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Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 54371

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology Politehnica Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: synthesis and characterization of nanobiomaterials; polymers; pharmaceutical nanotechnology; drug delivery; anti-biofilm surfaces; nanomodified surfaces; natural products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoparticles have a special place among nanotechnologies as they have shown great potential for bringing countless benefits compared to their macroscaled counterparts. Thus, in recent years, there has been a steadily growing interest in the utilization of nanoparticles in various biomedical applications, including targeted drug and gene delivery, bioimaging, biosensing, cancer therapy through hyperthermia or photoablation, theranostics, and cell labeling.

However, most applications require additional organic or bioactive molecules for fulfilling the desired purposes, enhancing biocompatibility and avoiding immune responses from the organism, and inducing supplementary effects, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, or anti-cancer. Therefore, nanoparticles mostly function as carriers for that will specifically target the desired area and release various biomolecules. In this manner, recent years have witnessed tremendous advancements in the development of efficient methods for encapsulating or attaching these biomolecules at the nanoparticle level.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to gather all the information and contributions from recent years concerning the precise interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules in the process of developing complex systems. Specifically, submitted papers should focus on newly emerged methods for functionalizing nanoparticles with specific biomolecules and their associated applications, as well as on the mechanistic perspectives regarding their interactions.

Assoc. Prof. Alexandru Grumezescu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bioactive molecules
  • nanoparticles
  • functionalization
  • encapsulation
  • biomolecule delivery systems
  • nanoparticle therapy
  • nanoparticle diagnosis

Published Papers (18 papers)

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18 pages, 3276 KiB  
Article
Redox-Mediated Gold Nanoparticles with Glucose Oxidase and Egg White Proteins for Printed Biosensors and Biofuel Cells
by Natcha Rasitanon, Kornautchaya Veenuttranon, Hnin Thandar Lwin, Kanyawee Kaewpradub, Tonghathai Phairatana and Itthipon Jeerapan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054657 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
Glucose oxidase (GOx)-based electrodes are important for bioelectronics, such as glucose sensors. It is challenging to effectively link GOx with nanomaterial-modified electrodes while preserving enzyme activity in a biocompatible environment. To date, no reports have used biocompatible food-based materials, such as egg white [...] Read more.
Glucose oxidase (GOx)-based electrodes are important for bioelectronics, such as glucose sensors. It is challenging to effectively link GOx with nanomaterial-modified electrodes while preserving enzyme activity in a biocompatible environment. To date, no reports have used biocompatible food-based materials, such as egg white proteins, combined with GOx, redox molecules, and nanoparticles to create the biorecognition layer for biosensors and biofuel cells. This article demonstrates the interface of GOx integrated with egg white proteins on a 5 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP) functionalized with a 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) and conjugated with a screen-printed flexible conductive carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified electrode. Egg white proteins containing ovalbumin can form three-dimensional scaffolds to accommodate immobilized enzymes and adjust the analytical performance. The structure of this biointerface prevents the escape of enzymes and provides a suitable microenvironment for the effective reaction. The bioelectrode’s performance and kinetics were evaluated. Using redox-mediated molecules with the AuNPs and the three-dimensional matrix made of egg white proteins improves the transfer of electrons between the electrode and the redox center. By engineering the layer of egg white proteins on the GOx-NQ-AuNPs-mediated CNT-functionalized electrodes, we can modulate analytical performances such as sensitivity and linear range. The bioelectrodes demonstrate high sensitivity and can prolong the stability by more than 85% after 6 h of continuous operation. The use of food-based proteins with redox molecule-modified AuNPs and printed electrodes demonstrates advantages for biosensors and energy devices due to their small size, large surface area, and ease of modification. This concept holds a promise for creating biocompatible electrodes for biosensors and self-sustaining energy devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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13 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
Design, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Erythromycin-Loaded Nanodroplets to Counteract Infected Chronic Wounds Due to Streptococcus pyogenes
by Narcisa Mandras, Anna Luganini, Monica Argenziano, Janira Roana, Giuliana Giribaldi, Vivian Tullio, Lorenza Cavallo, Mauro Prato, Roberta Cavalli, Anna Maria Cuffini, Valeria Allizond and Giuliana Banche
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24031865 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Streptococcus pyogenes causes a wide spectrum of diseases varying from mild to life threatening, despite antibiotic treatment. Nanoparticle application could facilitate the foreign pathogen fight by increasing the antimicrobial effectiveness and reducing their adverse effects. Here, we designed and produced erythromycin-loaded chitosan nanodroplets [...] Read more.
