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Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 44371

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Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial agents concomitant; synergistic and additive effects surface functionalization; antimicrobial properties; biomedical therapies; bioactive molecules; green synthesis; environmentally friendly; circular economy; waste materials’ second life
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials can be used as implantable devices or drug delivery platforms with a significant influence on the patients’ quality of life. Indeed, every year a substantial number of new biomaterials and scaffolding systems are engineered and introduced in the biomedical field with an increased potential for biomedical uses. However, their long-term use can be threatened by the adhesion and proliferation of microorganisms, which can interact and form biofilms, or the formation of fibrosis with cytotoxic responses being very common. Pathogenic microorganisms may cause local infection and, consequent, implant failure, further they can hinder the delivery of therapeutic molecules by specialized delivery platforms, turning them ineffective. Many alternatives have been proposed over the years to prevent such events, including the use of antiseptics and antibiotics or the physical modification of the biomaterial surface, with the incorporation of biomolecules of interest. From specialized polymers and functional groups to silver, and more recently, antimicrobial peptides and natural extracts, different functionalization/modification techniques have been employed in this fight against pathogenic agents.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding about the antimicrobial action of specialized biomaterials, new surface-modification strategies, chemical modifications that can be employed to improve their performance, and even original polymeric chemical structures that can be synthetic manufacture with improved properties from which infection control or eradication can be guaranteed. Submissions on the response of pathogenic microorganisms to these implantable devices and new alternatives to reduce infection transmission and biofilm formation are especially encouraged. The goal is to compile enough information so a complete overview of the current state of the art on antimicrobial biomaterials can be attained.

Dr. Helena Felgueiras
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antimicrobial agents
  • chemical modification
  • polymer engineering
  • polymer synthesis
  • surface functionalization
  • antimicrobial agents immobilization
  • new drug delivery systems
  • microbiocidal
  • infection control

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials
by Helena P. Felgueiras
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 9377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169377 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Biomaterials can be used as implantable devices or drug delivery platforms, which have significant impacts on the patient’s quality of life [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

19 pages, 5224 KiB  
Article
Copper (II) Species with Improved Anti-Melanoma and Antibacterial Activity by Inclusion in β-Cyclodextrin
by Alina Tirsoaga, Victor Cojocaru, Mihaela Badea, Irinel Adriana Badea, Arpad Mihai Rostas, Roberta Stoica, Mihaela Bacalum, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc and Rodica Olar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032688 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
To improve their biological activity, complexes [Cu(bipy)(dmtp)2(OH2)](ClO4)2·dmtp (1) and [Cu(phen)(dmtp)2(OH2)](ClO4)2·dmtp (2) (bipy 2,2′-bipyridine, phen: 1,10-phenantroline, and dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidine) were included in β-cyclodextrins [...] Read more.
To improve their biological activity, complexes [Cu(bipy)(dmtp)2(OH2)](ClO4)2·dmtp (1) and [Cu(phen)(dmtp)2(OH2)](ClO4)2·dmtp (2) (bipy 2,2′-bipyridine, phen: 1,10-phenantroline, and dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidine) were included in β-cyclodextrins (β-CD). During the inclusion, the co-crystalized dmtp molecule was lost, and UV-Vis spectra together with the docking studies indicated the synthesis of new materials with 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios between complexes and β-CD. The association between Cu(II) compounds and β-CD has been proven by the identification of the components’ patterns in the IR spectra and powder XRD diffractograms, while solid-state UV-Vis and EPR spectra analysis highlighted a slight modification of the square-pyramidal stereochemistry around Cu(II) in comparison with precursors. The inclusion species are stable in solution and exhibit the ability to scavenge or trap ROS species (O2· and HO·) as indicated by the EPR experiments. Moreover, the two inclusion species exhibit anti-proliferative activity against murine melanoma B16 cells, which has been more significant for (2)@β-CD in comparison with (2). This behavior is associated with a cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Compared with precursors, (1a)@β-CD and (2a)@β-CD exhibit 17 and 26 times more intense activity against planktonic Escherichia coli, respectively, while (2a)@β-CD is 3 times more active against the Staphylococcus aureus strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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9 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Thin Films Deposited from Propane–Butane Mixture in Atmospheric Pressure Discharge
by Pavel Sťahel, Věra Mazánková, Daniela Podzemná, Erika Podzemná, Veronika Pizúrová, Jana Jurmanová, Lubomír Prokeš, Marián Lehocký, Kadir Ozaltin, Hana Pištěková and David Trunec
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021706 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Antibacterial coatings on biomedical instruments are of great interest because they can suppress bacterial colonization on these instruments. In this study, antibacterial polymeric thin coatings were deposited on teflon substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization from a propane–butane mixture. The plasma polymerization was [...] Read more.
