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Special Issue "The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Amedeo Amedei
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Experimental and Clinical Internal Medicine. University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini, 06 – 50134 Firenze, Italy
Interests: immune response; T cells; cancer; microbiota; inflammation; infectious disease; autoimmune diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Gwendolyn Barceló-Coblijn
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lipids in Human Pathology, Fundació Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Illes Balears (IdISBa), Research Unit - Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Carretera de Valldemossa, 79, 07120 Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
Interests: lipidome; intestinal epithelium; extracellular vesicles; immune cells; colon cancer; inflammatory bowel diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota plays a key role in human physiology, spanning from intestinal to brain activities and directly influencing several molecular pathways. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis, a disproportion in the composition and organization of microbial populations, could severely impact in the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insight for the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism spectrum disorders, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber cells of the host, microbiota influences human physiology functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various, even distant, areas of the organism, by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so called gut-brain axis, often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover it is crucial to recognize that microbiota is not localized only in the gut. Both commensal and pathogenic organisms populate, beyond the intestinal tract, other organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa) of the “host”. This Special Issue will be dedicated to the impact of microbiota on human health physiology and pathology, welcoming all those studies that will help to clarify how microorganisms interact with their hosts, if there are tissue-specific interactions and what are the effects of their presence, absence or imbalance.

Prof. Dr. Amedeo Amedei
Dr. Gwendolyn Barceló-Coblijng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • microbiota
  • dysbiosis
  • inflammatory
  • immune system
  • gut-brain axis
  • probiotics
  • microbial metabolites

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial of Special Issue “The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases”
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153708 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Increasing data suggests and supports the idea that the gut microbiota (GM) modulates different host pathways, playing a crucial role in human physiology and consequently impacting in the development of some pathologic conditions [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Co-Occurrence Patterns and Keystone Species in the Gut Microbial Community of Mice in Response to Stress and Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092130 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Detecting microbial interactions is essential to the understanding of the structure and function of the gut microbiome. In this study, microbial co-occurrence patterns were inferred using a random matrix theory based approach in the gut microbiome of mice in response to chondroitin sulfate [...] Read more.
Detecting microbial interactions is essential to the understanding of the structure and function of the gut microbiome. In this study, microbial co-occurrence patterns were inferred using a random matrix theory based approach in the gut microbiome of mice in response to chondroitin sulfate disaccharide (CSD) under healthy and stressed conditions. The exercise stress disrupted the network composition and microbial co-occurrence patterns. Thirty-four Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were identified as module hubs and connectors, likely acting as generalists in the microbial community. Mucispirillum schaedleri acted as a connector in the stressed network in response to CSD supplement and may play a key role in bridging intimate interactions between the host and its microbiome. Several modules correlated with physiological parameters were detected. For example, Modules M02 (under stress) and S05 (stress + CSD) were strongly correlated with blood urea nitrogen levels (r = 0.90 and −0.75, respectively). A positive correlation between node connectivity of the OTUs assigned to Proteobacteria with superoxide dismutase activities under stress (r = 0.57, p < 0.05) provided further evidence that Proteobacteria can be developed as a potential pathological marker. Our findings provided novel insights into gut microbial interactions and may facilitate future endeavor in microbial community engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy Eliminates Candida albicans and Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis in a Murine Model of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061473 - 23 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has diverse anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects and has been employed successfully in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The role of IVIg therapy in the modulation of intestinal inflammation and fungal elimination has not been yet investigated. We studied IVIg therapy [...] Read more.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has diverse anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects and has been employed successfully in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The role of IVIg therapy in the modulation of intestinal inflammation and fungal elimination has not been yet investigated. We studied IVIg therapy in a murine model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice received a single oral inoculum of Candida albicans and were exposed to DSS treatment for 2 weeks to induce colitis. All mice received daily IVIg therapy starting on day 1 for 7 days. IVIg therapy not only prevented a loss of body weight caused by the development of colitis but also reduced the severity of intestinal inflammation, as determined by clinical and histological scores. IVIg treatment significantly reduced the Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and C. albicans populations in mice. The beneficial effects of IVIg were associated with the suppression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and enhancement of IL-10 in the gut. IVIg therapy also led to an increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), while toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expression was reduced. IVIg treatment reduces intestinal inflammation in mice and eliminates C. albicans overgrowth from the gut in association with down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators combined with up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Small Aromatic Compound Has Antifungal Properties and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects against Intestinal Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020321 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans to antifungal drugs has increased significantly in recent years. After screening 55 potential antifungal compounds from a chemical library, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (DHMB) was identified as having potential antifungal activity. The properties of DHMB were then assessed in [...] Read more.
Resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans to antifungal drugs has increased significantly in recent years. After screening 55 potential antifungal compounds from a chemical library, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (DHMB) was identified as having potential antifungal activity. The properties of DHMB were then assessed in vitro and in vivo against C. albicans overgrowth and intestinal inflammation. Substitution on the aromatic ring of DHMB led to a strong decrease in its biological activity against C. albicans. The MIC of DHMB was highly effective at eliminating C. albicans when compared to that of caspofungin or fluconazole. Additionally, DHMB was also effective against clinically isolated fluconazole- or caspofungin-resistant C. albicans strains. DHMB was administered to animals at high doses. This compound was not cytotoxic and was well-tolerated. In experimental dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, DHMB reduced the clinical and histological score of inflammation and promoted the elimination of C. albicans from the gut. This finding was supported by a decrease in aerobic bacteria while anaerobic bacteria populations were re-established in mice treated with DHMB. DHMB is a small organic molecule with antifungal properties and anti-inflammatory activity by exerting protective effects on intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Gut Microbiota in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Disease-Related Dysbiosis and Modifications Induced by Etanercept
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102938 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
A certain number of studies were carried out to address the question of how dysbiosis could affect the onset and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but little is known about the reciprocal influence between microbiota composition and immunosuppressive drugs, and how this interaction [...] Read more.
A certain number of studies were carried out to address the question of how dysbiosis could affect the onset and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but little is known about the reciprocal influence between microbiota composition and immunosuppressive drugs, and how this interaction may have an impact on the clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota in a groups of RA patients treatment-naïve, under methotrexate, and/or etanercept (ETN). Correlations between the gut microbiota composition and validated immunological and clinical parameters of disease activity were also evaluated. In the current study, a 16S analysis was employed to explore the gut microbiota of 42 patients affected by RA and 10 healthy controls. Disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS-28), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides, and dietary and smoking habits were assessed. The composition of the gut microbiota in RA patients free of therapy is characterized by several abnormalities compared to healthy controls. Gut dysbiosis in RA patients is associated with different serological and clinical parameters; in particular, the phylum of Euryarchaeota was directly correlated to DAS and emerged as an independent risk factor. Patients under treatment with ETN present a partial restoration of a beneficial microbiota. The results of our study confirm that gut dysbiosis is a hallmark of the disease, and shows, for the first time, that the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) ETN is able to modify microbial communities, at least partially restoring a beneficial microbiota. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Microbiota: Overview and Implication in Immunotherapy-Based Cancer Treatments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20112699 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
During the last few years, the gut microbiota has gained increasing attention as a consequence of its emerging role as a modulator of the immune system. With the advent of the era of checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in oncology, [...] Read more.
During the last few years, the gut microbiota has gained increasing attention as a consequence of its emerging role as a modulator of the immune system. With the advent of the era of checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in oncology, these findings became of primary relevance in light of experimental data that suggested the microbiota involvement as a plausible predictor of a good or poor response. These remarks justify the efforts to pinpoint the specific actions of the microbiota and to identify new strategies to favorably edit its composition. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dysbiosis Disrupts Gut Immune Homeostasis and Promotes Gastric Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102432 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Perturbation in the microbial population/colony index has harmful consequences on human health. Both biological and social factors influence the composition of the gut microbiota and also promote gastric diseases. Changes in the gut microbiota manifest in disease progression owing to epigenetic modification in [...] Read more.
Perturbation in the microbial population/colony index has harmful consequences on human health. Both biological and social factors influence the composition of the gut microbiota and also promote gastric diseases. Changes in the gut microbiota manifest in disease progression owing to epigenetic modification in the host, which in turn influences differentiation and function of immune cells adversely. Uncontrolled use of antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, and any change in the diet pattern usually contribute to the changes in the colony index of sensitive strains known to release microbial content in the tissue micromilieu. Ligands released from dying microbes induce Toll-like receptor (TLR) mimicry, skew hypoxia, and cause sterile inflammation, which further contributes to the severity of inflammatory, autoimmune, and tumorous diseases. The major aim and scope of this review is both to discuss various modalities/interventions across the globe and to utilize microbiota-based therapeutic approaches for mitigating the disease burden. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Possible Role of Gut Microbiota and Microbial Translocation Profiling During Chemo-Free Treatment of Lymphoid Malignancies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071748 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The crosstalk between gut microbiota (GM) and the immune system is intense and complex. When dysbiosis occurs, the resulting pro-inflammatory environment can lead to bacterial translocation, systemic immune activation, tissue damage, and cancerogenesis. GM composition seems to impact both the therapeutic activity and [...] Read more.