Streptococcus pyogenes causes a wide spectrum of diseases varying from mild to life threatening, despite antibiotic treatment. Nanoparticle application could facilitate the foreign pathogen fight by increasing the antimicrobial effectiveness and reducing their adverse effects. Here, we designed and produced erythromycin-loaded chitosan nanodroplets (Ery-NDs), both oxygen-free and oxygen-loaded. All ND formulations were characterized for physico-chemical parameters, drug release kinetics, and tested for biocompatibility with human keratinocytes and for their antibacterial properties or interactions with S. pyogenes. All tested NDs possessed spherical shape, small average diameter, and positive Z potential. A prolonged Ery release kinetic from Ery-NDs was demonstrated, as well as a favorable biocompatibility on human keratinocytes. Confocal microscopy images showed ND uptake and internalization by S. pyogenes starting from 3 h of incubation up to 24 h. According to cell counts, NDs displayed long-term antimicrobial efficacy against streptococci significantly counteracting their proliferation up to 24 h, thanks to the known chitosan antimicrobial properties. Intriguingly, Ery-NDs were generally more effective (104–103 log10 CFU/mL), than free-erythromycin (105 log10 CFU/mL), in the direct killing of streptococci, probably due to Ery-NDs adsorption by bacteria and prolonged release kinetics of erythromycin inside S. pyogenes cells. Based on these findings, NDs and proper Ery-NDs appear to be the most promising and skin-friendly approaches for the topical treatment of streptococcal skin infections allowing wound healing during hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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14 pages, 1636 KiB  
Article
Role of Microstructure in Drug Release from Chitosan Amorphous Solid Dispersions
by David Lucio, Arantza Zornoza and Maria Cristina Martínez-Ohárriz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315367 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
The unexpected dissolution behaviour of amorphous diflunisal-chitosan solid dispersions (kneading method) with respect to the crystalline co-evaporated systems is the starting point of this research. This work is an in-depth study of the diflunisal release behaviour from either chitosan or carboxymethylchitosan dispersions. The [...] Read more.
The unexpected dissolution behaviour of amorphous diflunisal-chitosan solid dispersions (kneading method) with respect to the crystalline co-evaporated systems is the starting point of this research. This work is an in-depth study of the diflunisal release behaviour from either chitosan or carboxymethylchitosan dispersions. The microstructure is not usually considered when designing this type of products; however, it is essential to understand the process of solvent penetration and subsequent drug release through a polymeric system, as has been evidenced in this study. In accordance with the kinetic data analysed, it is possible to conclude that the porous structure, conditioned by the sample preparation method, can be considered the main factor involved in diflunisal release. The low mean pore size (1–2 μm), low porosity, and high tortuosity of the amorphous kneaded products are responsible for the slow drug release in comparison with the crystalline coevaporated systems, which exhibit larger pore size (8–10 μm) and lower tortuosity. Nevertheless, all diflunisal-carboxymethylchitosan products show similar porous microstructure and overlapping dissolution profiles. The drug release mechanisms obtained can also be related to the porous structure. Fickian diffusion was the main mechanism involved in drug release from chitosan, whereas an important contribution of erosion was detected for carboxymethylchitosan systems, probably due to its high solubility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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15 pages, 2210 KiB  
Article
Nanobodies for the Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer
