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Special Issue "Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria—A Global Problem"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 4627

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Agnieszka E. Laudy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Center for Preclinical Research and Technology, Banacha 1 b Str., 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.
Interests: drug-resistance mechanisms; beta-lactamases; multi-drug resistance (MDR); efflux pumps; MDR clinical and environmental bacterial strains; non-fermentative Gram-negative rods; new antibacterial compounds; bacterial adaptation to disinfectants
Prof. Dr. Stefan Tyski
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Center for Preclinical Research and Technology, Banacha 1 b Str., 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
2. Department of Antibiotics and Microbiology, National Drug Institute, Chelmska 30/34 Str., 00-725 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: drug-resistance mechanisms; antibiotics’ mechanisms of activity; antimicrobial chemotherapeutics; antimicrobial agents; antisepsis and disinfection; quality of antimicrobial medicines

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing number of isolated multi-drug resistant clinical and environmental bacterial strains and the ability to produce and transmit resistance mechanisms to antibiotics and antibacterial chemotherapeutics have become an increasing problem in combating worldwide infections in recent years. As the WHO points out, one of the main elements in fighting the problem of microbial resistance is an in-depth understanding of the underlying resistance mechanisms. In this Special Issue, we plan to collect original research articles and review articles concerning the molecular basis of resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents (e.g., antibiotics, new antibacterial substances and disinfectants) in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These strains may be present in the natural environment (water, soil and air) and healthcare environment and, mostly, can be isolated from clinical and veterinary materials. The multi-drug resistance observed in bacterial strains is due to the acquisition and interaction of several various resistance mechanisms. Today, the most dangerous are resistance genes localized in mobile genetic elements.

Prof. Dr. Agnieszka Laudy
Guest Editor

Prof. Dr. Stefan Tyski
co-Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • MDR bacterial strains
  • Drug-resistance mechanisms
  • Antibiotic-resistance genes
  • Acquired resistance
  • Mobile genetic elements
  • Transmission of resistance genes
  • Regulation of resistance-gene expression
  • Enzymatic mechanisms of drug resistance
  • Beta-lactamases
  • Efflux pumps
  • Drug influx
  • Cell wall and outer membrane porins
  • Cell membrane permeability
  • Modification of enzymatic pathways
  • Antibacterial-agent targets
  • New antibacterial agents
  • Resistance to antibiotics
  • Resistance to antimicrobial agents
  • Resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants
  • Bacterial pathogenic strains
  • Resistant environmental strains
  • Resistant clinical strains