Antibacterial coatings on biomedical instruments are of great interest because they can suppress bacterial colonization on these instruments. In this study, antibacterial polymeric thin coatings were deposited on teflon substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization from a propane–butane mixture. The plasma polymerization was performed by means of surface dielectric barrier discharge burning in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The chemical composition of plasma polymerized propane–butane films was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and FTIR. The film surface properties were studied by SEM and by surface energy measurement. The EDX analysis showed that the films consisted of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen from ambient air. The FTIR analysis confirmed, in particular, the presence of alkyl, nitrile, acetylene, imide and amine groups. The deposited films were hydrophilic with a water contact angle in the range of 13–23°. The thin film deposited samples were highly active against both S. aureus and E. coli strains in general. On the other hand, the films were cytocompatible, reaching more than 80% of the cell viability threshold compared to reference polystyrene tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 6860 KiB  
Article
Controllable Nitric Oxide Storage and Release in Cu-BTC: Crystallographic Insights and Bioactivity
by Do Nam Lee, Yeong Rim Kim, Sohyeon Yang, Ngoc Minh Tran, Bong Joo Park, Su Jung Lee, Youngmee Kim, Hyojong Yoo, Sung-Jin Kim and Jae Ho Shin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 9098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169098 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
Crystalline metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are extensively used in areas such as gas storage and small-molecule drug delivery. Although Cu-BTC (1, MOF-199, BTC: benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) has versatile applications, its NO storage and release characteristics are not amenable to therapeutic usage. In this work, [...] Read more.
Crystalline metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are extensively used in areas such as gas storage and small-molecule drug delivery. Although Cu-BTC (1, MOF-199, BTC: benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) has versatile applications, its NO storage and release characteristics are not amenable to therapeutic usage. In this work, micro-sized Cu-BTC was prepared solvothermally and then processed by ball-milling to prepare nano-sized Cu-BTC (2). The NO storage and release properties of the micro- and nano-sized Cu-BTC MOFs were morphology dependent. Control of the hydration degree and morphology of the NO delivery vehicle improved the NO release characteristics significantly. In particular, the nano-sized NO-loaded Cu-BTC (NO⊂nano-Cu-BTC, 4) released NO at 1.81 µmol·mg−1 in 1.2 h in PBS, which meets the requirements for clinical usage. The solid-state structural formula of NO⊂Cu-BTC was successfully determined to be [CuC6H2O5]·(NO)0.167 through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, suggesting no structural changes in Cu-BTC upon the intercalation of 0.167 equivalents of NO within the pores of Cu-BTC after NO loading. The structure of Cu-BTC was also stably maintained after NO release. NO⊂Cu-BTC exhibited significant antibacterial activity against six bacterial strains, including Gram-negative and positive bacteria. NO⊂Cu-BTC could be utilized as a hybrid NO donor to explore the synergistic effects of the known antibacterial properties of Cu-BTC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
The Antimicrobial Peptides Human β-Defensins Induce the Secretion of Angiogenin in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
by Yoshie Umehara, Miho Takahashi, Hainan Yue, Juan Valentin Trujillo-Paez, Ge Peng, Hai Le Thanh Nguyen, Ko Okumura, Hideoki Ogawa and François Niyonsaba
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(15), 8800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158800 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The skin produces a plethora of antimicrobial peptides that not only show antimicrobial activities against pathogens but also exhibit various immunomodulatory functions. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are the most well-characterized skin-derived antimicrobial peptides and contribute to diverse biological processes, including cytokine production and the [...] Read more.