by Lan-Huong Tran, Geert-Jan Graulus, Cécile Vincke, Natalia Smiejkowska, Anne Kindt, Nick Devoogdt, Serge Muyldermans, Peter Adriaensens and Wanda Guedens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 13687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232213687 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer-related deaths among women. Since ovarian cancer patients are often asymptomatic, most patients are diagnosed only at an advanced stage of disease. This results in a 5-year survival rate below 50%, which is in strong contrast to a [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer-related deaths among women. Since ovarian cancer patients are often asymptomatic, most patients are diagnosed only at an advanced stage of disease. This results in a 5-year survival rate below 50%, which is in strong contrast to a survival rate as high as 94% if detected and treated at an early stage. Monitoring serum biomarkers offers new possibilities to diagnose ovarian cancer at an early stage. In this study, nanobodies targeting the ovarian cancer biomarkers human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and progranulin (PGRN) were evaluated regarding their expression levels in bacterial systems, epitope binning, and antigen-binding affinity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance. The selected nanobodies possess strong binding affinities for their cognate antigens (KD~0.1–10 nM) and therefore have a pronounced potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early stage. Moreover, it is of utmost importance that the limits of detection (LOD) for these biomarkers are in the pM range, implying high specificity and sensitivity, as demonstrated by values in human serum of 37 pM for HE4, 163 pM for SLPI, and 195 pM for PGRN. These nanobody candidates could thus pave the way towards multiplexed biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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13 pages, 1942 KiB  
Article
“Soft Protein Corona” as the Stabilizer of the Methionine-Coated Silver Nanoparticles in the Physiological Environment: Insights into the Mechanism of the Interaction
by Aleksandra M. Bondžić, Dunja Jovanović, Nevena Arsenijević, Bojana Laban, Tamara Lazarević Pašti, Urszula Klekotka and Bojan P. Bondžić
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 8985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23168985 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
The study of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and proteins has had a pivotal role in facilitating the understanding of biological effects and safe application of NPs after exposure to the physiological environment. Herein, for the first time, the interaction between L-methionine capped [...] Read more.
The study of the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and proteins has had a pivotal role in facilitating the understanding of biological effects and safe application of NPs after exposure to the physiological environment. Herein, for the first time, the interaction between L-methionine capped silver nanoparticles (AgMet), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) is investigated in order to predict the fate of AgMet after its contact with the most abundant blood transport protein. The detailed insights into the mechanism of interaction were achieved using different physicochemical techniques. The UV/Vis, TEM, and DLS were used for the characterization of the newly formed “entity”, while the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were utilized to describe the adsorption process. Additionally, the fluorescence quenching and synchronous fluorescence studies enabled the prediction of the binding affinity and gave us insight into the influence of the adsorption on the conformation state of the BSA. According to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we show that BSA can be used as an external stabilizer agent which is able to induce the peptization of previously agglomerated AgMet. We believe that the obtained results could contribute to further improvement of AgNPs’ performances as well as to the understanding of their in vivo behavior, which could contribute to their potential use in preclinical research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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17 pages, 3717 KiB  
Article
Nanoparticles Influence Lytic Phage T4-like Performance In Vitro
by Xymena Stachurska, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Kamila Pachnowska, Agnieszka Piegat, Ewa Mijowska and Paweł Nawrotek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 7179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137179 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Little is known about interactions of non-filamentous, complex-structured lytic phages and free, non-ordered nanoparticles. Emerging questions about their possible bio-sanitization co-applications or predictions of possible contact effects in the environment require testing. Therefore, we revealed the influence of various nanoparticles (NPs; SiO2 [...] Read more.