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance and Whole-Genome Characterisation of High-Level Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Salmonella Enterica Serovar Kentucky ST 198 Strains Isolated from Human in Poland
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179381 - 29 Aug 2021
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Background: Salmonella Kentucky belongs to zoonotic serotypes that demonstrate that the high antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance (including fluoroquinolones) is an emerging problem. To the best of our knowledge, clinical S. Kentucky strains isolated in Poland remain undescribed. Methods: Eighteen clinical S. Kentucky [...] Read more.
Background: Salmonella Kentucky belongs to zoonotic serotypes that demonstrate that the high antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance (including fluoroquinolones) is an emerging problem. To the best of our knowledge, clinical S. Kentucky strains isolated in Poland remain undescribed. Methods: Eighteen clinical S. Kentucky strains collected in the years 2018–2019 in Poland were investigated. All the strains were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion and E-test methods. Whole genome sequences were analysed for antimicrobial resistance genes, mutations, the presence and structure of SGI1-K (Salmonella Genomic Island and the genetic relationship of the isolates. Results: Sixteen of 18 isolates (88.9%) were assigned as ST198 and were found to be high-level resistant to ampicillin (>256 mg/L) and quinolones (nalidixic acid MIC ≥ 1024 mg/L, ciprofloxacin MIC range 6–16 mg/L). All the 16 strains revealed three mutations in QRDR of GyrA and ParC. The substitutions of Ser83 → Phe and Asp87 → Tyr of the GyrA subunit and Ser80→Ile of the ParC subunit were the most common. One S. Kentucky isolate had qnrS1 in addition to the QRDR mutations. Five of the ST198 strains, grouped in cluster A, had multiple resistant determinants like blaTEM1-B, aac(6′)-Iaa, sul1 or tetA, mostly in SGI1 K. Seven strains, grouped in cluster B, had shorter SGI1-K with deletions of many regions and with few resistance genes detected. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that a significant part of S. Kentucky isolates from humans in Poland belonged to ST198 and were high-level resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria—A Global Problem)
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Article
Analysis of blaCHDL Genes and Insertion Sequences Related to Carbapenem Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains Isolated in Warsaw, Poland
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052486 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. The elucidation of the carbapenem resistance mechanisms of hospital strains is necessary for the effective treatment and prevention of resistance gene transmission. The main mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is carbapenemases, [...] Read more.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. The elucidation of the carbapenem resistance mechanisms of hospital strains is necessary for the effective treatment and prevention of resistance gene transmission. The main mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is carbapenemases, whose expressions are affected by the presence of insertion sequences (ISs) upstream of blaCHDL genes. In this study, 61 imipenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii isolates were characterized using phenotypic (drug-susceptibility profile using CarbaAcineto NP) and molecular methods. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) methods were utilized for the genotyping. The majority of isolates (59/61) carried one of the following acquired blaCHDL genes: blaOXA-24-like (39/59), ISAba1-blaOXA-23-like (14/59) or ISAba3-blaOXA-58-like (6/59). Whole genome sequence analysis of 15 selected isolates identified the following intrinsic blaOXA-66 (OXA-51-like; n = 15) and acquired class D β-lactamases (CHDLs): ISAba1-blaOXA-23 (OXA-23-like; n = 7), ISAba3-blaOXA-58-ISAba3 (OXA-58-like; n = 2) and blaOXA-72 (OXA-24-like; n = 6). The isolates were classified into 21 pulsotypes using PFGE, and the representative 15 isolates were found to belong to sequence type ST2 of the Pasteur MLST scheme from the global IC2 clone. The Oxford MLST scheme revealed the diversity among these studied isolates, and identified five sequence types (ST195, ST208, ST208/ST1806, ST348 and ST425). CHDL-type carbapenemases and insertion elements upstream of the blaCHDL genes were found to be widespread among Polish A. baumannii clinical isolates, and this contributed to their carbapenem resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria—A Global Problem)
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Review

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Review
Coming from the Wild: Multidrug Resistant Opportunistic Pathogens Presenting a Primary, Not Human-Linked, Environmental Habitat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8080; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158080 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
The use and misuse of antibiotics have made antibiotic-resistant bacteria widespread nowadays, constituting one of the most relevant challenges for human health at present. Among these bacteria, opportunistic pathogens with an environmental, non-clinical, primary habitat stand as an increasing matter of concern at [...] Read more.
The use and misuse of antibiotics have made antibiotic-resistant bacteria widespread nowadays, constituting one of the most relevant challenges for human health at present. Among these bacteria, opportunistic pathogens with an environmental, non-clinical, primary habitat stand as an increasing matter of concern at hospitals. These organisms usually present low susceptibility to antibiotics currently used for therapy. They are also proficient in acquiring increased resistance levels, a situation that limits the therapeutic options for treating the infections they cause. In this article, we analyse the most predominant opportunistic pathogens with an environmental origin, focusing on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance they present. Further, we discuss the functions, beyond antibiotic resistance, that these determinants may have in the natural ecosystems that these bacteria usually colonize. Given the capacity of these organisms for colonizing different habitats, from clinical settings to natural environments, and for infecting different hosts, from plants to humans, deciphering their population structure, their mechanisms of resistance and the role that these mechanisms may play in natural ecosystems is of relevance for understanding the dissemination of antibiotic resistance under a One-Health point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria—A Global Problem)
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Review
Recent Advances in the Detection of Antibiotic and Multi-Drug Resistant Salmonella: An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073499 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Antibiotic and multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella poses a significant threat to public health due to its ability to colonize animals (cold and warm-blooded) and contaminate freshwater supplies. Monitoring antibiotic resistant Salmonella is traditionally costly, involving the application of phenotypic and genotypic tests over [...] Read more.
Antibiotic and multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella poses a significant threat to public health due to its ability to colonize animals (cold and warm-blooded) and contaminate freshwater supplies. Monitoring antibiotic resistant Salmonella is traditionally costly, involving the application of phenotypic and genotypic tests over several days. However, with the introduction of cheaper semi-automated devices in the last decade, strain detection and identification times have significantly fallen. This, in turn, has led to efficiently regulated food production systems and further reductions in food safety hazards. This review highlights current and emerging technologies used in the detection of antibiotic resistant and MDR Salmonella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria—A Global Problem)
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