of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus and germinated barley, which has been highly effective, in previous screening and among the traditional medicines to tonify innate qi and acquired qi, respectively. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Eleutherococcus extract mixture (EEM) is an herbal mixture of dried stem of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus and germinated barley, which has been highly effective, in previous screening and among the traditional medicines to tonify innate qi and acquired qi, respectively. In this study, we investigate the effects of EEM on endochondral bone formation. Female adolescent rats were given EEM, growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was intraperitoneally injected to light the fluorescent band 72 h before sacrifice to determine endochondral bone formation. In order to evaluate endocrine or paracrine/autocrine mechanisms, expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), or bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were evaluated after EEM administration in liver or growth plate (GP). EEM oral administration significantly increased endochondral bone formation and proliferative and hypertrophic zonal heights of tibial GP. EEM also upregulated hepatic IGF1 and IGFBP3 mRNA expressions, and IGF1 and BMP2 expressions in GP. Taken together, EEM increases endochondral bone formation through stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy with upregulation of hepatic IGF1 and IGFBP3 expressions. Considering immunohistochemical studies, the effect of EEM may be due to increased local IGF1 and BMP2 expression in GP, which may be considered growth hormone (GH)-dependent endocrine and autocrine/paracrine pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
One New Phenolic Compound from Castanea mollissima Shells and its Suppression of HepatomaCell Proliferation and Inflammation by Inhibiting NF-κB Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030466
Received: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Shells of Castanea mollissima (CMS), an agricultural remain and often considered waste from chestnut processing industry, have been proven a resource for traditional Chinese medicine. One new phenol, named castanolB(1), andsix known phenolic compounds (2–7) were isolated froma water-soluble extract of CMS. Their [...] Read more.
Shells of Castanea mollissima (CMS), an agricultural remain and often considered waste from chestnut processing industry, have been proven a resource for traditional Chinese medicine. One new phenol, named castanolB(1), andsix known phenolic compounds (2–7) were isolated froma water-soluble extract of CMS. Their chemical structures were determined using preparative HPLC and various spectral analyses, and then were compared to literatures, which indicated the first identification of the seven compounds from C. mollissima. The physicochemical property of compound (2) was also reported for the first time. After antiproliferative screening of compounds (1–7) on LPS-induced SMMC-7721 and HepG2 hepatoma cells, castanolB (1) showed the best suppression. CastanolB(1) also significantly induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, castanolB (1) decreasedsecretion of TNF-α and IL-6. Mechanistically, TLR4–NF-κB pathway was inhibited bycastanolB (1) with downregulation of TLR4, IKKβ, and NF-κB p65. This study presents a new phenol and shows its profiles of anticancer and anti-inflammation via inhibiting the TLR4–NF-κB pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of Colla corii asini against Lung Injuries Induced by Intratracheal Instillation of Artificial Fine Particles in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010055
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
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Abstract
Environmental issues pose huge threats to public health, particularly the damage caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, the mechanisms of injury require further investigation and medical materials that can protect the lungs from PM2.5 are needed. We have found [...] Read more.
Environmental issues pose huge threats to public health, particularly the damage caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, the mechanisms of injury require further investigation and medical materials that can protect the lungs from PM2.5 are needed. We have found that Colla corii asini, a traditional Chinese medicine that has long been used to treat various ailments, is a good candidate to serve this purpose. To understand the mechanisms of PM2.5-induced lung toxicity and the protective effects of Colla corii asini, we established a rat model of lung injury via intratracheal instillation of artificial PM2.5 (aPM2.5). Our results demonstrated that Colla corii asini significantly protected against lung function decline and pathologic changes. Inflammation was ameliorated by suppression of Arg-1 to adjust the disturbed metabolic pathways induced by aPM2.5, such as arginine and nitrogen metabolism and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, for 11 weeks. Our work found that metabolomics was a useful tool that contributed to further understanding of PM2.5-induced respiratory system damage and provided useful information for further pharmacological research on Colla corii asini, which may be valuable for therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Gastrodin Alleviates Cognitive Dysfunction and Depressive-Like Behaviors by Inhibiting ER Stress and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in db/db Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123977
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) suffer more risks from diabetic encephalopathy such as cognitive dysfunction and depressive-like behaviors. Numerous studies show that ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy. Gastrodin (Gas), one major component [...] Read more.