Little is known about interactions of non-filamentous, complex-structured lytic phages and free, non-ordered nanoparticles. Emerging questions about their possible bio-sanitization co-applications or predictions of possible contact effects in the environment require testing. Therefore, we revealed the influence of various nanoparticles (NPs; SiO2, TiO2-SiO2, TiO2, Fe3O4, Fe3O4-SiO2 and SiO2-Fe3O4-TiO2) on a T4-like phage. In great detail, we investigated phage plaque-forming ability, phage lytic performance, phage progeny burst times and titers by the eclipse phase determinations. Additionally, it was proved that TEM micrographs and results of NP zeta potentials (ZP) were crucial to explain the obtained microbiological data. We propose that the mere presence of the nanoparticle charge is not sufficient for the phage to attach specifically to the NPs, consequently influencing the phage performance. The zeta potential values in the NPs are of the greatest influence. The threshold values were established at ZP < −35 (mV) for phage tail binding, and ZP > 35 (mV) for phage head binding. When NPs do not meet these requirements, phage–nanoparticle physical interaction becomes nonspecific. We also showed that NPs altered the phage lytic activity, regardless of the used NP concentration. Most of the tested nanoparticles positively influenced the phage lytic performance, except for SiO2 and Fe3O4-SiO2, with a ZP lower than −35 (mV), binding with the phage infective part—the tail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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11 pages, 2352 KiB  
Article
Starch-Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Affinity Purification of Recombinant Proteins
by Vasilisa V. Krasitskaya, Alexander N. Kudryavtsev, Roman N. Yaroslavtsev, Dmitry A. Velikanov, Oleg A. Bayukov, Yulia V. Gerasimova, Sergey V. Stolyar and Ludmila A. Frank
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105410 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Starch-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple, fast, and cost-effective co-precipitation method with cornstarch as a stabilizing agent. The structural and magnetic characteristics of the synthesized material have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample [...] Read more.
Starch-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple, fast, and cost-effective co-precipitation method with cornstarch as a stabilizing agent. The structural and magnetic characteristics of the synthesized material have been studied by transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The nature of bonds between ferrihydrite nanoparticles and a starch shell has been examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The data on the magnetic response of the prepared composite particles have been obtained by magnetic measurements. The determined magnetic characteristics make the synthesized material a good candidate for use in magnetic separation. Starch-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been tested as an affinity sorbent for one-step purification of several recombinant proteins (cardiac troponin I, survivin, and melanoma inhibitory activity protein) bearing the maltose-binding protein as an auxiliary fragment. It has been shown that, due to the highly specific binding of this fragment to the starch shell, the target fusion protein is selectively immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and eluted with the maltose solution. The excellent efficiency of column-free purification, high binding capacity of the sorbent (100–500 µg of a recombinant protein per milligram of starch-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles), and reusability of the obtained material have been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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20 pages, 4540 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Effects of Ag, Cu, ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Expression Level of Oxidative Stress-Related Genes and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis
by Oliwia Metryka, Daniel Wasilkowski and Agnieszka Mrozik
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094966 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
Although the molecular response of bacteria exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs) is intensively studied, many phenomena related to their survival, metal uptake, gene expression and protein production are not fully understood. Therefore, this work aimed to study Ag-NPs, Cu-NPs, ZnO-NPs and TiO2 [...] Read more.
Although the molecular response of bacteria exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs) is intensively studied, many phenomena related to their survival, metal uptake, gene expression and protein production are not fully understood. Therefore, this work aimed to study Ag-NPs, Cu-NPs, ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs-induced alterations in the expression level of selected oxidative stress-related genes in connection with the activity of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PER) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The methodology used included: the extraction of total RNA and cDNA synthesis, the preparation of primers for selected housekeeping and oxidative stress genes, RT-qPCR reaction and the measurements of CAT, PER and SOD activities. It was established that the treatment of E. coli and S. epidermidis with NPs resulted mainly in the down-regulation of targeted genes, whilst the up-regulation of genes was confirmed in B. cereus. The greatest differences in the relative expression levels of tested genes occurred in B. cereus and S. epidermidis treated with TiO2-NPs, while in E. coli, they were observed under ZnO-NPs exposure. The changes found were mostly related to the expression of genes encoding proteins with PER and CAT-like activity. Among NPs, ZnO-NPs and Cu-NPs increased the activity of antioxidants in E. coli and B. cereus. In turn, TiO2-NPs had a major effect on enzymes activity in S. epidermidis. Considering all of the collected results for tested bacteria, it can be emphasised that the impact of NPs on the antioxidant system functioning was dependent on their type and concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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12 pages, 1639 KiB  
Communication
Multiplex Label-Free Kinetic Characterization of Antibodies for Rapid Sensitive Cardiac Troponin I Detection Based on Functionalized Magnetic Nanotags
by Alexey V. Orlov, Juri A. Malkerov, Denis O. Novichikhin, Sergey L. Znoyko and Petr I. Nikitin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094474 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
Express and highly sensitive immunoassays for the quantitative registration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) are in high demand for early point-of-care differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The selection of antibodies that feature rapid and tight binding with antigens is crucial for immunoassay [...] Read more.
