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Special Issue "Plant Genomics"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Frank M. You
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Interests: plant bioinformatics; comparative genomics; genome evolution; quantitative genetics and statistical genomics; genetics and breeding; software tool and database development
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Genomics is a fast evolving field of genetics and molecular biology, focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. Recent development of sequencing technologies and advances in bioinformatics tools have substantially enhanced our ability to analyze and understand genomes and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. The purpose of this Special Issue is to report the recent progress achieved in genomics studies in plants. This includes, but is not limit to, genetic and physical mapping, genome sequencing, genome structure and organization, genome assembly, gene prediction, comparative genomics, genome evolution, gene editing, SNP discovery, genome-wide association study, exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, expression profiling, the functions of specific genes, protein–protein interaction, pathways, epigenomics, and so on. In addition, reports on plant genomics leading to crop molecular breeding, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection are encouraged. The bioinfomratic tools and databases assisting genomic data analyses are also welcomed.

Dr. Frank M. You
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • structural genomics
  • functional genomics
  • epigenomics
  • mapping
  • genome sequencing
  • genome organization
  • genome evolution
  • marker development
  • quantitative trait loci
  • genome-wide association study
  • genomic selection
  • marker-assisted selection
  • gene expression

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Article
Natural History of a Satellite DNA Family: From the Ancestral Genome Component to Species-Specific Sequences, Concerted and Non-Concerted Evolution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051201 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2194
Abstract
Satellite DNA (satDNA) is the most variable fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Related species share a common ancestral satDNA library and changing of any library component in a particular lineage results in interspecific differences. Although the general developmental trend is clear, our knowledge [...] Read more.
Satellite DNA (satDNA) is the most variable fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Related species share a common ancestral satDNA library and changing of any library component in a particular lineage results in interspecific differences. Although the general developmental trend is clear, our knowledge of the origin and dynamics of satDNAs is still fragmentary. Here, we explore whole genome shotgun Illumina reads using the RepeatExplorer (RE) pipeline to infer satDNA family life stories in the genomes of Chenopodium species. The seven diploids studied represent separate lineages and provide an example of a species complex typical for angiosperms. Application of the RE pipeline allowed by similarity searches a determination of the satDNA family with a basic monomer of ~40 bp and to trace its transformation from the reconstructed ancestral to the species-specific sequences. As a result, three types of satDNA family evolutionary development were distinguished: (i) concerted evolution with mutation and recombination events; (ii) concerted evolution with a trend toward increased complexity and length of the satellite monomer; and (iii) non-concerted evolution, with low levels of homogenization and multidirectional trends. The third type is an example of entire repeatome transformation, thus producing a novel set of satDNA families, and genomes showing non-concerted evolution are proposed as a significant source for genomic diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Multifaceted Role of PheDof12-1 in the Regulation of Flowering Time and Abiotic Stress Responses in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020424 - 19 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, forming an important transcriptional factor family, are involved in gene transcriptional regulation, development, stress responses, and flowering responses in annual plants. However, knowledge of Dofs in perennial and erratically flowering moso bamboo is limited. In view [...] Read more.
DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins, forming an important transcriptional factor family, are involved in gene transcriptional regulation, development, stress responses, and flowering responses in annual plants. However, knowledge of Dofs in perennial and erratically flowering moso bamboo is limited. In view of this, a Dof gene, PheDof12-1, was isolated from moso bamboo. PheDof12-1 is located in the nucleus and has the highest expression in palea and the lowest in bract. Moreover, PheDof12-1 expression is high in flowering leaves, then declines during flower development. The transcription level of PheDof12-1 is highly induced by cold, drought, salt, and gibberellin A3 (GA3) stresses. The functional characteristics of PheDof are researched for the first time in Arabidopsis, and the results show that transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing PheDof12-1 shows early flowering under long-day (LD) conditions but there is no effect on flowering time under short-day (SD) conditions; the transcription levels of FT, SOC1, and AGL24 are upregulated; and FLC and SVP are downregulated. PheDof12-1 exhibits a strong diurnal rhythm, inhibited by light treatment and induced in dark. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay shows that PheDof12-1 can bind to the promoter sequence of PheCOL4. Taken together, these results indicate that PheDof12-1 might be involved in abiotic stress and flowering time, which makes it an important candidate gene for studying the molecular regulation mechanisms of moso bamboo flowering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Evaluation of Genomic Prediction for Pasmo Resistance in Flax
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020359 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Pasmo (Septoria linicola) is a fungal disease causing major losses in seed yield and quality and stem fibre quality in flax. Pasmo resistance (PR) is quantitative and has low heritability. To improve PR breeding efficiency, the accuracy of genomic prediction (GP) [...] Read more.
Pasmo (Septoria linicola) is a fungal disease causing major losses in seed yield and quality and stem fibre quality in flax. Pasmo resistance (PR) is quantitative and has low heritability. To improve PR breeding efficiency, the accuracy of genomic prediction (GP) was evaluated using a diverse worldwide core collection of 370 accessions. Four marker sets, including three defined by 500, 134 and 67 previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) and one of 52,347 PR-correlated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms, were used to build ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) models using pasmo severity (PS) data collected from field experiments performed during five consecutive years. With five-fold random cross-validation, GP accuracy as high as 0.92 was obtained from the models using the 500 QTL when the average PS was used as the training dataset. GP accuracy increased with training population size, reaching values >0.9 with training population size greater than 185. Linear regression of the observed PS with the number of positive-effect QTL in accessions provided an alternative GP approach with an accuracy of 0.86. The results demonstrate the GP models based on marker information from all identified QTL and the 5-year PS average is highly effective for PR prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Characterization and Identification of Trihelix Transcription Factor and Expression Profiling in Response to Abiotic Stresses in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020251 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Trihelix transcription factors play a role in plant growth, development and various stress responses. Here, we identified 41 trihelix family genes in the rice genome. These OsMSLs (Myb/SANT-LIKE) were located on twelve chromosomes. Synteny analysis indicated only six duplicated gene pairs in [...] Read more.
