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Special Issue "Carbon-Based Nanomaterials"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ana María Díez-Pascual
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Sciences, Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Interests: nanomaterials; polymers; nanocomposites; inorganic nanoparticles; antibacterial agents; surfactants; interphases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research on carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives, nanodiamond, fullerenes, and other nano-sized carbon allotropes, has experienced sharp exponential growth over the last years. The infinite possibilities to modify and tailor carbon nanomaterials, is associated with their small size, approaching the size of many fundamental biomolecules; their large specific surface area; high electrical and thermal conductivity; unique optical properties; and superior mechanical properties, have paved the way for a broad range of applications.  In particular, fullerene derivatives have been applied to solar energy scavenging; graphene has been widely used in flexible electronics, carbon nanotubes have been tailored to have molecular recognition capability; carbon or graphene quantum dots have been extensively used for bioimaging and sensing, owing to their photoluminescence properties; and nanodiamonds have been demonstrated to be useful in super-resolution imaging and nanoscale temperature sensing.

This Special Issue aims to offer a forum for the publication of original research/review articles regarding carbon-based nanomaterials. It covers all branches and aspects of new processing techniques and testing methods, as well as their applications. Novel surface modifications of carbon nanomaterials to tailor their physico–chemical properties are welcomed. Authors are encouraged to submit their original works stressing the applications of the carbon nanomaterials in a variety of fields, such as electronics, energy storage, biomedicine, sensing, and so forth.

We aim to gather contributions from renowned researchers in the field in order to make this issue a reference for the entire scientific community working on the fundamental and applied research of carbon nanomaterials. We wish this issue to reflect the plethora of carbon nanomaterials and the variety of strategies that have been developed in order to enhance their performance.

Prof. Dr. Ana María Díez-Pascual
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • graphene
  • quantum dots
  • carbon nanotubes
  • fullerenes
  • nanodiamonds
  • biomedical applications
  • sensing applications
  • electronic applications
  • surface functionalization