Express and highly sensitive immunoassays for the quantitative registration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) are in high demand for early point-of-care differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The selection of antibodies that feature rapid and tight binding with antigens is crucial for immunoassay rate and sensitivity. A method is presented for the selection of the most promising clones for advanced immunoassays via simultaneous characterization of interaction kinetics of different monoclonal antibodies (mAb) using a direct label-free method of multiplex spectral correlation interferometry. mAb-cTnI interactions were real-time registered on an epoxy-modified microarray glass sensor chip that did not require activation. The covalent immobilization of mAb microdots on its surface provided versatility, convenience, and virtually unlimited multiplexing potential. The kinetics of tracer antibody interaction with the “cTnI—capture antibody” complex was characterized. Algorithms are shown for excluding mutual competition of the tracer/capture antibodies and selecting the optimal pairs for different assay formats. Using the selected mAbs, a lateral flow assay was developed for rapid quantitative cTnI determination based on electronic detection of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles applied as labels (detection limit—0.08 ng/mL, dynamic range > 3 orders). The method can be extended to other molecular biomarkers for high-throughput screening of mAbs and rational development of immunoassays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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15 pages, 6553 KiB  
Article
Spherical Silica Functionalized by 2-Naphthalene Methanol Luminophores as a Phosphorescence Sensor
by Magdalena Laskowska, Anna Nowak, Mateusz Dulski, Peter Weigl, Thomas Blochowicz and Łukasz Laskowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413289 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
Photoluminescence is known to have huge potential for applications in studying biological systems. In that respect, phosphorescent dye molecules open the possibility to study the local slow solvent dynamics close to hard and soft surfaces and interfaces using the triplet state (TSD: triplet [...] Read more.
Photoluminescence is known to have huge potential for applications in studying biological systems. In that respect, phosphorescent dye molecules open the possibility to study the local slow solvent dynamics close to hard and soft surfaces and interfaces using the triplet state (TSD: triplet state solvation dynamics). However, for that purpose, probe molecules with efficient phosphorescence features are required with a fixed location on the surface. In this article, a potential TSD probe is presented in the form of a nanocomposite: we synthesize spherical silica particles with 2-naphthalene methanol molecules attached to the surface with a predefined surface density. The synthesis procedure is described in detail, and the obtained materials are characterized employing transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Finally, TSD experiments are carried out in order to confirm the phosphorescence properties of the obtained materials and the route to develop phosphorescent sensors at silica surfaces based on the presented results is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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11 pages, 30476 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer and Prostatitis Using near Infra-Red Fluorescent AgInSe/ZnS Quantum Dots
by Vuyelwa Ncapayi, Neethu Ninan, Thabang C. Lebepe, Sundararajan Parani, Aswathy Ravindran Girija, Richard Bright, Krasimir Vasilev, Rodney Maluleke, Ncediwe Tsolekile, Tetsuya Kodama and Oluwatobi S. Oluwafemi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212514 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
The link between the microbiome and cancer has led researchers to search for a potential probe for intracellular targeting of bacteria and cancer. Herein, we developed near infrared-emitting ternary AgInSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) for dual bacterial and cancer imaging. Briefly, water-soluble AgInSe/ZnS QDs [...] Read more.