Trihelix transcription factors play a role in plant growth, development and various stress responses. Here, we identified 41 trihelix family genes in the rice genome. These OsMSLs (Myb/SANT-LIKE) were located on twelve chromosomes. Synteny analysis indicated only six duplicated gene pairs in the rice trihelix family. Phylogenetic analysis of these OsMSLs and the trihelix genes from other species divided them into five clusters. OsMSLs from different groups significantly diverged in terms of gene structure and conserved functional domains. However, all OsMSLs contained the same five cis-elements. Some of these were responsive to light and dehydration stress. All OsMSLs expressed in four tissues and six developmental stages of rice but with different expression patterns. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the OsMSLs responded to abiotic stresses including drought and high salt stress and stress signal molecule including ABA (abscisic acid), hydrogen peroxide. OsMSL39 were simultaneously expressed under all treatments, while OsMSL28 showed high expression under hydrogen peroxide, drought, and high salt treatments. Moreover, OsMSL16/27/33 displayed significant expression under ABA and drought treatments. Nevertheless, their responses were regulated by light. The expression levels of the 12 chosen OsMSLs differed between light and dark conditions. In conclusion, our results helped elucidate the biological functions of rice trihelix genes and provided a theoretical basis for further characterizing their biological roles in responding to abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Identification and Characterization of the EXO70 Gene Family in Polyploid Wheat and Related Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010060 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
The EXO70 gene family is involved in different biological processes in plants, ranging from plant polar growth to plant immunity. To date, analysis of the EXO70 gene family has been limited in Triticeae species, e.g., hexaploidy Triticum aestivum and its ancestral/related species. By [...] Read more.
The EXO70 gene family is involved in different biological processes in plants, ranging from plant polar growth to plant immunity. To date, analysis of the EXO70 gene family has been limited in Triticeae species, e.g., hexaploidy Triticum aestivum and its ancestral/related species. By in silico analysis of multiple Triticeae sequence databases, a total of 200 EXO70 members were identified. By homologue cloning approaches, 15 full-length cDNA of EXO70s were cloned from diploid Haynaldia villosa. Phylogenetic relationship analysis of 215 EXO70 members classified them into three groups (EXO70.1, EXO70.2, and EXO70.3) and nine subgroups (EXO70A to EXO70I). The distribution of most EXO70 genes among different species/sub-genomes were collinear, implying their orthologous relationship. The EXO70A subgroup has the most introns (at least five introns), while the remaining seven subgroups have only one intron on average. The expression profiling of EXO70 genes from wheat revealed that 40 wheat EXO70 genes were expressed in at least one tissue (leaf, stem, or root), of which 25 wheat EXO70 genes were in response to at least one biotic stress (stripe rust or powdery mildew) or abiotic stress (drought or heat). Subcellular localization analysis showed that ten EXO70-V proteins had distinct plasma membrane localization, EXO70I1-V showed a distinctive spotted pattern on the membrane. The 15 EXO70-V genes were differentially expressed in three tissue. Apart from EXO70D2-V, the remaining EXO70-V genes were in response to at least one stress (flg22, chitin, powdery mildew, drought, NaCl, heat, or cold) or phytohormones (salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, or abscisic acid) and hydrogen peroxide treatments. This research provides a genome-wide glimpse of the Triticeae EXO70 gene family and those up- or downregulated genes require further validation of their biological roles in response to biotic/abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
The WRKY Transcription Factor GmWRKY12 Confers Drought and Salt Tolerance in Soybean
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124087 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
WRKYs are important regulators in plant development and stress responses. However, knowledge of this superfamily in soybean is limited. In this study, we characterized the drought- and salt-induced gene GmWRKY12 based on RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR. GmWRKY12, which is 714 bp in length, [...] Read more.
WRKYs are important regulators in plant development and stress responses. However, knowledge of this superfamily in soybean is limited. In this study, we characterized the drought- and salt-induced gene GmWRKY12 based on RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR. GmWRKY12, which is 714 bp in length, encoded 237 amino acids and grouped into WRKY II. The promoter region of GmWRKY12 included ABER4, MYB, MYC, GT-1, W-box and DPBF cis-elements, which possibly participate in abscisic acid (ABA), drought and salt stress responses. GmWRKY12 was minimally expressed in different tissues under normal conditions but highly expressed under drought and salt treatments. As a nucleus protein, GmWRKY12 was responsive to drought, salt, ABA and salicylic acid (SA) stresses. Using a transgenic hairy root assay, we further characterized the roles of GmWRKY12 in abiotic stress tolerance. Compared with control (Williams 82), overexpression of GmWRKY12 enhanced drought and salt tolerance, increased proline (Pro) content and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content under drought and salt treatment in transgenic soybean seedlings. These results may provide a basis to understand the functions of GmWRKY12 in abiotic stress responses in soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Molecular Identification and Characterization of Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123938 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contains abundant secondary metabolites, which are regulated by numerous enzymes. Hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) is involved in the biosynthesis pathways of polyphenols and flavonoids, and it can catalyze the transfer of hydroxyconnamoyl coenzyme A to substrates such as quinate, [...] Read more.