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) suffer more risks from diabetic encephalopathy such as cognitive dysfunction and depressive-like behaviors. Numerous studies show that ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy. Gastrodin (Gas), one major component of Gastrodia elata, is traditionally used in central nervous system disorders and is believed to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and other neuroprotective effects. This present study aims to explore the protective effects of Gas on diabetic encephalopathy. Gas was administrated daily (70 and 140 mg/Kg) for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, the fasting blood glucose and body weight of db/db mice were measured every two weeks. After Gas treatment, the Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) test were performed to assess the learning and memory functions of db/db mice, and the forced swim test was performed to evaluate depressive-like behaviors of db/db mice. Additionally, the expression of ER stress and Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like (Nod) receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome related proteins were evaluated by using Western blot. Our study suggested that Gas attenuated blood glucose levels and dyslipidemia of db/db mice. It has been shown that Gas could improve learning and memory function and depressive-like behaviors of db/db mice. Moreover, Gas inhibited ER stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the hippocampus. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Gas attenuates the diabetic encephalopathy by inhibiting ER stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Berberine with Resveratrol Improves the Lipid-Lowering Efficacy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123903
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The natural compound berberine has been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic activity and to improve disordered lipid metabolism. In our previous study, we found that such compounds upregulate expression of sirtuin 1—a key molecule in caloric restriction, it is, therefore, of great interest to [...] Read more.
The natural compound berberine has been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic activity and to improve disordered lipid metabolism. In our previous study, we found that such compounds upregulate expression of sirtuin 1—a key molecule in caloric restriction, it is, therefore, of great interest to examine the lipid-lowering activity of berberine in combination with a sirtuin 1 activator resveratrol. Our results showed that combination of berberine with resveratrol had enhanced hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced mice and was able to decrease the lipid accumulation in adipocytes to a level significantly lower than that in monotherapies. In the high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice, combination of berberine (30 mg/kg/day, oral) with resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day, oral) reduced serum total cholesterol by 27.4% ± 2.2%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 31.6% ± 3.2%, which was more effective than that of the resveratrol (8.4% ± 2.3%, 6.6% ± 2.1%) or berberine (10.5% ± 1.95%, 9.8% ± 2.58%) monotherapy (p < 0.05 for both). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, the treatment of 12 µmol/L or 20 µmol/L berberine combined with 25 µmol/L resveratrol showed a more significant inhibition of lipid accumulation observed by Oil red O stain compared with individual compounds. Moreover, resveratrol could increase the amount of intracellular berberine in hepatic L02 cells. In addition, the combination of berberine with resveratrol significantly increases the low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells to a level about one-fold higher in comparison to individual compound. These results implied that the enhanced effect of the combination of berberine with resveratrol on lipid-lowering may be associated with upregulation of low-density-lipoprotein receptor, and could be an effective therapy for hyperlipidemia in some obese-associated disease, such as type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Cardiotoxicity and Mechanism of “Fuzi” Extracts Based on Metabonomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113506
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
To investigate the toxicity of water and ethanol “Fuzi” (FZ) extracts and to explore the toxicity mechanism in rats. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared. Three groups of rats received the water extract, ethanol extract, or water by oral gavage for seven days. [...] Read more.
To investigate the toxicity of water and ethanol “Fuzi” (FZ) extracts and to explore the toxicity mechanism in rats. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared. Three groups of rats received the water extract, ethanol extract, or water by oral gavage for seven days. Pathological section staining of heart tissue. Colorimetric analysis was used to determine serum lactate dehydrogenase. The metabolic expression of small molecules in rats was measured by a metabolomics method. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and caspase-3. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CTnI, mTOR, and TGF-β1. The water and ethanol FZ extracts exert cardiotoxic effects via activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Actions of Inonotus obliquus against Hyperuricemia through XOD and Bioactives Screened by Molecular Modeling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103222
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Inonotus obliquus is an edible mushroom and also a remedy against various diseases, especially metabolic syndrome. In this paper we report the actions of an ethanol extract of I. obliquus (IOE) against hyperuricemia in hyperuricemic mice, and the screen of bioactives. The extract [...] Read more.