The crosstalk between gut microbiota (GM) and the immune system is intense and complex. When dysbiosis occurs, the resulting pro-inflammatory environment can lead to bacterial translocation, systemic immune activation, tissue damage, and cancerogenesis. GM composition seems to impact both the therapeutic activity and the side effects of anticancer treatment; in particular, robust evidence has shown that the GM modulates the response to immunotherapy in patients affected by metastatic melanoma. Despite accumulating knowledge supporting the role of GM composition in lymphomagenesis, unexplored areas still remain. No studies have been designed to investigate GM alteration in patients diagnosed with lymphoproliferative disorders and treated with chemo-free therapies, and the potential association between GM, therapy outcome, and immune-related adverse events has never been analyzed. Additional studies should be considered to create opportunities for a more tailored approach in this set of patients. In this review, we describe the possible role of the GM during chemo-free treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Interactions between Host Immunity and Skin-Colonizing Staphylococci: No Two Siblings Are Alike
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030718 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
As the outermost layer of the body, the skin harbors innumerable and varied microorganisms. These microorganisms interact with the host, and these interactions contribute to host immunity. One of the most abundant genera of skin commensals is Staphylococcus. Bacteria belonging to this [...] Read more.
As the outermost layer of the body, the skin harbors innumerable and varied microorganisms. These microorganisms interact with the host, and these interactions contribute to host immunity. One of the most abundant genera of skin commensals is Staphylococcus. Bacteria belonging to this genus are some of the most influential commensals that reside on the skin. For example, colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, a well-known pathogen, increases inflammatory responses within the skin. Conversely, colonization by Staphylococcus epidermis, a coagulase-negative staphylococcal species that are prevalent throughout the skin, can be innocuous or beneficial. Thus, manipulating the abundance of these two bacterial species likely alters the skin microbiome and modulates the cutaneous immune response, with potential implications for various inflammation-associated skin diseases. Importantly, before researchers can begin manipulating the skin microbiome to prevent and treat disease, they must first fully understand how these two species can modulate the cutaneous immune response. In this review, we discuss the nature of the interactions between these two bacterial species and immune cells within the skin, discussing their immunogenicity within the context of skin disorders. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Interplay between Immunity and Microbiota at Intestinal Immunological Niche: The Case of Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030501 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The gut microbiota is central to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. While multiple mechanisms are involved, the immune system clearly plays a special role. Indeed, the breakdown of the physiological balance in gut microbial composition leads to dysbiosis, which is [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is central to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. While multiple mechanisms are involved, the immune system clearly plays a special role. Indeed, the breakdown of the physiological balance in gut microbial composition leads to dysbiosis, which is then able to enhance inflammation and to influence gene expression. At the same time, there is an intense cross-talk between the microbiota and the immunological niche in the intestinal mucosa. These interactions may pave the way to the development, growth and spreading of cancer, especially in the gastro-intestinal system. Here, we review the changes in microbiota composition, how they relate to the immunological imbalance, influencing the onset of different types of cancer and the impact of these mechanisms on the efficacy of traditional and upcoming cancer treatments. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gut-Liver Axis, Gut Microbiota, and Its Modulation in the Management of Liver Diseases: A Review of the Literature
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020395 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
The rapid scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM) has coincided with a global increase in the prevalence of infectious and non-infectivous liver diseases. GM, which is also called “the new virtual metabolic organ”, makes axis with a number of extraintestinal organs, such as [...] Read more.
The rapid scientific interest in gut microbiota (GM) has coincided with a global increase in the prevalence of infectious and non-infectivous liver diseases. GM, which is also called “the new virtual metabolic organ”, makes axis with a number of extraintestinal organs, such as kidneys, brain, cardiovascular, and the bone system. The gut-liver axis has attracted greater attention in recent years. GM communication is bi-directional and involves endocrine and immunological mechanisms. In this way, gut-dysbiosis and composition of “ancient” microbiota could be linked to pathogenesis of numerous chronic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), development of liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this paper, we discuss the current evidence supporting a GM role in the management of different chronic liver diseases and potential new therapeutic GM targets, like fecal transplantation, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics. We conclude that population-level shifts in GM could play a regulatory role in the gut-liver axis and, consequently, etiopathogenesis of chronic liver diseases. This could have a positive impact on future therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances on Microbiota Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020283 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Autoimmune disorders derive from genetic, stochastic, and environmental factors that all together interact in genetically predisposed individuals. The impact of an imbalanced gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity has been suggested by an increasing amount of experimental evidence, both in animal models [...] Read more.