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Property of Composites of Reduced Graphene Oxide with Nano-Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized Using a Microwave-Assisted Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215394 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) composites with various metal nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting increasing interest owing to their broad scope in biomedical applications. Here, microwave-assisted chemical reduction was used to deposit nano-silver and zinc oxide NPs (Ag and ZnO NPs) on the surface of reduced [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide (GO) composites with various metal nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting increasing interest owing to their broad scope in biomedical applications. Here, microwave-assisted chemical reduction was used to deposit nano-silver and zinc oxide NPs (Ag and ZnO NPs) on the surface of reduced GO (rGO) at the following weight percentages: 5.34% Ag/rGO, 7.49% Ag/rGO, 6.85% ZnO/rGO, 16.45% ZnO/rGO, 3.47/34.91% Ag/ZnO/rGO, and 7.08/15.28% Ag/ZnO/rGO. These materials were tested for antibacterial activity, and 3.47/34.91% Ag/ZnO/rGO and 7.08/15.28% Ag/ZnO/rGO exhibited better antibacterial activity than the other tested materials against the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli K12. At 1000 ppm, both these Ag/ZnO/rGO composites had better killing properties against both E. coli K12 and the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus SA113 than Ag/rGO and ZnO/rGO did. RedoxSensor flow cytometry showed that 3.47/34.91% Ag/ZnO/rGO and 7.08/15.28% Ag/ZnO/rGO decreased reductase activity and affected membrane integrity in the bacteria. At 100 ppm, these two composites affected membrane integrity more in E. coli, while 7.08/15.28% Ag/ZnO/rGO considerably decreased reductase activity in S. aureus. Thus, the 3.47/34.91% and 7.08%/15.28% Ag/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites can be applied not only as antibacterial agents but also in a variety of biomedical materials such as sensors, photothermal therapy, drug delivery, and catalysis, in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Critical Output Torque of a GHz CNT-Based Rotation Transmission System Via Axial Interface Friction at Low Temperature
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163851 - 07 Aug 2019
Abstract
It was discovered that a sudden jump of the output torque moment from a rotation transmission nanosystem made from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) occurred when decreasing the system temperature. In the nanosystem from coaxial-layout CNTs, the motor with specified rotational frequency (ωM [...] Read more.
It was discovered that a sudden jump of the output torque moment from a rotation transmission nanosystem made from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) occurred when decreasing the system temperature. In the nanosystem from coaxial-layout CNTs, the motor with specified rotational frequency (ωM) can drive the inner tube (rotor) to rotate in the outer tubes. When the axial gap between the motor and the rotor was fixed, the friction between their neighbor edges was stronger at a lower temperature. Especially at temperatures below 100 K, the friction-induced driving torque increases with ωM. When the rotor was subjected to an external resistant torque moment (Mr), it could not rotate opposite to the motor even if it deformed heavily. Combining molecular dynamics simulations with the bi-sectioning algorithm, the critical value of Mr was obtained. Under the critical torque moment, the rotor stopped rotating. Accordingly, a transmission nanosystem can be designed to provide a strong torque moment via interface friction at low temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessCommunication
Synthesis of “Dahlia-Like” Hydrophilic Fluorescent Carbon Nanohorn as a Bio-Imaging PROBE
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122977 - 18 Jun 2019
Abstract
Carbon nanohorns (CNH) were synthesized by a simple conventional hydrothermal method in this study. The CNHs were prepared by the chemical oxidation from the carbonation of Nafion (catalyst) with heparin (carbon resource). The formation of CNH involved two major steps, as described followed. [...] Read more.
Carbon nanohorns (CNH) were synthesized by a simple conventional hydrothermal method in this study. The CNHs were prepared by the chemical oxidation from the carbonation of Nafion (catalyst) with heparin (carbon resource). The formation of CNH involved two major steps, as described followed. First, the formation of carbon nanorice (CNR) was achieved by carbonation and self-assembly of heparin inside the Nafion structure. Second, the further oxidation of CNR resulted the heterogeneous and porous micelle domains showed at the outer layer of the CNR particles. These porous domains exhibited hydrophobic carbon and resulted self-assembly of the CNR to form the structure of CNHs. The resulting CNHs aggregated into a “dahlia-like” morphology with fluorescence in a diameter of 50–200 nm. The “dahlia-like” CNH showed better fluorescence (450nm) than CNR particles because of the presence of more structural defect. These findings suggest that the hydrophilic fluorescent carbon nanohorns (HFCNHs) synthesized in this study have the potential to be used for in vitro bio-imaging Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Fullerenols via Bioluminescence Signaling: Role of Oxygen Substituents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092324 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fullerenols are nanosized water-soluble polyhydroxylated derivatives of fullerenes, a specific allotropic form of carbon, bioactive compounds, and perspective basis for drug development. Our paper analyzes the antioxidant activity and toxicity of a series of fullerenols with different number of oxygen substituents. Two groups [...] Read more.
Fullerenols are nanosized water-soluble polyhydroxylated derivatives of fullerenes, a specific allotropic form of carbon, bioactive compounds, and perspective basis for drug development. Our paper analyzes the antioxidant activity and toxicity of a series of fullerenols with different number of oxygen substituents. Two groups of fullerenols were under investigation: (1) C60Oy(OH)x, C60,70Oy(OH)x, where x+y = 24–28 and (2) C60,70Oy(OH)x, Fe0,5C60Oy(OH)x, [email protected]82Oy(OH)x, where x+y = 40–42. Bioluminescent cellular and enzymatic assays (luminous marine bacteria and their enzymatic reactions, respectively) were applied to monitor toxicity in the model fullerenol solutions and bioluminescence was applied as a signaling physiological parameter. The inhibiting concentrations of the fullerenols were determined, revealing the fullerenols’ toxic effects. Antioxidant fullerenol’ ability was studied in solutions of model oxidizer, 1,4-benzoquinone, and detoxification coefficients of general and oxidative types (DGT and DOxT) were calculated. All fullerenols produced toxic effect at high concentrations (>0.01 g L1), while their antioxidant activity was demonstrated at low and ultralow concentrations (<0.001 g L1). Quantitative toxic and antioxidant characteristics of the fullerenols (effective concentrations, concentration ranges, DGT, and DOxT) were found to depend on the number of oxygen substituents. Lower toxicity and higher antioxidant activity were determined in solutions of fullerenols with fewer oxygen substituents (x+y = 24–28). The differences in fullerenol properties were attributed to their catalytic activity due to reversible electron acceptance, radical trapping, and balance of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solutions. The results provide pharmaceutical sciences with a basis for selection of carbon nanoparticles with appropriate toxic and antioxidant characteristics. Based on the results, we recommend, to reduce the toxicity of prospective endohedral gadolinium-fullerenol preparations [email protected]82Oy(OH)x, decreasing the number of oxygen groups to x+y = 24–28. The potential of bioluminescence methods to compare toxic and antioxidant characteristics of carbon nanostructures were demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Graphene Oxide Membranes for Gas Separation Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225609 - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) can dramatically enhance the gas separation performance of membrane technologies beyond the limits of conventional membrane materials in terms of both permeability and selectivity. Graphene oxide membranes can allow extremely high fluxes because of their ultimate thinness and unique layered [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide (GO) can dramatically enhance the gas separation performance of membrane technologies beyond the limits of conventional membrane materials in terms of both permeability and selectivity. Graphene oxide membranes can allow extremely high fluxes because of their ultimate thinness and unique layered structure. In addition, their high selectivity is due to the molecular sieving or diffusion effect resulting from their narrow pore size distribution or their unique surface chemistry. In the first part of this review, we briefly discuss different mechanisms of gas transport through membranes, with an emphasis on the proposed mechanisms for gas separation by GO membranes. In the second part, we review the methods for GO membrane preparation and characterization. In the third part, we provide a critical review of the literature on the application of different types of GO membranes for CO2, H2, and hydrocarbon separation. Finally, we provide recommendations for the development of high-performance GO membranes for gas separation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials)
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