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Special Issue "Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guido R.M.M. Haenen Website E-Mail
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Health Sciences, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Phone: +31 43 3882109
Fax: +31 43 3884146
Interests: molecular biology; cell biology; biochemistry; analytical chemistry; pharmacy; medical chemistry; clinical pharmacology; toxicology; reactive oxygen species; free radicals; antioxidants; oxidative stress; redox modulation; nutrition; flavonoids; thiols; glutathione; reactive intermediates; lipid peroxidation; kinetics; structure activity relationship; biomarkers

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Antioxidants, which protect against reactive oxygen species, are vital for aerobe life. The knowledge on how antioxidants act has drastically improved over the years. Initially, it was believed that antioxidants only needed to scavenge free radicals. In the current concept, based on molecular mechanisms of action, scavenging is only one of the aspects of the biological activity of antioxidants. Another facet is that all antioxidants were considered to be equal, while now it is realized that each antioxidant has a unique biochemical profile. This issue is dedicated to recent breakthroughs in the knowledge of antioxidants’ molecular mechanism of action, and the clinical impact of antioxidants.

Prof. Dr. Guido Haenen
Guest Editor

Prof. Dr. Guido Haenen

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • adaptation
  • bioactives
  • antioxidant vitamins
  • antioxidant flavonoids
  • nutrition
  • toxicology
  • reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
  • free radical scavenging
  • antioxidant network
  • redox biology
  • epignetics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Food-Derived Bioactives Can Protect the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cortisol with Antioxidant-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020239 - 15 Feb 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
In chronic inflammatory diseases the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids (GCs) is often decreased, leading to GC resistance. Inflammation is related with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress which is thought to contribute to the development of GC resistance. [...] Read more.
In chronic inflammatory diseases the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids (GCs) is often decreased, leading to GC resistance. Inflammation is related with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress which is thought to contribute to the development of GC resistance. Plant-derived compounds such as flavonoids are known for their ability to protect against ROS. In this exploratory study we screened a broad range of food-derived bioactives for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in order to investigate whether their antioxidant effects are associated with the ability to preserve the anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol. The anti-inflammatory potency of the tested compounds was assessed by measuring the oxidative stress–induced GC resistance in human macrophage-like cells. Cells were pre-treated with H2O2 (800 µM) with and without bioactives and then exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (10 ng/mL) and cortisol (100 nM). The level of inflammation was deducted from the concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the medium. Intracellular oxidative stress was measured using the fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH). We found that most of the dietary bioactives display antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action through the protection of the cortisol response. All compounds, except for quercetin, revealing antioxidant activity also protect the cortisol response. This indicates that the antioxidant activity of compounds plays an important role in the protection of the GC response. However, next to the antioxidant activity of the bioactives, other mechanisms also seem to be involved in this protective, anti-inflammatory effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27457-27469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126040 - 17 Nov 2015
Cited by 36
Abstract
Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on [...] Read more.
Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral) or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oral Taurine on Morbidity and Mortality in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients: A Randomized Trial
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12288-12306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160612288 - 29 May 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative [...] Read more.
Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta): −0.54; 95% CI: −1.08–−0.01; p = 0.04), blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00–3.15; p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: −1.10; 95% CI: −2.33–0.12; p = 0.08). We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Bilberries Controls Gingival Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10665-10673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160510665 - 11 May 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Bioactive molecules in berries may be helpful in reducing the risk of oral diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bilberry consumption on the outcome of a routine dental clinical parameter of inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), as [...] Read more.
Bioactive molecules in berries may be helpful in reducing the risk of oral diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bilberry consumption on the outcome of a routine dental clinical parameter of inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), as well as the impact on selected biomarkers of inflammation, such as cytokines, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in individuals with gingivitis. Study individuals who did not receive standard of care treatment were allocated to either a placebo group or to groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g bilberries daily over seven days. The placebo group consumed an inactive product (starch). A study group, receiving standard of care (debridement only) was also included to provide a reference to standard of care treatment outcome. Cytokine levels were assayed using the Luminex MagPix system. The mean reduction in BOP before and after consumption of test product over 1 week was 41% and 59% in the groups that consumed either 250 or 500 g of bilberries/day respectively, and was 31% in the placebo group, and 58% in the standard of care reference group. The analysis only showed a significant reduction in cytokine levels in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries/day. A statistically significant reduction was observed for IL-1b (p = 0.025), IL-6 (p = 0.012) and VEGF (p = 0.017) in GCF samples in the group that consumed 500 g of bilberries daily. It appears that berry intake has an ameliorating effect on some markers of gingival inflammation reducing gingivitis to a similar extent compared to standard of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9588-9599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16059588 - 28 Apr 2015
Cited by 18
Abstract
The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed [...] Read more.
