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Biomolecule-Based Biomaterials and Their Application in Drug Delivery Systems

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 24109

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Centre for Textile Science and Technology, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: antimicrobial agents concomitant; synergistic and additive effects surface functionalization; antimicrobial properties; biomedical therapies; bioactive molecules; green synthesis; environmentally friendly; circular economy; waste materials’ second life
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The antibiotic crisis is a global concern. The increasing rates of microbial resistance to antibiotics has made researchers question their efficiency and to opt for other strategies from traditional medicine that could potentially contribute to the inhibition or eradication of these pathogenic agents. Biomolecules derived from natural extracts are not new in medical formulations. However, they are gaining a greater presence and impact because of their ecological features; lower environment impact; because they are extracted from renewable, natural resources; and most importantly thanks to their inherent antimicrobial and therapeutic potential. Still, their fragility and sensitivity to external factors (temperature, pH, etc.) has limited their broad use. Drug delivery systems generated from new biomaterial formulations or new intricate, complex scaffolding systems based on nano- to microfibers or hydrogel-based constructs have arisen as the solutions to these problems. Currently, trigger-based release biomolecule-loaded systems represent a significant portion of the drug loading formulations under study. From natural extracts to traditional medicine remedies and newly engineered delivery platforms, many formulations that combine one or more biomolecules are being engineered with the purpose of fighting infections or treating specific illnesses in a localized, specialized manner.

This Special Issue seeks manuscript submissions that further our understanding of the therapeutic potential of specialized biomolecules which have been recently engineered or chemically modified from their ancient, natural origins. Submissions on the engineering of new delivery platforms that protect their payload and deliver it in a sustainable, trigger-based manner are desired. Publications that aim at obtaining a deeper understanding of the synergistic effects between different biomolecules and/or biomolecules and delivery platforms in infection control or therapeutic treatments are also very welcome.

Dr. Helena Felgueiras
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • natural extracts
  • essential oils
  • antibiotic replacements
  • antimicrobial action
  • therapeutic potential
  • drug loading
  • controlled release
  • biodegradation
  • biomaterials
  • new delivery platforms

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Biomolecule-Based Biomaterials and Their Application in Drug Delivery Systems
by Helena P. Felgueiras
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076425 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 767
Abstract
The antibiotic crisis is a global concern [...] Full article

