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Special Issue "Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Philip J. Harris

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +64-9-373-7599 ext 88366
Fax: +64 9 373 7417
Interests: dietary fibre; plant cell walls; cell-wall biosynthesis; cell-wall phenolics; cell-wall evolution
Guest Editor
Dr. Jan Willem Van der Kamp

TNO Food and Nutrition, Zeist, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dietary fibre; structure and function; cereal grains and products; technology and nutritional aspects; the gut microbiome and diet; regulatory affairs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When the term dietary fibre was first coined, over sixty years ago, it referred only to the plant cell walls in the diet. Since then, the definition of dietary fibre has changed considerably and the term now encompasses a wide range of different components, including resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. This has presented substantial challenges in devising methods for determining the dietary fibre content of foods. However, it also vitally important to recognize that the term dietary fibre is applied to such a wide range of components, with quite diverse properties, when the effects of dietary fibre on human health are considered, in both cohort and dietary intervention studies. Different types of dietary fibres may produce quite different effects on health. This Special Issue will highlight the relationship between the biochemistry of dietary fibre and its health benefits and contributions on any aspect are welcome.

This Special Issue is cooperating with the 7th International Dietary Fibre Conference 2018 - DF18 (http://www.dietaryfibre.org/en/). All attendees at this conference can submit a manuscript for publication with a special discount. Papers will be published continuously online (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Professor Dr. Philip James Harris
Dr. Jan Willem van der Kamp
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • analytical methods
  • colorectal cancer
  • fermentation
  • immunomodulation
  • microbiomes
  • non-digestible oligosaccharides
  • phenolic components
  • plant cell walls
  • prebiotics
  • resistant starches
  • short chain fatty acids