The link between the microbiome and cancer has led researchers to search for a potential probe for intracellular targeting of bacteria and cancer. Herein, we developed near infrared-emitting ternary AgInSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) for dual bacterial and cancer imaging. Briefly, water-soluble AgInSe/ZnS QDs were synthesized in a commercial kitchen pressure cooker. The as-synthesized QDs exhibited a spherical shape with a particle diameter of 4.5 ± 0.5 nm, and they were brightly fluorescent with a photoluminescence maximum at 705 nm. The QDs showed low toxicity against mouse mammary carcinoma (FM3A-Luc), mouse colon carcinoma (C26), malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like (KM-Luc/GFP) and prostate cancer cells, a greater number of accumulations in Staphylococcus aureus, and good cellular uptake in prostate cancer cells. This work is an excellent step towards using ternary QDs for diagnostic and guided therapy for prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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10 pages, 2818 KiB  
Article
Linalool Nanoemulsion Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity against Aeromonas hydrophila
by Weiming Zhong, Puyu Tang, Ting Liu, Tianyu Zhao, Jiajing Guo and Zhipeng Gao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011003 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most important aquatic pathogens causing huge economic losses to aquaculture. Linalool, a vital ingredient of a variety of essential oils, was proved as a good antimicrobial agent in our previous studies. However, the low solubility and volatility [...] Read more.
Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most important aquatic pathogens causing huge economic losses to aquaculture. Linalool, a vital ingredient of a variety of essential oils, was proved as a good antimicrobial agent in our previous studies. However, the low solubility and volatility of Linalool obstruct its application in the field of aquatic drugs. Thus, in this study, Linalool nano-emulsion (LN) was prepared to solve these obstructions. We investigated the physicochemical properties, antibacterial activity, and mode of action of LN against A. hydrophila. LN with different medium chain triglycerides (MCT) concentrations were prepared by ultrasonic method. The results showed that the emulsion droplet size of LN was the smallest when MCT was not added to the formulation. Nano-emulsions are usually less than 500 nm in diameter. In our study, LN in this formulation were spherical droplet with a diameter of 126.57 ± 0.85 nm and showed good stability. LN showed strong antibacterial activity, the MIC and MBC values were 0.3125% v/v and 0.625% v/v, respectively. The bacterial population decreased substantially at 1 × MIC of LN. LN exhibited disruptive effect on cell membranes by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The present study provided a formulation of Linalool nano-emulsion preparation. Moreover, the good antibacterial activity of LN showed in our study will promote the application of Linalool for the control and prevention of A. hydrophila in aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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15 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Photoactivatable nanoCRISPR/Cas9 System Based on crRNA Reversibly Immobilized on Carbon Nanoparticles
by Olga Semikolenova, Lubov Sakovina, Elizaveta Akhmetova, Daria Kim, Ivan Vokhtantsev, Victor Golyshev, Mariya Vorobyeva, Sergey Novopashin and Darya Novopashina
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010919 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
Here, we proposed a new approach to engineering a photoactivatable CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system. The novel nanoCRISPR/Cas9 system is based on the use of auxiliary photocleavable oligodeoxyribonucleotides (PC-DNAs) complementary to crRNA. PC-DNAs contained up to three UV-sensitive linkers made of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2-ethanediol inside the oligonucleotide [...] Read more.
Here, we proposed a new approach to engineering a photoactivatable CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system. The novel nanoCRISPR/Cas9 system is based on the use of auxiliary photocleavable oligodeoxyribonucleotides (PC-DNAs) complementary to crRNA. PC-DNAs contained up to three UV-sensitive linkers made of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2-ethanediol inside the oligonucleotide chain. Immobilizing PC-DNAs on the surface of carbon nanoparticles through 3′-terminal pyrene residue provided sufficient blocking of crRNA (and corresponding Cas9 activity) before UV irradiation and allows for crRNA release after UV irradiation at 365 nm, which restores Cas9 activity. We optimized the length of blocking photocleavable oligonucleotide, number of linkers, time of irradiation, and the type of carbon nanoparticles. Based on the results, we consider the nanoCRISPR/Cas9 system involving carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles the most promising. It provides the greatest difference of functional activity before/after irradiation and can be used in prospective for magnetic field-controlled delivery of CRISPR system into the target cells or tissues and spatiotemporal gene editing induced by UV irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 2778 KiB  
Review
Systematic Review of Cancer Targeting by Nanoparticles Revealed a Global Association between Accumulation in Tumors and Spleen
by Andrey S. Drozdov, Petr I. Nikitin and Julian M. Rozenberg
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 13011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222313011 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3004
Abstract
Active targeting of nanoparticles toward tumors is one of the most rapidly developing topics in nanomedicine. Typically, this strategy involves the addition of cancer-targeting biomolecules to nanoparticles, and studies on this topic have mainly focused on the localization of such formulations in tumors. [...] Read more.