Research

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10 pages, 7987 KiB  
Article
Controlled Hydrolysis of Odorants Schiff Bases in Low-Molecular-Weight Gels
by Gloria Nicastro, Louise Mary Black, Paolo Ravarino, Simone d’Agostino, Davide Faccio, Claudia Tomasini and Demetra Giuri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063105 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3142
Abstract
Imines or Schiff bases (SB) are formed by the condensation of an aldehyde or a ketone with a primary amine, with the removal of a water molecule. Schiff bases are central molecules in several biological processes for their ability to form and cleave [...] Read more.
Imines or Schiff bases (SB) are formed by the condensation of an aldehyde or a ketone with a primary amine, with the removal of a water molecule. Schiff bases are central molecules in several biological processes for their ability to form and cleave by small variation of the medium. We report here the controlled hydrolysis of four SBs that may be applied in the fragrance industry, as they are profragrances all containing odorant molecules: methyl anthranilate as primary amine, and four aldehydes (cyclamal, helional, hydroxycitronellal and triplal) that are very volatile odorants. The SB stability was assessed over time by HPLC-MS in neutral or acidic conditions, both in solution and when trapped in low molecular weight gels. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to control the hydrolysis of the Schiff bases in the gel environment, thus tuning the quantity of aldehyde released and the persistency of the fragrance. Full article
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19 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
pH Responsive Abelmoschus esculentus Mucilage and Administration of Methotrexate: In-Vitro Antitumor and In-Vivo Toxicity Evaluation
by Sobia Noreen, Sara Hasan, Shazia Akram Ghumman, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Bushra Ijaz, Huma Hameed, Huma Iqbal, Afeefa Aslam, Mervat Abdelaziz Mohamed Elsherif, Shazia Noureen and Hasan Ejaz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(5), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052725 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The rapid progression in biomaterial nanotechnology apprehends the potential of non-toxic and potent polysaccharide delivery modules to overcome oral chemotherapeutic challenges. The present study is aimed to design, fabricate and characterize polysaccharide nanoparticles for methotrexate (MTX) delivery. The nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by [...] Read more.
The rapid progression in biomaterial nanotechnology apprehends the potential of non-toxic and potent polysaccharide delivery modules to overcome oral chemotherapeutic challenges. The present study is aimed to design, fabricate and characterize polysaccharide nanoparticles for methotrexate (MTX) delivery. The nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage (AEM) and chitosan (CS) by the modified coacervation method, followed by ultra-sonification. The NPs showed much better pharmaceutical properties with a spherical shape and smooth surface of 213.4–254.2 nm with PDI ranging between 0.279–0.485 size with entrapment efficiency varying from 42.08 ± 1.2 to 72.23 ± 2.0. The results revealed NPs to possess positive zeta potential and a low polydispersity index (PDI). The in-vitro drug release showed a sustained release of the drug up to 32 h with pH-dependence. Blank AEM -CS NPs showed no in-vivo toxicity for a time duration of 14 days, accompanied by high cytotoxic effects of optimized MTX loaded NPs against MCF-7 and MD-MBA231 cells by MTT assay. In conclusion, the findings advocated the therapeutic potential of AEM/CS NPs as an efficacious tool, offering a new perspective for pH-responsive routing of anticancer drugs with tumor cells as a target. Full article
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17 pages, 4074 KiB  
Article
Smart Lipid–Polysaccharide Nanoparticles for Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin to Breast Cancer Cells
by Manuela Curcio, Matteo Brindisi, Giuseppe Cirillo, Luca Frattaruolo, Antonella Leggio, Vittoria Rago, Fiore Pasquale Nicoletta, Anna Rita Cappello and Francesca Iemma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042386 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3057
Abstract
In this study, actively-targeted (CD44-receptors) and dual stimuli (pH/redox)-responsive lipid–polymer nanoparticles were proposed as a delivery vehicle of doxorubicin hydrochloride in triple negative breast cancer cell lines. A phosphatidylcholine lipid film was hydrated with a solution of oxidized hyaluronic acid and doxorubicin, chosen [...] Read more.
In this study, actively-targeted (CD44-receptors) and dual stimuli (pH/redox)-responsive lipid–polymer nanoparticles were proposed as a delivery vehicle of doxorubicin hydrochloride in triple negative breast cancer cell lines. A phosphatidylcholine lipid film was hydrated with a solution of oxidized hyaluronic acid and doxorubicin, chosen as model drug, followed by a crosslinking reaction with cystamine hydrochloride. The obtained spherical nanoparticles (mean diameter of 30 nm) were found to be efficiently internalized in cancer cells by a receptor-mediated endocytosis process, and to modulate the drug release depending on the pH and redox potential of the surrounding medium. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the nanoparticles in enhancing the cytotoxic effect of the free anticancer drug, with the IC50 values being reduced by two and three times in MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231, respectively. The combination of self-assembled phospholipid molecules with a polysaccharide counterpart acting as receptor ligand, and stimuli-responsive chemical moieties, was carried out on smart multifunctional nanoparticles able to actively target breast cancer cells and improve the in vitro anticancer activity of doxorubicin. Full article
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16 pages, 2994 KiB  
Article
Effects of Quercetin and Curcumin Combination on Antibacterial, Antioxidant, In Vitro Wound Healing and Migration of Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells
by Chuda Chittasupho, Amornrat Manthaisong, Siriporn Okonogi, Sarin Tadtong and Weerasak Samee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010142 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5591
Abstract
Wound healing impairment due to a postponed, incomplete, or uncoordinated healing process has been a challenging clinical problem. Much research has focused on wound care, particularly on discovery of new therapeutic approaches for acute and chronic wounds. This study aims to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Wound healing impairment due to a postponed, incomplete, or uncoordinated healing process has been a challenging clinical problem. Much research has focused on wound care, particularly on discovery of new therapeutic approaches for acute and chronic wounds. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the combination of quercetin and curcuminoids at three different ratios on the antimicrobial, antioxidant, cell migration and wound healing properties. The antioxidant activities of quercetin, curcuminoids and the mixtures were tested by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. The disc diffusion method was performed to determine the antibacterial activities of quercetin, curcuminoids and the mixtures against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity and cell migratory enhancing effects of quercetin, curcuminoids and the mixtures against human dermal fibroblasts were investigated by MTT assay, scratch assay and Transwell migration assay, respectively. The results showed the synergism of the quercetin and curcuminoid combination to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, with the inhibition zone ranging from 7.06 ± 0.25 to 8.78 ± 0.38 mm, respectively. The DPPH free radical scavenging assay demonstrated that the combination of quercetin and curcuminoids yielded lower IC50 values (15.38–23.70 µg/mL) than curcuminoids alone (25.75 µg/mL). Quercetin and a 3:1 quercetin/curcuminoid mixture at non-toxic concentrations showed the ability to stimulate the migration of fibroblasts across the matrix, whereas only quercetin alone accelerated the wound closure of fibroblasts. In conclusion, the mixture of quercetin and curcuminoids at a 3:1 ratio was the best formulations for use in wound healing due to the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell-migration-enhancing activities. Full article
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Review