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits”
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113556
Received: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
When the term dietary fibre was first coined, over sixty years ago, it only referred to plant cell walls in the diet. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Fermentation of Selected Prebiotics and Their Effects on the Composition and Activity of the Adult Gut Microbiota
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103097
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently, the concept of prebiotics has been revisited to expand beyond non-digestible oligosaccharides, and the requirements for selective stimulation were extended to include microbial groups other than, and additional to, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here, the gut microbiota-modulating effects of well-known and novel prebiotics [...] Read more.
Recently, the concept of prebiotics has been revisited to expand beyond non-digestible oligosaccharides, and the requirements for selective stimulation were extended to include microbial groups other than, and additional to, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here, the gut microbiota-modulating effects of well-known and novel prebiotics were studied. An in vitro fermentation screening platform (i-screen) was inoculated with adult fecal microbiota, exposed to different dietary fibers that had a range of concentrations (inulin, alpha-linked galacto-oligosaccharides (alpha-GOS), beta-linked GOS, xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from corn cobs and high-fiber sugar cane, and beta-glucan from oats), and compared to a positive fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) control and a negative control (no fiber addition). All dietary fibers displayed prebiotic activity, with beta-glucan showing more distinct effects on the microbial composition and metabolism compared to the other fibers. Beta-glucan induced the growth of Prevotella and Roseburia with a concomitant increase in propionate production. Inulin and both forms of GOS and XOS had a strong bifidogenic effect on the microbial composition. A dose-response effect was observed for butyrate when exposed to beta-glucan and inulin. The findings of this study support the potential for alpha-GOS, XOS, and oat beta-glucan to serve as novel prebiotics, due to their association with the positive shifts in microbiome composition and short-chain fatty acid production that point to potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Fibre from the Traditional Indonesian Food, Green Cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr.) on Preneoplastic Lesions and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production in an Azoxymethane Rat Model of Colon Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092593
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr.) is a traditional food of Indonesia and provides a natural source of dietary fibre and antioxidants. This study evaluated the ability of green cincau, and other dietary fibres with or without the addition of anti-oxidant, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), [...] Read more.
Green cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr.) is a traditional food of Indonesia and provides a natural source of dietary fibre and antioxidants. This study evaluated the ability of green cincau, and other dietary fibres with or without the addition of anti-oxidant, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), to prevent colorectal cancer in a 12 week azoxymethane (AOM) rat model. While all dietary treatments stimulated short chain fatty acid production (SCFA) in the digesta and faeces, no one treatment was able to significantly protect against aberrant crypt formation (ACF), when compared to the control diet. However, feeding green cincau leaves or extracts did not result in an increase in ACF compared to the control diet. Unexpectedly, when the dietary fibre source was pectin, 0.1% EGCG increased proliferative activity and liver lipid peroxidation when compared to the control diet containing cellulose. Examination of faecal microbial communities identified the presence of short chain acid producing bacteria, but a distinct community profile was not observed from any individual diet group. Overall, this research implies that combining dietary fibre with an antioxidant does not automatically equate to a beneficial response. Further work is required to investigate the health-promoting properties of green cincau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Differentiation of Adsorptive and Viscous Effects of Dietary Fibres on Bile Acid Release by Means of In Vitro Digestion and Dialysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082193
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To explain the cholesterol-reducing effects of dietary fibres, one of the major mechanisms proposed is the reduced reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum. The interaction of dietary fibres with bile acids is associated with their viscous or adsorptive effects. Since these fibre [...] Read more.
To explain the cholesterol-reducing effects of dietary fibres, one of the major mechanisms proposed is the reduced reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum. The interaction of dietary fibres with bile acids is associated with their viscous or adsorptive effects. Since these fibre characteristics are difficult to investigate in vivo, suitable in vitro methodologies can contribute to understanding the mechanistic principles. We compared the commonly used centrifugal approach with a modified dialysis method using dietary fibre-rich materials from different sources (i.e., barley, citrus, lupin, and potato). Digestion was simulated in vitro with oral, gastric, and small intestinal digestion environments. The chyme was dialysed and released bile acids were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The centrifugation method showed adsorptive effects only for cholestyramine (reference material) and a high-fibre barley product (1.4 µmol taurocholic acid/100 mg dry matter). Alternatively, the dialysis approach showed higher values of bile acid adsorption (2.3 µmol taurocholic acid/100 mg dry matter) for the high-fibre barley product. This indicated an underestimated adsorption when using the centrifugation method. The results also confirmed that the dialysis method can be used to understand the influence of viscosity on bile acid release. This may be due to entrapment of bile acids in the viscous chyme matrix. Further studies on fibre structure and mechanisms responsible for viscous effects are required to understand the formation of entangled networks responsible for the entrapment of the bile acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Novel Prebiotic Galacto-Oligosaccharides on Various Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer in Wister Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091785
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths around the globe. Bioactive food ingredients such as prebiotics have protective potential in colon cancer. Data on galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) against CRC are very limited and GalOS used in this study have [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths around the globe. Bioactive food ingredients such as prebiotics have protective potential in colon cancer. Data on galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS) against CRC are very limited and GalOS used in this study have β-1,6 and β-1,3 as major glycosidic linkages and, to our best knowledge, were never used before against any cancer treatment. This study aims to investigate the protective role of novel GalOS against various biomarkers of CRC including aberrant crypt foci (ACF), bacterial enzymes and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in a rodent model induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH). Inulin group was taken as positive control in present study to compare novel GalOS protective effects. GalOS doses of 76–151 mg and inulin doses of 114 mg were given to different groups treated with DMH. Results showed that ACF formation was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less in high dose GalOS group (27.3%). GalOS also had protective effects against DMH-induced body weight loss and showed higher level of cecal and fecal SCFA (acetate, propionate and butyrate). High doses of GalOS also resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of bacterial enzymatic activities. Increased populations of beneficial bacteria (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) and decreased concentrations of harmful bacteria were observed in all prebiotics treatment groups. It can be concluded that novel GalOS exhibit robust protective activity against ACF formation in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Impact of Carnitine on Dietary Fiber and Gut Bacteria Metabolism and Their Mutual Interaction in Monogastrics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041008
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carnitine has vital roles in the endogenous metabolism of short chain fatty acids. It can protect and support gut microbial species, and some dietary fibers can reduce the available iron involved in the bioactivity of carnitine. There is also an antagonistic relationship between [...] Read more.
Carnitine has vital roles in the endogenous metabolism of short chain fatty acids. It can protect and support gut microbial species, and some dietary fibers can reduce the available iron involved in the bioactivity of carnitine. There is also an antagonistic relationship between high microbial populations and carnitine bioavailability. This review shows the interactions between carnitine and gut microbial composition. It also elucidates the role of carnitine bacterial metabolism, mitochondrial function, fiber fermentability, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
The Influences of Soybean Agglutinin and Functional Oligosaccharides on the Intestinal Tract of Monogastric Animals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020554
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soybean agglutinin (SBA) is a non-fiber carbohydrate-related protein and the main anti-nutritional factor that exists in soybean or soybean products. SBA possesses a specific binding affinity for N-glyphthalide-d-galactosamine or galactose and has a covalently linked oligosaccharide chain. SBA mediates negative [...] Read more.
Soybean agglutinin (SBA) is a non-fiber carbohydrate-related protein and the main anti-nutritional factor that exists in soybean or soybean products. SBA possesses a specific binding affinity for N-glyphthalide-d-galactosamine or galactose and has a covalently linked oligosaccharide chain. SBA mediates negative effects on animal intestinal health by influencing the intestinal structure, barrier function, mucosal immune system, and the balance of the intestinal flora. Functional oligosaccharides are non-digestible dietary oligosaccharides that are commonly applied as prebiotics since the biological effects of the functional oligosaccharides are to increase the host health by improving mucosal structure and function, protecting the integrity of the intestinal structure, modulating immunity, and balancing the gastrointestinal microbiota. The purpose of this review is to describe the structure and anti-nutritional functions of SBA, summarize the influence of SBA and functional oligosaccharides on the intestinal tract of monogastric animals, and emphasize the relationship between SBA and oligosaccharides. This review provides perspectives on applying functional oligosaccharides for alleviating the anti-nutritional effects of SBA on the intestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Gut Fermentation of Dietary Fibres: Physico-Chemistry of Plant Cell Walls and Implications for Health
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102203
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of dietary fibre (DF) originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF [...] Read more.
The majority of dietary fibre (DF) originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF relate to its fermentability, which affects microbial diversity and function within the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), as well as the by-products of the fermentation process. Much work examining DF tends to focus on various purified ingredients, which have been extracted from plants. Increasingly, the validity of this is being questioned in terms of human nutrition, as there is evidence to suggest that it is the actual complexity of DF which affects the complexity of the GIT microbiota. Here, we review the literature comparing results of fermentation of purified DF substrates, with whole plant foods. There are strong indications that the more complex and varied the diet (and its ingredients), the more complex and varied the GIT microbiota is likely to be. Therefore, it is proposed that as the DF fermentability resulting from this complex microbial population has such profound effects on human health in relation to diet, it would be appropriate to include DF fermentability in its characterization—a functional approach of immediate relevance to nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: New Insights on Biochemistry and Health Benefits)
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Graphical abstract

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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