Autoimmune disorders derive from genetic, stochastic, and environmental factors that all together interact in genetically predisposed individuals. The impact of an imbalanced gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity has been suggested by an increasing amount of experimental evidence, both in animal models and humans. Several physiological mechanisms, including the establishment of immune homeostasis, are influenced by commensal microbiota in the gut. An altered microbiota composition produces effects in the gut immune system, including defective tolerance to food antigens, intestinal inflammation, and enhanced gut permeability. In particular, early findings reported differences in the intestinal microbiome of subjects affected by several autoimmune conditions, including prediabetes or overt disease compared to healthy individuals. The present review focuses on microbiota-host homeostasis, its alterations, factors that influence its composition, and putative involvement in the development of autoimmune disorders. In the light of the existing literature, future studies are necessary to clarify the role played by microbiota modifications in the processes that cause enhanced gut permeability and molecular mechanisms responsible for autoimmunity onset. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Interplay among Vaginal Microbiome, Immune Response and Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020266 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The vaginal ecosystem is important for women’s health and for a successful reproductive life, and an optimal host-microbial interaction is required for the maintenance of eubiosis. The vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species in the majority of women. Loss of Lactobacillus dominance [...] Read more.
The vaginal ecosystem is important for women’s health and for a successful reproductive life, and an optimal host-microbial interaction is required for the maintenance of eubiosis. The vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species in the majority of women. Loss of Lactobacillus dominance promotes the colonization by anaerobic bacterial species with an increase in microbial diversity. Vaginal dysbiosis is a very frequent condition which affects the immune homeostasis, inducing a rupture in the epithelial barrier and favoring infection by sexually transmitted pathogens. In this review, we describe the known interactions among immune cells and microbial commensals which govern health or disease status. Particular attention is given to microbiota compositions which, through interplay with immune cells, facilitate the establishment of viral infections, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV2). Full article
Open AccessReview
Bacteriocins and Bacteriophages: Therapeutic Weapons for Gastrointestinal Diseases?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010183 - 06 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bacteriocins are bactericidal peptides, ribosomally synthesized, with an inhibitory activity against diverse groups of undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are produced by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and to a lesser extent by some archaea. Bacteriophages are viruses that are able to infect bacterial cells [...] Read more.
Bacteriocins are bactericidal peptides, ribosomally synthesized, with an inhibitory activity against diverse groups of undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are produced by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and to a lesser extent by some archaea. Bacteriophages are viruses that are able to infect bacterial cells and force them to produce viral components, using a lytic or lysogenic cycle. They constitute a large community in the human gut called the phageome, the most abundant part of the gut virome. Bacteriocins and bacteriophages may have an influence on both human health and diseases, thanks to their ability to modulate the gut microbiota and regulate the competitive relationship among the different microorganisms, strains and cells living in the human intestine. In this review, we explore the role of bacteriocins and bacteriophages in the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases by dissecting their interaction with the complex environment of the human gut, analyzing a possible link with extra-intestinal diseases, and speculating on their possible therapeutic application with the end goal of promoting gut health. Full article
Open AccessReview
I’ve Gut A Feeling: Microbiota Impacting the Conceptual and Experimental Perspectives of Personalized Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123756 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
In recent years, the human microbiota has gained increasing relevance both in research and clinical fields. Increasing studies seem to suggest the centrality of the microbiota and its composition both in the development and maintenance of what we call “health” and in generating [...] Read more.
In recent years, the human microbiota has gained increasing relevance both in research and clinical fields. Increasing studies seem to suggest the centrality of the microbiota and its composition both in the development and maintenance of what we call “health” and in generating and/or favoring (those cases in which the microbiota’s complex relational architecture is dysregulated) the onset of pathological conditions. The complex relationships between the microbiota and human beings, which invest core notions of biomedicine such as “health” and “individual,” do concern not only problems of an empirical nature but seem to require the need to adopt new concepts and new perspectives in order to be properly analysed and utilized, especially for their therapeutic implementation. In this contribution we report and discuss some of the theoretical proposals and innovations (from the ecological component to the notion of polygenomic organism) aimed at producing this change of perspective. In conclusion, we summarily analyze what impact and what new challenges these new approaches might have on personalized/person centred/precision medicine. Full article
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