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The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 September 2021) | Viewed by 17973

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: leaky gut; enteric glia; colitis; engineered probiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: leaky gut; diabetes and obesity; enteric nervous system; dysbiosis; dyspepsia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: enteric glia, colitis, gut-brain axis, neuroinflammation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: functional dyspepsia; enteric nervous system; gastroesophageal reflux; colitis; metabolic disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

By definition, probiotics are bacteria displaying beneficial effects on human health, and their consumption has seen a huge increase in the pharmaceutical market in the last few decades. The reasons for such increasing interest are different. Probiotics may regulate important functions in the maintenance of the gut immune system through direct interaction with intestinal mucosa. Although their real effectiveness is strain-, dose-, and disease-dependent and the duration of therapy depends on the clinical indication, there is converging evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Their capability to reduce intestinal hyperpermeability (leaky gut syndrome) has been postulated to be a key mechanism by which probiotics exert their beneficial activity. However, most of their properties, and especially how they interact with the host microbiota, are still not yet clarified. In addition to this, converging data show that via preservation of gut homeostasis, probiotics might, in some way, display beneficial effects in neuropsychiatric disorders induced by the so-called gut–brain axis connection. Moreover, in the last few years, a new class of recombinant probiotics has been attracting scientific interest, because they serve as bacteria capable of delivering therapeutic molecules to the gut. Such an approach could potentially be revolutionary in terms of novel therapeutic approaches for chronic diseases, and in some ways, it can go beyond the traditional “drug” concept. The present Special Issue is thus devoted to researchers from different areas, (i.e., basic and clinical gastroenterologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists, neuropsychopharmacologists) involved in this vast research field in the attempt to discuss new achievements in the field of probiotic impacts on human disease, starting with gut homeostasis control. In this sense, we also invite submissions on the intimate connection between probiotics and metabolic disorders featuring leaky gut conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, and the neuropsychiatric disorders associated with them.

Dr. Giuseppe Esposito
Dr. Giovanni Sarnelli
Dr. Luisa Seguella
Dr. Marcella Pesce
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Leaky gut
  • Colitis
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Obesity
  • Microbiota
  • Gut–brain axis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4201 KiB  
Article
Lactiplantibacillusplantarum ATG-K2 Exerts an Anti-Obesity Effect in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice by Modulating the Gut Microbiome
by Young-Sil Lee, Eun-Jung Park, Gun-Seok Park, Seung-Hyun Ko, Juyi Park, You-Kyung Lee, Jong-Yeon Kim, Daeyoung Lee, Jihee Kang and Hae-Jeung Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312665 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
Obesity is a major health problem. Compelling evidence supports the beneficial effects of probiotics on obesity. However, the anti-obesity effect of probiotics remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects and potential mechanisms of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATG-K2 using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and [...] Read more.
Obesity is a major health problem. Compelling evidence supports the beneficial effects of probiotics on obesity. However, the anti-obesity effect of probiotics remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects and potential mechanisms of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATG-K2 using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. 3T3-L1 cells were incubated to determine the effect of lipid accumulation with lysate of L. plantarum ATG-K2. Mice were fed a normal fat diet or HFD with L. plantarum ATG-K2 and Orlistat for 8 weeks. L. plantarum ATG-K2 inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and reduced body weight gain, WAT weight, and adipocyte size in HFD-induced obese mice, concurrently with the downregulation of PPARγ, SREBP1c, and FAS and upregulation of PPARα, CTP1, UCP1, Prdm16, and ND5. Moreover, L. plantarum ATG-K2 decreased TG, T-CHO, leptin, and TNF-α levels in the serum, with corresponding gene expression levels in the intestine. L. plantarum ATG-K2 modulated the gut microbiome by increasing the abundance of the Lactobacillaceae family, which increased SCFA levels and branched SCFAs in the feces. L. plantarum ATG-K2 exhibited an anti-obesity effect and anti-hyperlipidemic effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese mice by alleviating the inflammatory response and regulating lipid metabolism, which may be influenced by modulation of the gut microbiome and its metabolites. Therefore, L. plantarum ATG-K2 can be a preventive and therapeutic agent for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation)
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Review

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15 pages, 880 KiB  
Review
Using Probiotics as Supplementation for Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Therapy
by Jianfu Ji and Hong Yang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031136 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 83 | Viewed by 14463
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is a well-known pathogen that is highly prevalent in the world population, and H. pylori infection is potentially hazardous to humans because of its relationship to various gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastric ulcers, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Therefore, the clinical [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori is a well-known pathogen that is highly prevalent in the world population, and H. pylori infection is potentially hazardous to humans because of its relationship to various gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastric ulcers, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Therefore, the clinical guidelines recommend taking antibiotic therapy to eradicate the pathogen, which usually leads to the desired therapeutic effect. However, some failure cases of this therapy indicate that the increasing antibiotic resistance and side effects may affect the therapeutic effect. Here we propose that using probiotics as supplementation for antibiotic therapy may provide an extra help. Recent studies have shown that probiotic supplementation therapy has promising application prospects; it can enhance the antibiotic effect to achieve a better therapeutic result and maintain the balance of the host gastrointestinal microbiota. In summary, under global conditions of increasing H. pylori prevalence, probiotic supplementation therapy is worthy of further studies for future clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation)
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