Active targeting of nanoparticles toward tumors is one of the most rapidly developing topics in nanomedicine. Typically, this strategy involves the addition of cancer-targeting biomolecules to nanoparticles, and studies on this topic have mainly focused on the localization of such formulations in tumors. Here, the analysis of the factors determining efficient nanoparticle targeting and therapy, various parameters such as types of targeting molecules, nanoparticle type, size, zeta potential, dose, and the circulation time are given. In addition, the important aspects such as how active targeting of nanoparticles alters biodistribution and how non-specific organ uptake influences tumor accumulation of the targeted nanoformulations are discussed. The analysis reveals that an increase in tumor accumulation of targeted nanoparticles is accompanied by a decrease in their uptake by the spleen. There is no association between targeting-induced changes of nanoparticle concentrations in tumors and other organs. The correlation between uptake in tumors and depletion in the spleen is significant for mice with intact immune systems in contrast to nude mice. Noticeably, modulation of splenic and tumor accumulation depends on the targeting molecules and nanoparticle type. The median survival increases with the targeting-induced nanoparticle accumulation in tumors; moreover, combinatorial targeting of nanoparticle drugs demonstrates higher treatment efficiencies. Results of the comprehensive analysis show optimal strategies to enhance the efficiency of actively targeted nanoparticle-based medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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23 pages, 1285 KiB  
Review
Synthesis, Properties and Bioimaging Applications of Silver-Based Quantum Dots
by Mariya Borovaya, Inna Horiunova, Svitlana Plokhovska, Nadia Pushkarova, Yaroslav Blume and Alla Yemets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212202 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4025
Abstract
Ag-based quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanomaterials with exclusive electrooptical properties ideally adaptable for various biotechnological, chemical, and medical applications. Silver-based semiconductor nanocrystals have developed rapidly over the past decades. They have become a promising luminescent functional material for in vivo and in [...] Read more.
Ag-based quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanomaterials with exclusive electrooptical properties ideally adaptable for various biotechnological, chemical, and medical applications. Silver-based semiconductor nanocrystals have developed rapidly over the past decades. They have become a promising luminescent functional material for in vivo and in vitro fluorescent studies due to their ability to emit at the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength. In this review, we discuss the basic features of Ag-based QDs, the current status of classic (chemical) and novel methods (“green” synthesis) used to produce these QDs. Additionally, the advantages of using such organisms as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae, and plants for silver-based QDs biosynthesis have been discussed. The application of silver-based QDs as fluorophores for bioimaging application due to their fluorescence intensity, high quantum yield, fluorescent stability, and resistance to photobleaching has also been reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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21 pages, 5850 KiB  
Review
Biocompatibility and Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles: Recent Advances in Methodologies and Regulations
by Małgorzata Kus-Liśkiewicz, Patrick Fickers and Imen Ben Tahar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010952 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 90 | Viewed by 6353
Abstract
Recent advances in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs), and more specifically gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), have led to tremendous expansion of their potential applications in different fields, ranging from healthcare research to microelectronics and food packaging. The properties of functionalised MeNPs can be [...] Read more.