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contains abundant secondary metabolites, which are regulated by numerous enzymes. Hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) is involved in the biosynthesis pathways of polyphenols and flavonoids, and it can catalyze the transfer of hydroxyconnamoyl coenzyme A to substrates such as quinate, flavanol glycoside, or anthocyanins, thus resulting in the production of chlorogenic acid or acylated flavonol glycoside. In this study, the CsHCT gene was cloned from the Chin-Shin Oolong tea plant, and its protein functions and characteristics were analyzed. The full-length cDNA of CsHCT contains 1311 base pairs and encodes 436 amino acid sequences. Amino acid sequence was highly conserved with other HCTs from Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Hibiscus cannabinus, and Coffea canephora. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that CsHCT is highly expressed in the stem tissues of both tea plants and seedlings. The CsHCT expression level was relatively high at high altitudes. The abiotic stress experiment suggested that low temperature, drought, and high salinity induced CsHCT transcription. Furthermore, the results of hormone treatments indicated that abscisic acid (ABA) induced a considerable increase in the CsHCT expression level. This may be attributed to CsHCT involvement in abiotic stress and ABA signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Identification, Characterization, and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes and microRNA319 in Cotton
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113655 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) gene family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors that have versatile functions in developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a total of 73 TCP genes in upland cotton were identified [...] Read more.
The TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) gene family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors that have versatile functions in developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a total of 73 TCP genes in upland cotton were identified and characterizated. Phylogenetic analysis classified them into three subgroups: 50 belonged to PCF, 16 to CIN, and 7 to CYC/TB1. GhTCP genes are randomly distributed in 22 of the 26 chromosomes in cotton. Expression patterns of GhTCPs were analyzed in 10 tissues, including different developmental stages of ovule and fiber, as well as under heat, salt, and drought stresses. Transcriptome analysis showed that 44 GhTCP genes exhibited varied transcript accumulation patterns in the tested tissues and 41 GhTCP genes were differentially expressed in response to heat, salt, and drought stresses. Furthermore, three GhTCP genes of the CIN clade were found to contain miR319-binding sites. An anti-correlation expression of GhTCP21 and GhTCP54 was analyzed with miR319 under salt and drought stress. Our results lay the foundation for understanding the complex mechanisms of GhTCP-mediated developmental processes and abiotic stress-signaling transduction pathways in cotton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Mining Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Family Genes in Cleistogenes songorica, a Xerophyte Perennial Desert Plant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113430 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1760
Abstract
Plant growth and development depends on its ability to maintain optimal cellular homeostasis during abiotic and biotic stresses. Cleistogenes songorica, a xerophyte desert plant, is known to have novel drought stress adaptation strategies and contains rich pools of stress tolerance genes. Proteins [...] Read more.
Plant growth and development depends on its ability to maintain optimal cellular homeostasis during abiotic and biotic stresses. Cleistogenes songorica, a xerophyte desert plant, is known to have novel drought stress adaptation strategies and contains rich pools of stress tolerance genes. Proteins encoded by Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) family genes promote cellular activities by functioning as disordered molecules, or by limiting collisions between enzymes during stresses. To date, functions of the LEA family genes have been heavily investigated in many plant species except perennial monocotyledonous species. In this study, 44 putative LEA genes were identified in the C. songorica genome and were grouped into eight subfamilies, based on their conserved protein domains and domain organizations. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that C. songorica Dehydrin and LEA_2 subfamily proteins shared high sequence homology with stress responsive Dehydrin proteins from Arabidopsis. Additionally, promoter regions of CsLEA_2 or CsDehydrin subfamily genes were rich in G-box, drought responsive (MBS), and/or Abscisic acid responsive (ABRE) cis-regulatory elements. In addition, gene expression analyses indicated that genes from these two subfamilies were highly responsive to heat stress and ABA treatment, in both leaves and roots. In summary, the results from this study provided a comprehensive view of C. songorica LEA genes and the potential applications of these genes for the improvement of crop tolerance to abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Transcriptomic Analysis of Betula halophila in Response to Salt Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113412 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Soil salinization is a matter of concern worldwide. It can eventually lead to the desertification of land and severely damage local agricultural production and the ecological environment. Betula halophila is a tree with high salt tolerance, so it is of importance to understand [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is a matter of concern worldwide. It can eventually lead to the desertification of land and severely damage local agricultural production and the ecological environment. Betula halophila is a tree with high salt tolerance, so it is of importance to understand and discover the salt responsive genes of B. halophila for breeding salinity resistant varieties of trees. However, there is no report on the transcriptome in response to salt stress in B. halophila. Using Illumina sequencing platform, approximately 460 M raw reads were generated and assembled into 117,091 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 64,551 unigenes (55.12%) were annotated with gene descriptions, while the other 44.88% were unknown. 168 up-regulated genes and 351 down-regulated genes were identified, respectively. These Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) involved in multiple pathways including the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway, ion transport and uptake, antioxidant enzyme, ABA signal pathway and so on. The gene ontology (GO) enrichments suggested that the DEGs were mainly involved in a plant-type cell wall organization biological process, cell wall cellular component, and structural constituent of cell wall molecular function. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment showed that the top-four enriched pathways were ‘Fatty acid elongation’, ‘Ribosome’, ‘Sphingolipid metabolism’ and ‘Flavonoid biosynthesis’. The expression patterns of sixteen DEGs were analyzed by qRT-PCR to verify the RNA-seq data. Among them, the transcription factor AT-Hook Motif Nuclear Localized gene and dehydrins might play an important role in response to salt stress in B. halophila. Our results provide an important gene resource to breed salt tolerant plants and useful information for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in B. halophila. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Structural and Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of Pyrus hopeiensis—“Wild Plants with a Tiny Population”—and Three Other Pyrus Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103262 - 20 Oct 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Pyrus hopeiensis is a valuable wild resource of Pyrus in the Rosaceae. Due to its limited distribution and population decline, it has been listed as one of the “wild plants with a tiny population” in China. To date, few studies have been conducted [...] Read more.