Inonotus obliquus is an edible mushroom and also a remedy against various diseases, especially metabolic syndrome. In this paper we report the actions of an ethanol extract of I. obliquus (IOE) against hyperuricemia in hyperuricemic mice, and the screen of bioactives. The extract (IOE) was prepared by extracting I. obliquus at 65 °C with ethanol, and characterized by HPLC. IOE at low, middle, and high doses reduced serum uric acid (SUA) of hyperuricemic mice (353 μmol/L) to 215, 174, and 152 μmol/L (p < 0.01), respectively, showing similar hypouricemic effectiveness to the positive controls. IOE showed a non-toxic impact on kidney and liver functions. Of note, IOE suppressed xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in serum and liver, and also down-regulated renal uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1). Four compounds hit highly against XOD in molecular docking. Overall, the four compounds all occupied the active tunnel, which may inhibit the substrate from entering. The IC50 of betulin was assayed at 121.10 ± 4.57 μM, which was near to that of allopurinol (148.10 ± 5.27 μM). Betulin may be one of the anti-hyperuricemia bioactives in I. obliquus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Astragalus membranaceus Active Extracts on Autophagy-Related Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081904
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved ‘self-eating’ process that maintains cellular, tissue, and organismal homeostasis. New studies on autophagy, mediated by subsets of autophagy proteins, are emerging in many physiological and pathological processes. Astragalus membranaceus (AM), also named Huangqi, is one of the [...] Read more.
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved ‘self-eating’ process that maintains cellular, tissue, and organismal homeostasis. New studies on autophagy, mediated by subsets of autophagy proteins, are emerging in many physiological and pathological processes. Astragalus membranaceus (AM), also named Huangqi, is one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine and its extracts have been proved to possess many biological activities related to autophagy, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-photoaging, and improvement of cardiomyocyte function. Evidence suggests that AM extracts can have therapeutic potential in autophagy dysregulation-associated diseases because of their biological positive effects. Here we will review the literature concerning the effects of AM extracts on autophagy dysregulation-associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessReview
Connecting Western and Eastern Medicine from an Energy Perspective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061512
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
Although Western medicine and Eastern medicine are worlds apart, there is a striking overlap in the basic principle of these types of medicine when we look at them from the perspective of energy. In both worlds, opposing forces provide the energy that flows [...] Read more.
Although Western medicine and Eastern medicine are worlds apart, there is a striking overlap in the basic principle of these types of medicine when we look at them from the perspective of energy. In both worlds, opposing forces provide the energy that flows through networks in an organism, which fuels life. In this concept, health is the ability of an organism to maintain the balance between these opposing forces, i.e., homeostasis (West) and harmony (East), which creates resilience. Moreover, strategies used to treat diseases are strikingly alike, namely adjusting the flow of energy by changing the connections in the network. The energy perspective provides a basis to integrate Eastern and Western medicine, and opens new directions for research to get the best of both worlds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics on Astragali Radix: Implications for Astragali Radix as a Personalized Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061463
Received: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Astragali radix (AR) is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical practices indicate that AR possesses various biological functions, including potent immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor activities. To date, more than 200 chemical constituents have [...] Read more.
Astragali radix (AR) is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Modern pharmacological studies and clinical practices indicate that AR possesses various biological functions, including potent immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor activities. To date, more than 200 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from AR. Among them, isoflavonoids, saponins and polysaccharides are the three main types of beneficial compounds responsible for its pharmacological activities and therapeutic efficacy. After ingestion of AR, the metabolism and biotransformation of the bioactive compounds were extensive in vivo. The isoflavonoids and saponins and their metabolites are the major type of constituents absorbed in plasma. The bioavailability barrier (BB), which is mainly composed of efflux transporters and conjugating enzymes, is expected to have a significant impact on the bioavailability of AR. This review summarizes studies on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics on AR. Additionally, the use of AR as a personalized medicine based on the BB is also discussed, which may provide beneficial information to achieve a better and more accurate therapeutic response of AR in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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Open AccessReview
The Anticancer Properties of Cordycepin and Their Underlying Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103027
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that has been used for traditional herbal remedies. It contains various bioactive ingredients including cordycepin. Cordycepin, also known as 3-deoxyadenosine, is a major compound and has been suggested to have anticancer potential. The treatment of various [...] Read more.
Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that has been used for traditional herbal remedies. It contains various bioactive ingredients including cordycepin. Cordycepin, also known as 3-deoxyadenosine, is a major compound and has been suggested to have anticancer potential. The treatment of various cancer cells with cordycepin in effectively induces cell death and retards their cancerous properties. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Recent evidence has shed light on the molecular pathways involving cysteine-aspartic proteases (caspases), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β). Furthermore, the pathways are mediated by putative receptors, such as adenosine receptors (ADORAs), death receptors (DRs), and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This review provides the molecular mechanisms by which cordycepin functions as a singular or combinational anticancer therapeutic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Medicine – Unraveling Its Molecular Mechanism, Volume 2)
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