Recent advances in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs), and more specifically gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), have led to tremendous expansion of their potential applications in different fields, ranging from healthcare research to microelectronics and food packaging. The properties of functionalised MeNPs can be fine-tuned depending on their final application, and subsequently, these properties can strongly modulate their biological effects. In this review, we will firstly focus on the impact of MeNP characteristics (particularly of gold nanoparticles, AuNPs) such as shape, size, and aggregation on their biological activities. Moreover, we will detail different in vitro and in vivo assays to be performed when cytotoxicity and biocompatibility must be assessed. Due to the complex nature of nanomaterials, conflicting studies have led to different views on their safety, and it is clear that the definition of a standard biosafety label for AuNPs is difficult. In fact, AuNPs’ biocompatibility is strongly affected by the nanoparticles’ intrinsic characteristics, biological target, and methodology employed to evaluate their toxicity. In the last part of this review, the current legislation and requirements established by regulatory authorities, defining the main guidelines and standards to characterise new nanomaterials, will also be discussed, as this aspect has not been reviewed recently. It is clear that the lack of well-established safety regulations based on reliable, robust, and universal methodologies has hampered the development of MeNP applications in the healthcare field. Henceforth, the international community must make an effort to adopt specific and standard protocols for characterisation of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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17 pages, 3009 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements in Polythiophene-Based Materials and their Biomedical, Geno Sensor and DNA Detection
by Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Sonia Bahrani, Khadije Yousefi, Gity Behbudi, Aziz Babapoor, Navid Omidifar, Chin Wei Lai, Ahmad Gholami and Wei-Hung Chiang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136850 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
In this review, the unique properties of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) in biomedical engineering fields are summarized. Polythiophene and its valuable derivatives are known as potent materials that can broadly be applied in biosensors, DNA, and gene delivery applications. Moreover, this material plays [...] Read more.
In this review, the unique properties of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) in biomedical engineering fields are summarized. Polythiophene and its valuable derivatives are known as potent materials that can broadly be applied in biosensors, DNA, and gene delivery applications. Moreover, this material plays a basic role in curing and promoting anti-HIV drugs. Some of the thiophene’s derivatives were chosen for different experiments and investigations to study their behavior and effects while binding with different materials and establishing new compounds. Many methods were considered for electrode coating and the conversion of thiophene to different monomers to improve their functions and to use them for a new generation of novel medical usages. It is believed that polythiophenes and their derivatives can be used in the future as a substitute for many old-fashioned ways of creating chemical biosensors polymeric materials and also drugs with lower side effects yet having a more effective response. It can be noted that syncing biochemistry with biomedical engineering will lead to a new generation of science, especially one that involves high-efficiency polymers. Therefore, since polythiophene can be customized with many derivatives, some of the novel combinations are covered in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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25 pages, 2576 KiB  
Review
Inorganic Nanoparticles and Composite Films for Antimicrobial Therapies
by Vera Alexandra Spirescu, Cristina Chircov, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Bogdan Ștefan Vasile and Ecaterina Andronescu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094595 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 8898
Abstract
The development of drug-resistant microorganisms has become a critical issue for modern medicine and drug discovery and development with severe socio-economic and ecological implications. Since standard and conventional treatment options are generally inefficient, leading to infection persistence and spreading, novel strategies are fundamentally [...] Read more.
The development of drug-resistant microorganisms has become a critical issue for modern medicine and drug discovery and development with severe socio-economic and ecological implications. Since standard and conventional treatment options are generally inefficient, leading to infection persistence and spreading, novel strategies are fundamentally necessary in order to avoid serious global health problems. In this regard, both metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) demonstrated increased effectiveness as nanobiocides due to intrinsic antimicrobial properties and as nanocarriers for antimicrobial drugs. Among them, gold, silver, copper, zinc oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide, and iron oxide NPs are the most preferred, owing to their proven antimicrobial mechanisms and bio/cytocompatibility. Furthermore, inorganic NPs can be incorporated or attached to organic/inorganic films, thus broadening their application within implant or catheter coatings and wound dressings. In this context, this paper aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the most recent studies investigating inorganic NPs and their integration into composite films designed for antimicrobial therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions of Nanoparticles with Biomolecules)
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