Pyrus hopeiensis is a valuable wild resource of Pyrus in the Rosaceae. Due to its limited distribution and population decline, it has been listed as one of the “wild plants with a tiny population” in China. To date, few studies have been conducted on P. hopeiensis. This paper offers a systematic review of P. hopeiensis, providing a basis for the conservation and restoration of P. hopeiensis resources. In this study, the chloroplast genomes of two different genotypes of P. hopeiensis, P. ussuriensis Maxin. cv. Jingbaili, P. communis L. cv. Early Red Comice, and P. betulifolia were sequenced, compared and analyzed. The two P. hopeiensis genotypes showed a typical tetrad chloroplast genome, including a pair of inverted repeats encoding the same but opposite direction sequences, a large single copy (LSC) region, and a small single copy (SSC) region. The length of the chloroplast genome of P. hopeiensis HB-1 was 159,935 bp, 46 bp longer than that of the chloroplast genome of P. hopeiensis HB-2. The lengths of the SSC and IR regions of the two Pyrus genotypes were identical, with the only difference present in the LSC region. The GC content was only 0.02% higher in P. hopeiensis HB-1. The structure and size of the chloroplast genome, the gene species, gene number, and GC content of P. hopeiensis were similar to those of the other three Pyrus species. The IR boundary of the two genotypes of P. hopeiensis showed a similar degree of expansion. To determine the evolutionary history of P. hopeiensis within the genus Pyrus and the Rosaceae, 57 common protein-coding genes from 36 Rosaceae species were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed a close relationship between the genera Pyrus and Malus, and the relationship between P. hopeiensis HB-1 and P. hopeiensis HB-2 was the closest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Maize WRKY Transcription Factor ZmWRKY106 Confers Drought and Heat Tolerance in Transgenic Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103046 - 06 Oct 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
WRKY transcription factors constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play crucial roles in plant growth and development, defense regulation and stress responses. However, knowledge about this family in maize is limited. In the present study, we identified a [...] Read more.
WRKY transcription factors constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play crucial roles in plant growth and development, defense regulation and stress responses. However, knowledge about this family in maize is limited. In the present study, we identified a drought-induced WRKY gene, ZmWRKY106, based on the maize drought de novo transcriptome sequencing data. ZmWRKY106 was identified as part of the WRKYII group, and a phylogenetic tree analysis showed that ZmWRKY106 was closer to OsWRKY13. The subcellular localization of ZmWRKY106 was only observed in the nucleus. The promoter region of ZmWRKY106 included the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (DRE), low-temperature responsive element (LTR), MBS, and TCA-elements, which possibly participate in drought, cold, and salicylic acid (SA) stress responses. The expression of ZmWRKY106 was induced significantly by drought, high temperature, and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but was weakly induced by salt. Overexpression of ZmWRKY106 improved the tolerance to drought and heat in transgenic Arabidopsis by regulating stress-related genes through the ABA-signaling pathway, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in transgenic lines was reduced by enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxide dismutase (POD), and catalase (CAT) under drought stress. This suggested that ZmWRKY106 was involved in multiple abiotic stress response pathways and acted as a positive factor under drought and heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Mucilage and Hull Content in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Seeds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102870 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1937
Abstract
New flaxseed cultivars differing in seed mucilage content (MC) with low hull content (HC) represent an attractive option to simultaneously target the food and feed markets. Here, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for MC and HC in 200 diverse flaxseed accessions [...] Read more.
New flaxseed cultivars differing in seed mucilage content (MC) with low hull content (HC) represent an attractive option to simultaneously target the food and feed markets. Here, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for MC and HC in 200 diverse flaxseed accessions genotyped with 1.7 million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The data obtained for MC and HC indicated a broad phenotypic variation and high (~70%) and a moderate (~49%) narrow sense heritability, respectively. MC and HC did not differ statistically between fiber and oil morphotypes, but yellow-seeded accessions had 2.7% less HC than brown-seeded ones. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed to r2 = 0.1 at a physical distance of ~100 kb. Seven and four quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for MC and HC, respectively. Promising candidate genes identified include Linum usitatissimum orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes TRANSPARENT TESTA 8, SUBTILISIN-LIKE SERINE PROTEASE, GALACTUROSYL TRANSFERASE-LIKE 5, MUCILAGE-MODIFIED 4, AGAMOUS-LIKE MADS-BOX PROTEIN AGL62, GLYCOSYL HYDROLASE FAMILY 17, and UDP-GLUCOSE FLAVONOL 3-O-GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE. These genes have been shown to play a role in mucilage synthesis and release, seed coat development and anthocyanin biosynthesis in A. thaliana. The favorable alleles will be useful in flaxseed breeding towards the goal of achieving the ideal MC and HC composition for food and feed by genomic-based breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genotyping-by-Sequencing Enhances Genetic Diversity Analysis of Crested Wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092587 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Molecular characterization of unsequenced plant species with complex genomes is now possible by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) using recent next generation sequencing technologies. This study represents the first use of GBS application to sample genome-wide variants of crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] and [...] Read more.