The skin produces a plethora of antimicrobial peptides that not only show antimicrobial activities against pathogens but also exhibit various immunomodulatory functions. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are the most well-characterized skin-derived antimicrobial peptides and contribute to diverse biological processes, including cytokine production and the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of host cells. Additionally, hBD-3 was recently reported to promote wound healing and angiogenesis, by inducing the expression of various angiogenic factors and the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts. Angiogenin is one of the most potent angiogenic factors; however, the effects of hBDs on angiogenin production in fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of hBDs on the secretion of angiogenin by human dermal fibroblasts. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies demonstrated that hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3, and hBD-4 dose-dependently increased angiogenin production by fibroblasts. hBD-mediated angiogenin secretion involved the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src family kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, as evidenced by the inhibitory effects of specific inhibitors for these pathways. Indeed, we confirmed that hBDs induced the activation of the EGFR, Src, JNK, p38, and NF-κB pathways. This study identified a novel role of hBDs in angiogenesis, through the production of angiogenin, in addition to their antimicrobial activities and other immunomodulatory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 3043 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Novel Aminothiazole Derivatives as Promising Antiviral, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Candidates
by Rūta Minickaitė, Birutė Grybaitė, Rita Vaickelionienė, Povilas Kavaliauskas, Vidmantas Petraitis, Rūta Petraitienė, Ingrida Tumosienė, Ilona Jonuškienė and Vytautas Mickevičius
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(14), 7688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147688 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
It is well-known that thiazole derivatives are usually found in lead structures, which demonstrate a wide range of pharmacological effects. The aim of this research was to explore the antiviral, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of novel, substituted thiazole compounds and to find potential [...] Read more.
It is well-known that thiazole derivatives are usually found in lead structures, which demonstrate a wide range of pharmacological effects. The aim of this research was to explore the antiviral, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of novel, substituted thiazole compounds and to find potential agents that could have biological activities in one single biomolecule. A series of novel aminothiazoles were synthesized, and their biological activity was characterized. The obtained results were compared with those of the standard antiviral, antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer agents. The compound bearing 4-cianophenyl substituent in the thiazole ring demonstrated the highest cytotoxic properties by decreasing the A549 viability to 87.2%. The compound bearing 4-trifluoromethylphenyl substituent in the thiazole ring showed significant antiviral activity against the PR8 influenza A strain, which was comparable to the oseltamivir and amantadine. Novel compounds with 4-chlorophenyl, 4-trifluoromethylphenyl, phenyl, 4-fluorophenyl, and 4-cianophenyl substituents in the thiazole ring demonstrated antioxidant activity by DPPH, reducing power, FRAP methods, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. These data demonstrate that substituted aminothiazole derivatives are promising scaffolds for further optimization and development of new compounds with potential influenza A-targeted antiviral activity. Study results could demonstrate that structure optimization of novel aminothiazole compounds may be useful in the prevention of reactive oxygen species and developing new specifically targeted antioxidant and antibacterial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 4250 KiB  
Article
Injectable Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Drug Carrier Increases the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Antibiotic—Clindamycin Phosphate
by Karina Egle, Ingus Skadins, Andra Grava, Lana Micko, Viktors Dubniks, Ilze Salma and Arita Dubnika
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(13), 7407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137407 - 3 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2855
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the change in clindamycin phosphate antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria using the platelet-rich fibrin as a carrier matrix, and evaluate the changes in the antibiotic within the matrix. The antibacterial properties of CLP and its [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the change in clindamycin phosphate antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria using the platelet-rich fibrin as a carrier matrix, and evaluate the changes in the antibiotic within the matrix. The antibacterial properties of CLP and its combination with PRF were tested in a microdilution test against reference cultures and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done to evaluate the changes in the PRF_CLP matrix. Release kinetics of CLP was defined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). According to FTIR data, the use of PRF as a carrier for CLP ensured the structural changes in the CLP toward a more active form of clindamycin. A significant decrease in minimal bactericidal concentration values (from 1000 µg/mL to 62 µg/mL) against reference cultures and clinical isolates of S. aureus and S. epidermidis was observed for the CLP and PRF samples if compared to pure CLP solution. In vitro cell viability tests showed that PRF and PRF with CLP have higher cell viability than 70% after 24 h and 48 h time points. This article indicates that CLP in combination with PRF showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis compared to pure CLP solution. This modified PRF could be used as a novel method to increase drug delivery and efficacy, and to reduce the risk of postoperative infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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22 pages, 9058 KiB  
Article
Two Male-Specific Antimicrobial Peptides SCY2 and Scyreprocin as Crucial Molecules Participated in the Sperm Acrosome Reaction of Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain
by Ying Yang, Fangyi Chen, Kun Qiao, Hua Zhang, Hui-Yun Chen and Ke-Jian Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063373 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) identified in the reproductive system of animals have been widely studied for their antimicrobial activity, but only a few studies have focused on their physiological roles. Our previous studies have revealed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two male gonadal [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) identified in the reproductive system of animals have been widely studied for their antimicrobial activity, but only a few studies have focused on their physiological roles. Our previous studies have revealed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two male gonadal AMPs, SCY2 and scyreprocin, from mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Their physiological functions, however, remain a mystery. In this study, the two AMPs were found co-localized on the sperm apical cap. Meanwhile, progesterone was confirmed to induce acrosome reaction (AR) of mud crab sperm in vitro, which intrigued us to explore the roles of the AMPs and progesterone in AR. Results showed that the specific antibody blockade of scyreprocin inhibited the progesterone-induced AR without affecting intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, while the blockade of SCY2 hindered the influx of Ca2+. We further showed that SCY2 could directly bind to Ca2+. Moreover, progesterone failed to induce AR when either scyreprocin or SCY2 function was deprived. Taken together, scyreprocin and SCY2 played a dual role in reproductive immunity and sperm AR. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the direct involvement of AMPs in sperm AR, which would expand the current understanding of the roles of AMPs in reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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21 pages, 3546 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Sporicidal Activity Evaluation of Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate
by Ayuni Yussof, Brian Cammalleri, Oluwanifemi Fayemiwo, Sabrina Lopez and Tinchun Chu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042153 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG), a polyphenol derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, is known to have many health benefits. In this study, the antibacterial effect of TFDG against nine bacteria and the sporicidal activities on spore-forming Bacillus spp. have been investigated. Microplate assay, [...] Read more.
Theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG), a polyphenol derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, is known to have many health benefits. In this study, the antibacterial effect of TFDG against nine bacteria and the sporicidal activities on spore-forming Bacillus spp. have been investigated. Microplate assay, colony-forming unit, BacTiter-GloTM, and Live/Dead Assays showed that 250 µg/mL TFDG was able to inhibit bacterial growth up to 99.97%, while 625 µg/mL TFDG was able to inhibit up to 99.92% of the spores from germinating after a one-hour treatment. Binding analysis revealed the favorable binding affinity of two germination-associated proteins, GPR and Lgt (GerF), to TFDG, ranging from −7.6 to −10.3 kcal/mol. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that TFDG treatment lowered the expression of gpr, ranging from 0.20 to 0.39 compared to the control in both Bacillus spp. The results suggest that TFDG not only inhibits the growth of vegetative cells but also prevents the germination of bacterial spores. This report indicates that TFDG is a promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and anti-spore agent against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, acid-fast bacteria, and endospores. The potential anti-germination mechanism has also been elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 4830 KiB  
Article
Broad Spectrum Anti-Bacterial Activity and Non-Selective Toxicity of Gum Arabic Silver Nanoparticles
by Adewale O. Fadaka, Samantha Meyer, Omnia Ahmed, Greta Geerts, Madimabe A. Madiehe, Mervin Meyer and Nicole R. S. Sibuyi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031799 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commercialized nanomaterials and presumed to be biocompatible based on the biological effects of the bulk material. However, their physico-chemical properties differ significantly to the bulk materials and are associated with unique biological properties. The study investigated the [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commercialized nanomaterials and presumed to be biocompatible based on the biological effects of the bulk material. However, their physico-chemical properties differ significantly to the bulk materials and are associated with unique biological properties. The study investigated the antimicrobial and cytotoxicity effects of AgNPs synthesized using gum arabic (GA), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), and their combination as reducing agents. The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The anti-bacterial activity was assessed using agar well diffusion and microdilution assays, and the cytotoxicity effects on Caco-2, HT-29 and KMST-6 cells using MTT assay. The GA-synthesized AgNPs (GA-AgNPs) demonstrated higher bactericidal activity against all bacteria, and non-selective cytotoxicity towards normal and cancer cells. AgNPs reduced by NaBH4 (C-AgNPs) and the combination of GA and NaBH4 (GAC-AgNPs) had insignificant anti-bacterial activity and cytotoxicity at ≥50 µg/mL. The study showed that despite the notion that AgNPs are safe and biocompatible, their toxicity cannot be overruled and that their toxicity can be channeled by using biocompatible polymers, thereby providing a therapeutic window at concentrations that are least harmful to mammalian cells but toxic to bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 3770 KiB  
Article
Development of New Collagen/Clay Composite Biomaterials
by Maria Minodora Marin, Raluca Ianchis, Rebeca Leu Alexa, Ioana Catalina Gifu, Madalina Georgiana Albu Kaya, Diana Iulia Savu, Roxana Cristina Popescu, Elvira Alexandrescu, Claudia Mihaela Ninciuleanu, Silviu Preda, Madalina Ignat, Roxana Constantinescu and Horia Iovu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010401 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2743
Abstract
The fabrication of collagen-based biomaterials for skin regeneration offers various challenges for tissue engineers. The purpose of this study was to obtain a novel series of composite biomaterials based on collagen and several types of clays. In order to investigate the influence of [...] Read more.