The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Regulatory Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Neuroinflammation in Microglial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 5572-5589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16035572 - 11 Mar 2015
Cited by 30
Abstract
Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), [...] Read more.
Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current study intended to probe the effects of CAPE on microglia activation by using in vitro and in vivo models. Western blot and Griess reaction assay revealed CAPE significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Administration of CAPE resulted in increased expressions of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1and erythropoietin (EPO) in microglia. The phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α was further found to regulate the anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid. In vivo results from immunohistochemistry along with rotarod test also revealed the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of CAPE in microglia activation. The current study has evidenced several possible molecular determinants, AMPKα, EPO, and HO-1, in mediating anti-neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Oxidative Stress Attenuates Lipoapoptosis Exacerbated by Hypoxia in Human Hepatocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 3323-3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16023323 - 03 Feb 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Chronic intermittent hypoxia, a characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is associated with the progression of simple hepatic steatosis to necroinflammatory hepatitis. We determined whether inhibition of a hypoxia-induced signaling pathway could attenuate hypoxia-exacerbated lipoapoptosis in human hepatocytes. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell [...] Read more.
Chronic intermittent hypoxia, a characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is associated with the progression of simple hepatic steatosis to necroinflammatory hepatitis. We determined whether inhibition of a hypoxia-induced signaling pathway could attenuate hypoxia-exacerbated lipoapoptosis in human hepatocytes. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) was used in this study. Palmitic acid (PA)-treated groups were used for two environmental conditions: Hypoxia (1% O2) and normoxia (20% O2). Following the treatment, the cell viability was determined by the 3,4-(5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt (MTS) assay, and the mechanism of lipoapoptosis was evaluated by Western blotting. Hypoxia exacerbated the suppression of hepatocyte growth induced by palmitic acid via activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, attenuated the hypoxia-exacerbated lipoapoptosis in hepatocytes, whereas glycerol, which reduces ER stress, did not. This may have been because inhibition of oxidative stress decreases the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as caspase 9 and cytochrome c. These results suggested that modulation of apoptotic signaling pathways activated by oxidative stress can aid in identifying novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with OSA. Further in vivo studies are necessary to understand the pathophysiologic mechanism of NASH with OSA and to prove the therapeutic effect of the modulation of the signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hepatic Diseases: Therapeutic Possibilities of N-Acetylcysteine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 30269-30308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226225 - 18 Dec 2015
Cited by 71
Abstract
Liver disease is highly prevalent in the world. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are the most important pathogenetic events in liver diseases, regardless the different etiology and natural course. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (the active form) (NAC) is being studied in diseases characterized [...] Read more.
Liver disease is highly prevalent in the world. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are the most important pathogenetic events in liver diseases, regardless the different etiology and natural course. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (the active form) (NAC) is being studied in diseases characterized by increased OS or decreased glutathione (GSH) level. NAC acts mainly on the supply of cysteine for GSH synthesis. The objective of this review is to examine experimental and clinical studies that evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles of NAC in attenuating markers of inflammation and OS in hepatic damage. The results related to the supplementation of NAC in any form of administration and type of study are satisfactory in 85.5% (n = 59) of the cases evaluated (n = 69, 100%). Within this percentage, the dosage of NAC utilized in studies in vivo varied from 0.204 up to 2 g/kg/day. A standard experimental design of protection and treatment as well as the choice of the route of administration, with a broader evaluation of OS and inflammation markers in the serum or other biological matrixes, in animal models, are necessary. Clinical studies are urgently required, to have a clear view, so that, the professionals can be sure about the effectiveness and safety of NAC prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessReview
Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28194-28217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226095 - 27 Nov 2015
Cited by 34
Abstract
Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated [...] Read more.
Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessReview
Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 27378-27390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161126032 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional [...] Read more.
In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessReview
Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18185-18223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160818185 - 05 Aug 2015
Cited by 27
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Breakthroughs in the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Morella and Myrica Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 17160-17180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160817160 - 28 Jul 2015
Cited by 15
Abstract
Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are therefore highly sought and can be seen as a type of preventive medicine against several diseases. Myrica and [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants are therefore highly sought and can be seen as a type of preventive medicine against several diseases. Myrica and Morella genus (Myricaceae) are taxonomically very close and their species are trees or shrubs with edible fruits that exhibit relevant uses in traditional medicine, for instance in Chinese or Japanese folk medicine they are used to treat diarrhea, digestive problems, headache, burns and skin diseases. Nearly 36 compounds were isolated from different morphological parts of Myrica and/or Morella species and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities evaluated. Thirteen of these compounds exhibit greater effects than the positive controls used. Adenodimerin A was the most active compound reported (in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay EC50= 7.9 ± 0.3 µM). These results are just one aspect of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluations reported regarding Myrica and Morella species, so a comprehensive overview on the current status, highlighting the antioxidant health promoting effect of these species, their key antioxidant compounds as well as the compounds with protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases such as inflammation, is relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessReview
Evaluating the Oxidative Stress in Inflammation: Role of Melatonin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 16981-17004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160816981 - 27 Jul 2015
Cited by 60
Abstract
Oxygen is used by eukaryotic cells for metabolic transformations and energy production in mitochondria. Under physiological conditions, there is a constant endogenous production of intermediates of reactive oxygen (ROI) and nitrogen species (RNI) that interact as signaling molecules in physiological mechanisms. When these [...] Read more.
Oxygen is used by eukaryotic cells for metabolic transformations and energy production in mitochondria. Under physiological conditions, there is a constant endogenous production of intermediates of reactive oxygen (ROI) and nitrogen species (RNI) that interact as signaling molecules in physiological mechanisms. When these species are not eliminated by antioxidants or are produced in excess, oxidative stress arises. Oxidative stress can damage proteins, lipids, DNA, and organelles. It is a process directly linked to inflammation; in fact, inflammatory cells secrete a large number of cytokines and chemokines responsible for the production of ROI and RNI in phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells through the activation of protein kinases signaling. Currently, there is a wide variety of diseases capable of producing inflammatory manifestations. While, in the short term, most of these diseases are not fatal they have a major impact on life quality. Since there is a direct relationship between chronic inflammation and many emerging disorders like cancer, oral diseases, kidney diseases, fibromyalgia, gastrointestinal chronic diseases or rheumatics diseases, the aim of this review is to describe the use and role of melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, that works directly and indirectly as a free radical scavenger, like a potent antioxidant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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Open AccessReview
Analgesic, Anxiolytic and Anaesthetic Effects of Melatonin: New Potential Uses in Pediatrics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1209-1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16011209 - 06 Jan 2015
Cited by 31
Abstract
Exogenous melatonin is used in a number of situations, first and foremost in the treatment of sleep disorders and jet leg. However, the hypnotic, antinociceptive, and anticonvulsant properties of melatonin endow this neurohormone with the profile of a drug that modulates effects of [...] Read more.
Exogenous melatonin is used in a number of situations, first and foremost in the treatment of sleep disorders and jet leg. However, the hypnotic, antinociceptive, and anticonvulsant properties of melatonin endow this neurohormone with the profile of a drug that modulates effects of anesthetic agents, supporting its potential use at different stages during anesthetic procedures, in both adults and children. In light of these properties, melatonin has been administered to children undergoing diagnostic procedures requiring sedation or general anesthesia, such as magnetic resonance imaging, auditory brainstem response tests and electroencephalogram. Controversial data support the use of melatonin as anxiolytic and antinociceptive agents in pediatric patients undergoing surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate available evidence relating to efficacy and safety of melatonin as an analgesic and as a sedative agent in children. Melatonin and its analogs may have a role in antinociceptive therapies and as an alternative to midazolam in premedication of adults and children, although its effectiveness is still controversial and available data are clearly incomplete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant 2.0——Redox Modulation by Food and Drugs)
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