Molecular characterization of unsequenced plant species with complex genomes is now possible by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) using recent next generation sequencing technologies. This study represents the first use of GBS application to sample genome-wide variants of crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] and assess the genetic diversity present in 192 genotypes from 12 tetraploid lines. Bioinformatic analysis identified 45,507 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in this outcrossing grass species. The model-based Bayesian analysis revealed four major clusters of the samples assayed. The diversity analysis revealed 15.8% of SNP variation residing among the 12 lines, and 12.1% SNP variation present among four genetic clusters identified by the Bayesian analysis. The principal coordinates analysis and dendrogram were able to distinguish four lines of Asian origin from Canadian cultivars and breeding lines. These results serve as a valuable resource for understanding genetic variability, and will aid in the genetic improvement of this outcrossing polyploid grass species for forage production. These findings illustrate the potential of GBS application in the characterization of non-model polyploid plants with complex genomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPK Gene Family in Kiwifruit (Actinidia Chinensis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092510 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signal transduction modules that play crucial roles in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division, and developmental processes in plants. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK), being a part of this cascade, performs an important [...] Read more.
Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signal transduction modules that play crucial roles in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division, and developmental processes in plants. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK), being a part of this cascade, performs an important function for further appropriate cellular responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several model plants, no systematic analysis has been conducted in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). In the present study, we identified 18 putative MAPKs in the kiwifruit genome. This gene family was analyzed bioinformatically in terms of their chromosome locations, sequence alignment, gene structures, and phylogenetic and conserved motifs. All members possess fully canonical motif structures of MAPK. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AcMAPKs could be classified into five subfamilies, and these gene motifs in the same group showed high similarity. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that the number of exons in AcMAPK genes ranged from 2 to 29, suggesting large variation among kiwifruit MAPK genes. The expression profiles of these AcMAPK genes were further investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which demonstrated that AcMAPKs were induced or repressed by various biotic and abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, suggesting their potential roles in the biotic and abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in kiwifruit. The results of this study provide valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in kiwifruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Analysis and Cloning of the Apple Stress-Associated Protein Gene Family Reveals MdSAP15, Which Confers Tolerance to Drought and Osmotic Stresses in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092478 - 21 Aug 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Stress-associated proteins (SAPs) are novel A20/AN1 zinc finger domain-containing proteins that are now favorable targets to improve abiotic stress tolerance in plants. However, the SAP gene family and their biological functions have not been identified in the important fruit crop apple (Malus [...] Read more.
Stress-associated proteins (SAPs) are novel A20/AN1 zinc finger domain-containing proteins that are now favorable targets to improve abiotic stress tolerance in plants. However, the SAP gene family and their biological functions have not been identified in the important fruit crop apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). We conducted a genome-wide analysis and cloning of this gene family in apple and determined that the overexpression of MdSAP15 enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis plants. We identified 30 SAP genes in the apple genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major groups within that family. Results from sequence alignments and analyses of 3D structures, phylogenetics, genomics structure, and conserved domains indicated that apple SAPs are highly and structurally conserved. Comprehensive qRT-PCR analysis found various expression patterns for MdSAPs in different tissues and in response to a water deficit. A transgenic analysis showed that the overexpression of MdSAP15 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants markedly enhanced their tolerance to osmotic and drought stresses. Our results demonstrate that the SAP genes are highly conserved in plant species, and that MdSAP15 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve drought tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Evolutionary Relationship of Uncharacterized Genes in a Novel Germplasm Collection of Diploid and Allotetraploid Gossypium Accessions Using EST and Genomic SSR Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082401 - 14 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2752
Abstract
This study evaluated the genetic diversity and population structures in a novel cotton germplasm collection comprising 132 diploids, including Glossypium klotzschianum and allotetraploid cotton accessions, including Glossypium barbadense, Glossypium darwinii, Glossypium tomentosum, Glossypium ekmanianum, and Glossypium stephensii, from [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the genetic diversity and population structures in a novel cotton germplasm collection comprising 132 diploids, including Glossypium klotzschianum and allotetraploid cotton accessions, including Glossypium barbadense, Glossypium darwinii, Glossypium tomentosum, Glossypium ekmanianum, and Glossypium stephensii, from Santa Cruz, Isabella, San Cristobal, Hawaiian, Dominican Republic, and Wake Atoll islands. A total of 111 expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic simple sequence repeat (gSSR) markers produced 382 polymorphic loci with an average of 3.44 polymorphic alleles per SSR marker. Polymorphism information content values counted 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.56. Analysis of a genetic distance matrix revealed values of 0.003 to 0.53 with an average of 0.33 in the wild cotton collection. Phylogenetic analysis supported the subgroups identified by STRUCTURE and corresponds well with the results of principal coordinate analysis with a cumulative variation of 45.65%. A total of 123 unique alleles were observed among all accessions and 31 identified only in G. ekmanianum. Analysis of molecular variance revealed highly significant variation between the six groups identified by structure analysis with 49% of the total variation and 51% of the variation was due to diversity within the groups. The highest genetic differentiation among tetraploid populations was observed between accessions from the Hawaiian and Santa Cruz regions with a pairwise FST of 0.752 (p < 0.001). DUF819 containing an uncharacterized gene named yjcL linked to genomic markers has been found to be highly related to tryptophan-aspartic acid (W-D) repeats in a superfamily of genes. The RNA sequence expression data of the yjcL-linked gene Gh_A09G2500 was found to be upregulated under drought and salt stress conditions. The existence of genetic diversity, characterization of genes and variation in novel germplasm collection will be a landmark addition to the genetic study of cotton germplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Substantial Epigenetic Variation Causing Flower Color Chimerism in the Ornamental Tree Prunus mume Revealed by Single Base Resolution Methylome Detection and Transcriptome Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082315 - 07 Aug 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1979
Abstract
Epigenetic changes caused by methylcytosine modification participate in gene regulation and transposable element (TE) repression, resulting in phenotypic variation. Although the effects of DNA methylation and TE repression on flower, fruit, seed coat, and leaf pigmentation have been investigated, little is known about [...] Read more.