The fabrication of collagen-based biomaterials for skin regeneration offers various challenges for tissue engineers. The purpose of this study was to obtain a novel series of composite biomaterials based on collagen and several types of clays. In order to investigate the influence of clay type on drug release behavior, the obtained collagen-based composite materials were further loaded with gentamicin. Physiochemical and biological analyses were performed to analyze the obtained nanocomposite materials after nanoclay embedding. Infrared spectra confirmed the inclusion of clay in the collagen polymeric matrix without any denaturation of triple helical conformation. All the composite samples revealed a slight change in the 2-theta values pointing toward a homogenous distribution of clay layers inside the collagen matrix with the obtaining of mainly intercalated collagen-clay structures, according X-ray diffraction analyses. The porosity of collagen/clay composite biomaterials varied depending on clay nanoparticles sort. Thermo-mechanical analyses indicated enhanced thermal and mechanical features for collagen composites as compared with neat type II collagen matrix. Biodegradation findings were supported by swelling studies, which indicated a more crosslinked structure due additional H bonding brought on by nanoclays. The biology tests demonstrated the influence of clay type on cellular viability but also on the antimicrobial behavior of composite scaffolds. All nanocomposite samples presented a delayed gentamicin release when compared with the collagen-gentamicin sample. The obtained results highlighted the importance of clay type selection as this affects the performances of the collagen-based composites as promising biomaterials for future applications in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 3646 KiB  
Article
A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Sparanegtin Identified in Scylla paramamosain Showing Antimicrobial Activity and Immunoprotective Role In Vitro and Vivo
by Xuewu Zhu, Fangyi Chen, Shuang Li, Hui Peng and Ke-Jian Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010015 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
The abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture and livestock no doubt has exacerbated the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which imposes serious threats to animal and human health. The exploration of substitutes for antibiotics from marine animals has become a promising area of research, and [...] Read more.
The abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture and livestock no doubt has exacerbated the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which imposes serious threats to animal and human health. The exploration of substitutes for antibiotics from marine animals has become a promising area of research, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are worth investigating and considering as potential alternatives to antibiotics. In the study, we identified a novel AMP gene from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain and named it Sparanegtin. Sparanegtin transcripts were most abundant in the testis of male crabs and significantly expressed with the challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Vibrio alginolyticus. The recombinant Sparanegtin (rSparanegtin) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. rSparanegtin exhibited activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had potent binding affinity with several polysaccharides. In addition, rSparanegtin exerted damaging activity on the cell walls and surfaces of P. aeruginosa with rougher and fragmented appearance. Interestingly, although rSparanegtin did not show activity against V. alginolyticus in vitro, it played an immunoprotective role in S. paramamosain and exerted an immunomodulatory effect by modulating several immune-related genes against V. alginolyticus infection through significantly reducing the bacterial load in the gills and hepatopancreas and increasing the survival rate of crabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 3902 KiB  
Article
Optimized Silica-Binding Peptide-Mediated Delivery of Bactericidal Lysin Efficiently Prevents Staphylococcus aureus from Adhering to Device Surfaces
by Wan Yang, Vijay Singh Gondil, Dehua Luo, Jin He, Hongping Wei and Hang Yang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212544 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
Staphylococcal-associated device-related infections (DRIs) represent a significant clinical challenge causing major medical and economic sequelae. Bacterial colonization, proliferation, and biofilm formation after adherence to surfaces of the indwelling device are probably the primary cause of DRIs. To address this issue, we incorporated constructs [...] Read more.
Staphylococcal-associated device-related infections (DRIs) represent a significant clinical challenge causing major medical and economic sequelae. Bacterial colonization, proliferation, and biofilm formation after adherence to surfaces of the indwelling device are probably the primary cause of DRIs. To address this issue, we incorporated constructs of silica-binding peptide (SiBP) with ClyF, an anti-staphylococcal lysin, into functionalized coatings to impart bactericidal activity against planktonic and sessile Staphylococcus aureus. An optimized construct, SiBP1-ClyF, exhibited improved thermostability and staphylolytic activity compared to its parental lysin ClyF. SiBP1-ClyF-functionalized coatings were efficient in killing MRSA strain N315 (>99.999% within 1 h) and preventing the growth of static and dynamic S. aureus biofilms on various surfaces, including siliconized glass, silicone-coated latex catheter, and silicone catheter. Additionally, SiBP1-ClyF-immobilized surfaces supported normal attachment and growth of mammalian cells. Although the recycling potential and long-term stability of lysin-immobilized surfaces are still affected by the fragility of biological protein molecules, the present study provides a generic strategy for efficient delivery of bactericidal lysin to solid surfaces, which serves as a new approach to prevent the growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms on surfaces in hospital settings and could be adapted for other target pathogens as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

34 pages, 1078 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial Compounds in Food Packaging
by Aleksandra Duda-Chodak, Tomasz Tarko and Katarzyna Petka-Poniatowska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032457 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4202
Abstract
This review presents current knowledge on antimicrobial agents that are already used in the food packaging industry. At the beginning, innovative ways of food packaging were discussed, including how smart packaging differs from active packaging, and what functions they perform. Next, the focus [...] Read more.