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23 pages, 6781 KiB  
Review
Silk Fibroin as an Efficient Biomaterial for Drug Delivery, Gene Therapy, and Wound Healing
by Shahid Ud Din Wani, Mohammed Iqbal Zargar, Mubashir Hussain Masoodi, Sultan Alshehri, Prawez Alam, Mohammed M. Ghoneim, Areej Alshlowi, H. G. Shivakumar, Mohammad Ali and Faiyaz Shakeel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214421 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
Silk fibroin (SF), an organic material obtained from the cocoons of a silkworm Bombyx mori, is used in several applications and has a proven track record in biomedicine owing to its superior compatibility with the human body, superb mechanical characteristics, and its [...] Read more.
Silk fibroin (SF), an organic material obtained from the cocoons of a silkworm Bombyx mori, is used in several applications and has a proven track record in biomedicine owing to its superior compatibility with the human body, superb mechanical characteristics, and its controllable propensity to decay. Due to its robust biocompatibility, less immunogenic, non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, and biodegradable properties, it has been widely used in biological and biomedical fields, including wound healing. The key strategies for building diverse SF-based drug delivery systems are discussed in this review, as well as the most recent ways for developing functionalized SF for controlled or redirected medicines, gene therapy, and wound healing. Understanding the features of SF and the various ways to manipulate its physicochemical and mechanical properties enables the development of more effective drug delivery devices. Drugs are encapsulated in SF-based drug delivery systems to extend their shelf life and control their release, allowing them to travel further across the bloodstream and thus extend their range of operation. Furthermore, due to their tunable properties, SF-based drug delivery systems open up new possibilities for drug delivery, gene therapy, and wound healing. Full article
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16 pages, 594 KiB  
Review
Application of Antimicrobial Peptides on Biomedical Implants: Three Ways to Pursue Peptide Coatings
by Marco G. Drexelius and Ines Neundorf
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413212 - 8 Dec 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4221
Abstract
Biofilm formation and inflammations are number one reasons of implant failure and cause a severe number of postoperative complications every year. To functionalize implant surfaces with antibiotic agents provides perspectives to minimize and/or prevent bacterial adhesion and proliferation. In recent years, antimicrobial peptides [...] Read more.
Biofilm formation and inflammations are number one reasons of implant failure and cause a severe number of postoperative complications every year. To functionalize implant surfaces with antibiotic agents provides perspectives to minimize and/or prevent bacterial adhesion and proliferation. In recent years, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been evolved as promising alternatives to commonly used antibiotics, and have been seen as potent candidates for antimicrobial surface coatings. This review aims to summarize recent developments in this field and to highlight examples of the most common techniques used for preparing such AMP-based medical devices. We will report on three different ways to pursue peptide coatings, using either binding sequences (primary approach), linker layers (secondary approach), or loading in matrixes which offer a defined release (tertiary approach). All of them will be discussed in the light of current research in this area. Full article
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