Epigenetic changes caused by methylcytosine modification participate in gene regulation and transposable element (TE) repression, resulting in phenotypic variation. Although the effects of DNA methylation and TE repression on flower, fruit, seed coat, and leaf pigmentation have been investigated, little is known about the relationship between methylation and flower color chimerism. In this study, we used a comparative methylomic–transcriptomic approach to explore the molecular mechanism responsible for chimeric flowers in Prunus mume “Danban Tiaozhi”. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that the variation in white (WT) and red (RT) petal tissues in this species is directly due to the accumulation of anthocyanins, i.e., cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and peonidin 3-O-glucoside. We next mapped the first-ever generated methylomes of P. mume, and found that 11.29–14.83% of the genomic cytosine sites were methylated. We also determined that gene expression was negatively correlated with methylcytosine level in general, and uncovered significant epigenetic variation between WT and RT. Furthermore, we detected differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and DMR-related genes between WT and RT, and concluded that many of these genes, including differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and transcription factor genes, are critical participants in the anthocyanin regulatory pathway. Importantly, some of the associated DEGs harbored TE insertions that were also modified by methylcytosine. The above evidence suggest that flower color chimerism in P. mume is induced by the DNA methylation of critical genes and TEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Association Study and Selection Signatures Detect Genomic Regions Associated with Seed Yield and Oil Quality in Flax
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082303 - 06 Aug 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on a set of 260 lines which belong to three different bi-parental flax mapping populations. These lines were sequenced to an averaged genome coverage of 19× using the Illumina Hi-Seq platform. Phenotypic data for 11 seed [...] Read more.
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on a set of 260 lines which belong to three different bi-parental flax mapping populations. These lines were sequenced to an averaged genome coverage of 19× using the Illumina Hi-Seq platform. Phenotypic data for 11 seed yield and oil quality traits were collected in eight year/location environments. A total of 17,288 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which explained more than 80% of the phenotypic variation for days to maturity (DTM), iodine value (IOD), palmitic (PAL), stearic, linoleic (LIO) and linolenic (LIN) acid contents. Twenty-three unique genomic regions associated with 33 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the studied traits were detected, thereby validating four genomic regions previously identified. The 33 QTL explained 48–73% of the phenotypic variation for oil content, IOD, PAL, LIO and LIN but only 8–14% for plant height, DTM and seed yield. A genome-wide selective sweep scan for selection signatures detected 114 genomic regions that accounted for 7.82% of the flax pseudomolecule and overlapped with the 11 GWAS-detected genomic regions associated with 18 QTL for 11 traits. The results demonstrate the utility of GWAS combined with selection signatures for dissection of the genetic structure of traits and for pinpointing genomic regions for breeding improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Classification and Genome-Wide Analysis of Chitin-Binding Proteins Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Transcriptional Regulation to Phytophthora capsici, Abiotic Stresses and Hormonal Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082216 - 29 Jul 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
Chitin-binding proteins are pathogenesis-related gene family, which play a key role in the defense response of plants. However, thus far, little is known about the chitin-binding family genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In current study, 16 putative chitin genes (CaChi) were [...] Read more.
Chitin-binding proteins are pathogenesis-related gene family, which play a key role in the defense response of plants. However, thus far, little is known about the chitin-binding family genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In current study, 16 putative chitin genes (CaChi) were retrieved from the latest pepper genome database, and were classified into four distinct classes (I, III, IV and VI) based on their sequence structure and domain architectures. Furthermore, the structure of gene, genome location, gene duplication and phylogenetic relationship were examined to clarify a comprehensive background of the CaChi genes in pepper. The tissue-specific expression analysis of the CaChi showed the highest transcript levels in seed followed by stem, flower, leaf and root, whereas the lowest transcript levels were noted in red-fruit. Phytophthora capsici post inoculation, most of the CaChi (CaChiI3, CaChiIII1, CaChiIII2, CaChiIII4, CaChiIII6, CaChiIII7, CaChiIV1, CaChiVI1 and CaChiVI2) were induced by both strains (PC and HX-9). Under abiotic and exogenous hormonal treatments, the CaChiIII2, CaChiIII7, CaChiVI1 and CaChiVI2 were upregulated by abiotic stress, while CaChiI1, CaChiIII7, CaChiIV1 and CaChiIV2 responded to hormonal treatments. Furthermore, CaChiIV1-silenced plants display weakened defense by reducing (60%) root activity and increase susceptibility to NaCl stress. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that CaChi genes primarily contribute in response to biotic, abiotic stresses and metabolic/catabolic process within the biological process category. These results exposed that CaChi genes are involved in defense response and signal transduction, suggesting their vital roles in growth regulation as well as response to stresses in pepper plant. In conclusion, these finding provide basic insights for functional validation of the CaChi genes in different biotic and abiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Identification of WRKY Gene Family from Dimocarpus longan and Its Expression Analysis during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082169 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
Longan is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia. However, its blooming and its yield are susceptible to stresses such as droughts, high salinity, and high and low temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress [...] Read more.