This review presents current knowledge on antimicrobial agents that are already used in the food packaging industry. At the beginning, innovative ways of food packaging were discussed, including how smart packaging differs from active packaging, and what functions they perform. Next, the focus was on one of the groups of bioactive components that are used in these packaging, namely antimicrobial agents. Among the antimicrobial agents, we selected those that have already been used in packaging and that promise to be used elsewhere, e.g., in the production of antimicrobial biomaterials. Main groups of antimicrobial agents (i.e., metals and metal oxides, organic acids, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriocins, antimicrobial agents of plant origin, enzymes, lactoferrin, chitosan, allyl isothiocyanate, the reuterin system and bacteriophages) that are incorporated or combined with various types of packaging materials to extend the shelf life of food are described. The further development of perspectives and setting of new research directions were also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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29 pages, 6356 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial Natural Hydrogels in Biomedicine: Properties, Applications, and Challenges—A Concise Review
by Oliwia Kapusta, Anna Jarosz, Katarzyna Stadnik, Dimitrios A. Giannakoudakis, Bartłomiej Barczyński and Mariusz Barczak
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032191 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4795
Abstract
Natural hydrogels are widely used as biomedical materials in many areas, including drug delivery, tissue scaffolds, and particularly wound dressings, where they can act as an antimicrobial factor lowering the risk of microbial infections, which are serious health problems, especially with respect to [...] Read more.
Natural hydrogels are widely used as biomedical materials in many areas, including drug delivery, tissue scaffolds, and particularly wound dressings, where they can act as an antimicrobial factor lowering the risk of microbial infections, which are serious health problems, especially with respect to wound healing. In this review article, a number of promising strategies in the development of hydrogels with biocidal properties, particularly those originating from natural polymers, are briefly summarized and concisely discussed. Common strategies to design and fabricate hydrogels with intrinsic or stimuli-triggered antibacterial activity are exemplified, and the mechanisms lying behind these properties are also discussed. Finally, practical antibacterial applications are also considered while discussing the current challenges and perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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23 pages, 2101 KiB  
Review
Biocompatible Materials in Otorhinolaryngology and Their Antibacterial Properties
by Jakub Spałek, Przemysław Ociepa, Piotr Deptuła, Ewelina Piktel, Tamara Daniluk, Grzegorz Król, Stanisław Góźdź, Robert Bucki and Sławomir Okła
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(5), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052575 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3949
Abstract
For decades, biomaterials have been commonly used in medicine for the replacement of human body tissue, precise drug-delivery systems, or as parts of medical devices that are essential for some treatment methods. Due to rapid progress in the field of new materials, updates [...] Read more.
For decades, biomaterials have been commonly used in medicine for the replacement of human body tissue, precise drug-delivery systems, or as parts of medical devices that are essential for some treatment methods. Due to rapid progress in the field of new materials, updates on the state of knowledge about biomaterials are frequently needed. This article describes the clinical application of different types of biomaterials in the field of otorhinolaryngology, i.e., head and neck surgery, focusing on their antimicrobial properties. The variety of their applications includes cochlear implants, middle ear prostheses, voice prostheses, materials for osteosynthesis, and nasal packing after nasal/paranasal sinuses surgery. Ceramics, such as as hydroxyapatite, zirconia, or metals and metal alloys, still have applications in the head and neck region. Tissue engineering scaffolds and drug-eluting materials, such as polymers and polymer-based composites, are becoming more common. The restoration of life tissue and the ability to prevent microbial colonization should be taken into consideration when designing the materials to be used for implant production. The authors of this paper have reviewed publications available in PubMed from the last five years about the recent progress in this topic but also establish the state of knowledge of the most common application of biomaterials over the last few decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Antimicrobial Biomaterials)
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