Longan is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia. However, its blooming and its yield are susceptible to stresses such as droughts, high salinity, and high and low temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance and flower induction in longan have not been elucidated. WRKY transcription factors (TFs), which have been studied in various plant species, play important regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and responses to stresses. However, there is no report about WRKYs in longan. In this study, we identified 55 WRKY genes with the conserved WRKY domain and zinc finger motif in the longan genome. Based on the structural features of WRKY proteins and topology of the phylogenetic tree, the longan WRKY (DlWRKY) family was classified into three major groups (I–III) and five subgroups (IIa–IIe) in group II. Tissue expression analysis showed that 25 DlWRKYs were highly expressed in almost all organs, suggesting that these genes may be important for plant growth and organ development in longan. Comparative RNA-seq and qRT-PCR-based gene expression analysis revealed that 18 DlWRKY genes showed a specific expression during three stages of flower induction in “Sijimi” (“SJ”), which exhibited the “perpetual flowering” (PF) habit, indicating that these 18 DlWRKY genes may be involved in the flower induction and the genetic control of the perpetual flowering trait in longan. Furthermore, the RT-qPCR analysis illustrated the significant variation of 27, 18, 15, 17, 27, and 23 DlWRKY genes under SA (Salicylic acid), MeJA (Methyl Jasmonate), heat, cold, drought, or high salinity treatment, respectively, implicating that they might be stress- or hormone-responsive genes. In summary, we systematically and comprehensively analyzed the structure, evolution, and expression pattern of the DlWRKY genes. The results presented here increase our understanding of the WRKY family in fruit trees and provide a basis for the further elucidation of the biological function of DlWRKY genes in longan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Analysis of the Coding and Non-Coding RNA Transcriptomes in Response to Bell Pepper Chilling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072001 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) have roles during biotic and abiotic stress, though their exact contributions remain unclear. To explore their biological functions in response to chilling in bell pepper, we examined their accumulation [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) have roles during biotic and abiotic stress, though their exact contributions remain unclear. To explore their biological functions in response to chilling in bell pepper, we examined their accumulation profiles by deep sequencing and identified 380 lncRNAs, 36 circRNAs, 18 miRNAs, and 4128 differentially expressed mRNAs in the chilled versus the non-chilled fruit. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed differentially expressed genes and putative ncRNA targets, including transcription factors of multiple classes, such as myeloblastosis (MYB), basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors (TFs), enzymes involved in bio-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation (serine/threonine-protein kinase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and ATPase), and cell wall metabolism-related enzymes (beta-galactosidase, pectate lyase, pectinesterase, and polygalacturonase). On the basis of the accumulation profiles, a network of putatively interacting RNAs associated with bell pepper chilling was developed, which pointed to ncRNAs that could provide the foundation for further developing a more refined understanding of the molecular response to chilling injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Whole-Transcriptome Sequence Analysis of Verbena bonariensis in Response to Drought Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061751 - 13 Jun 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Drought is an important abiotic factor that threatens the growth and development of plants. Verbena bonariensis is a widely used landscape plant with a very high ornamental value. We found that Verbena has drought tolerance in production practice, so in order to delve [...] Read more.
Drought is an important abiotic factor that threatens the growth and development of plants. Verbena bonariensis is a widely used landscape plant with a very high ornamental value. We found that Verbena has drought tolerance in production practice, so in order to delve into its mechanism of drought resistance and screen out its drought-resistance genes, we used the RNA-Seq platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly to analyze Verbena transcription response to drought stress. By high-throughput sequencing with Illumina Hiseq Xten, a total of 44.59 Gb clean data was obtained from T01 (control group) and T02 (drought experiment group). After assembly, 111,313 unigenes were obtained, and 53,757 of them were annotated by compared databases. In this study, 4829 differentially expressed genes were obtained, of which 4165 were annotated. We performed GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analyses, and explored a lot of differently expressed genes related to plant energy production, hormone synthesis, cell signal transduction, and metabolism to understand the stress response of Verbena in drought stress. In addition, we also found that a series of TFs related to drought-resistance of Verbena and provide excellent genetic resources for improving the drought tolerance of crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Warming-Related Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061727 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
For sustainable crop cultivation in the face of global warming, it is important to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to a warming climate and apply this information to breeding. Thermomorphogenesis and ambient temperature signaling pathways have been well studied in model [...] Read more.
For sustainable crop cultivation in the face of global warming, it is important to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to a warming climate and apply this information to breeding. Thermomorphogenesis and ambient temperature signaling pathways have been well studied in model plants, but little information is available for vegetable crops. Here, we investigated genes responsive to warming conditions from two Brassica rapa inbred lines with different geographic origins: subtropical (Kenshin) and temperate (Chiifu). Genes in Gene Ontology categories “response to heat”, “heat acclimation”, “response to light intensity”, “response to oxidative stress”, and “response to temperature stimulus” were upregulated under warming treatment in both lines, but genes involved in “response to auxin stimulus” were upregulated only in Kenshin under both warming and minor-warming conditions. We identified 16 putative high temperature (HT) adaptation-related genes, including 10 heat-shock response genes, 2 transcription factor genes, 1 splicing factor gene, and 3 others. BrPIF4, BrROF2, and BrMPSR1 are candidate genes that might function in HT adaptation. Auxin response, alternative splicing of BrHSFA2, and heat shock memory appear to be indispensable for HT adaptation in B. rapa. These results lay the foundation for molecular breeding and marker development to improve warming tolerance in B. rapa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Screening and Characterization of the Dof Gene Family in Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061598 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2161
Abstract
Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a species of flowering plant with great potential for biofuel production and as an emerging model organism for functional genomic analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae family. DNA binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factors play critical [...] Read more.
Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a species of flowering plant with great potential for biofuel production and as an emerging model organism for functional genomic analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae family. DNA binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factors play critical roles in numerous biological processes in plants. Nevertheless, the knowledge about members, and the evolutionary and functional characteristics of the Dof gene family in physic nut is insufficient. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide screening and characterization of the Dof gene family within the physic nut draft genome. In total, 24 JcDof genes (encoding 33 JcDof proteins) were identified. All the JcDof genes were divided into three major groups based on phylogenetic inference, which was further validated by the subsequent gene structure and motif analysis. Genome comparison revealed that segmental duplication may have played crucial roles in the expansion of the JcDof gene family, and gene expansion was mainly subjected to positive selection. The expression profile demonstrated the broad involvement of JcDof genes in response to various abiotic stresses, hormonal treatments and functional divergence. This study provides valuable information for better understanding the evolution of JcDof genes, and lays a foundation for future functional exploration of JcDof genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the UGlcAE Gene Family in Tomato
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061583 - 27 May 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
The UGlcAE has the capability of interconverting UDP-d-galacturonic acid and UDP-d-glucuronic acid, and UDP-d-galacturonic acid is an activated precursor for the synthesis of pectins in plants. In this study, we identified nine UGlcAE protein-encoding genes in tomato. [...] Read more.
The UGlcAE has the capability of interconverting UDP-d-galacturonic acid and UDP-d-glucuronic acid, and UDP-d-galacturonic acid is an activated precursor for the synthesis of pectins in plants. In this study, we identified nine UGlcAE protein-encoding genes in tomato. The nine UGlcAE genes that were distributed on eight chromosomes in tomato, and the corresponding proteins contained one or two trans-membrane domains. The phylogenetic analysis showed that SlUGlcAE genes could be divided into seven groups, designated UGlcAE1 to UGlcAE6, of which the UGlcAE2 were classified into two groups. Expression profile analysis revealed that the SlUGlcAE genes display diverse expression patterns in various tomato tissues. Selective pressure analysis indicated that all of the amino acid sites of SlUGlcAE proteins are undergoing purifying selection. Fifteen stress-, hormone-, and development-related elements were identified in the upstream regions (0.5 kb) of these SlUGlcAE genes. Furthermore, we investigated the expression patterns of SlUGlcAE genes in response to three hormones (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA), and salicylic acid (SA)). We detected firmness, pectin contents, and expression levels of UGlcAE family genes during the development of tomato fruit. Here, we systematically summarize the general characteristics of the SlUGlcAE genes in tomato, which could provide a basis for further function studies of tomato UGlcAE genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Review

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Review
Computational and Experimental Tools to Monitor the Changes in Translation Efficiency of Plant mRNA on a Genome-Wide Scale: Advantages, Limitations, and Solutions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010033 - 21 Dec 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1281
Abstract
The control of translation in the course of gene expression regulation plays a crucial role in plants’ cellular events and, particularly, in responses to environmental factors. The paradox of the great variance between levels of mRNAs and their protein products in eukaryotic cells, [...] Read more.
The control of translation in the course of gene expression regulation plays a crucial role in plants’ cellular events and, particularly, in responses to environmental factors. The paradox of the great variance between levels of mRNAs and their protein products in eukaryotic cells, including plants, requires thorough investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of translation. A wide and amazingly complex network of mechanisms decoding the plant genome into proteome challenges researchers to design new methods for genome-wide analysis of translational control, develop computational algorithms detecting regulatory mRNA contexts, and to establish rules underlying differential translation. The aims of this review are to (i) describe the experimental approaches for investigation of differential translation in plants on a genome-wide scale; (ii) summarize the current data on computational algorithms for detection of specific structure–function features and key determinants in plant mRNAs and their correlation with translation efficiency; (iii) highlight the methods for experimental verification of existed and theoretically predicted features within plant mRNAs important for their differential translation; and finally (iv) to discuss the perspectives of discovering the specific structural features of plant mRNA that mediate differential translation control by the combination of computational and experimental approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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Brief Report
One Major Challenge of Sequencing Large Plant Genomes Is to Know How Big They Really Are
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113554 - 11 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Any project seeking to deliver a plant or animal reference genome sequence must address the question as to the completeness of the assembly. Given the complexity introduced particularly by the presence of sequence redundancy, a problem which is especially acute in polyploid genomes, [...] Read more.
Any project seeking to deliver a plant or animal reference genome sequence must address the question as to the completeness of the assembly. Given the complexity introduced particularly by the presence of sequence redundancy, a problem which is especially acute in polyploid genomes, this question is not an easy one to answer. One approach is to use the sequence data, along with the appropriate computational tools, the other is to compare the estimate of genome size with an experimentally measured mass of nuclear DNA. The latter requires a reference standard in order to provide a robust relationship between the two independent measurements of genome size. Here, the proposal is to choose the human male leucocyte genome for this standard: its 1C DNA amount (the amount of DNA contained within unreplicated haploid chromosome set) of 3.50 pg is equivalent to a genome length of 3.423 Gbp, a size which is just 5% longer than predicted by the most current human genome assembly. Adopting this standard, this paper assesses the completeness of the reference genome assemblies of the leading cereal crops species wheat, barley and rye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics)
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