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Special Issue "Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hikmet Budak Website E-Mail
Montana State University - Bozeman, Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Bozeman, United States
Interests: A/biotic stress response, gene regulation, microRNA, noncoding RNA, wheat stem sawfly

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is threatened by two major dilemmas: plants that suffer from a/biotic stress (i.e., drought, heat, salt stressors, climate change, insects and diseases); humans that suffer from malnutrition (i.e., vitamin A, zinc and iron deficiencies). These stresses and dilemmas are also a major threat for international food security as the demand for food will increase by 70% by 2050. In order to tackle these two major dilemmas and to have climate resilient plants, it is scientists’ obligation to develop and to use innovative technologies and opportunities. OMICS (Genomics, Transcriptomics Metabolomics, and Ionomics) and genome editing (CRISPR/Cas) are two of the technologies that can readily be used to tackle both major problems.

Abiotic stress leads to abnormalities in cellular homeostasis which have detrimental effects on growth and development. Being sessile organisms, plant abiotic stress signaling is a key element to better understanding plant acclimation and adaptation to environmental fluctuations. Autophagy; non coding small RNAs, such as microRNAs; and Long non coding RNAs (LncRNAs), considered as the mechanism in plants, have been associated with plant abiotic stress responses and are known to have novel roles in stress signaling and gene networks. Hence, in this Special Issue, these major elements of abiotic stress signaling will also be covered and addressed along with the pathway and, in the light of recent discoveries, a putative, state-of-art role.

"Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants" will address the underlying molecular mechanisms of a wide range of abiotic stress, including micronutrient deficiencies, using tools and technologies available.

Prof. Dr. Hikmet Budak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Autoantigens
  • Abiotic stress
  • Autophagy
  • CRISPR/cas
  • micronutrient deficiencies
  • non-coding RNAs
  • OMICS

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Functional Characterization of Waterlogging and Heat Stresses Tolerance Gene Pyruvate decarboxylase 2 from Actinidia deliciosa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112377 - 09 Nov 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
A previous report showed that both Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes were significantly upregulated in kiwifruit after waterlogging treatment using Illumina sequencing technology, and that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene was required during waterlogging, but might not be required during other environmental stresses. [...] Read more.
A previous report showed that both Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes were significantly upregulated in kiwifruit after waterlogging treatment using Illumina sequencing technology, and that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene was required during waterlogging, but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Here, the function of another PDC gene, named AdPDC2, was analyzed. The expression of the AdPDC2 gene was determined using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the expression levels of AdPDC2 in the reproductive organs were much higher than those in the nutritive organs. Waterlogging, NaCl, and heat could induce the expression of AdPDC2. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC2 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced resistance to waterlogging and heat stresses in five-week-old seedlings, but could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the seed germination stage and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC2 gene may play an important role in waterlogging resistance and heat stresses in kiwifruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Analysis of Gibberellin- and Paclobutrazol-Treated Rice Seedlings under Submergence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102225 - 24 Oct 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Submergence stress is a limiting factor for rice growing in rainfed lowland areas of the world. It is known that the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) has negative effects on submergence tolerance in rice, while its inhibitor paclobutrazol (PB) does the opposite. However, the physiological [...] Read more.
Submergence stress is a limiting factor for rice growing in rainfed lowland areas of the world. It is known that the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) has negative effects on submergence tolerance in rice, while its inhibitor paclobutrazol (PB) does the opposite. However, the physiological and molecular basis underlying the GA- and PB-regulated submergence response remains largely unknown. In this study, we reveal that PB could significantly enhance rice seedling survival by retaining a higher level of chlorophyll content and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, and decelerating the consumption of non-structure carbohydrate when compared with the control and GA-treated samples. Further transcriptomic analysis identified 3936 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the GA- and PB-treated samples and control, which are extensively involved in the submergence and other abiotic stress responses, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, photosynthesis, and nutrient metabolism. The results suggested that PB enhances rice survival under submergence through maintaining the photosynthesis capacity and reducing nutrient metabolism. Taken together, the current study provided new insight into the mechanism of phytohormone-regulated submergence response in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Complementary RNA-Sequencing Based Transcriptomics and iTRAQ Proteomics Reveal the Mechanism of the Alleviation of Quinclorac Stress by Salicylic Acid in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091975 - 14 Sep 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
To uncover the alleviation mechanism of quinclorac stress by salicylic acid (SA), leaf samples of Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica under quinclorac stress with and without SA pre-treatment were analyzed for transcriptional and proteomic profiling to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and proteins [...] Read more.
To uncover the alleviation mechanism of quinclorac stress by salicylic acid (SA), leaf samples of Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica under quinclorac stress with and without SA pre-treatment were analyzed for transcriptional and proteomic profiling to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and proteins (DEPs), respectively. Results showed that quinclorac stress altered the expression of 2207 DEGs (1427 up-regulated, 780 down-regulated) and 147 DEPs (98 down-regulated, 49 up-regulated). These genes and proteins were enriched in glutathione (GSH) metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and so on. It also influenced apetala2- ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2-EREBP) family, myeloblastosis (MYB) family and WRKY family transcription factors. After SA pre-treatment, 697 genes and 124 proteins were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed similar enrichments in GSH, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Transcription factors were distributed in basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), MYB, Tify and WRKY families. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that quinclorac stress induced the expression of glutathion reductase (GR) genes (OsGR2, OsGR3), which was further pronounced by SA pre-treatment. Quinclorac stress further mediated the accumulation of acetaldehyde in rice, while SA enhanced the expression of OsALDH2B5 and OsALDH7 to accelerate the metabolism of herbicide quinclorac for the protection of rice. Correlation analysis between transcriptome and proteomics demonstrated that, under quinclorac stress, correlated proteins/genes were mainly involved in the inhibition of intermediate steps in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Other interesting proteins/genes and pathways regulated by herbicide quinclorac and modulated by SA pre-treatment were also discussed, based on the transcriptome and proteomics results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Physiological and Transcriptomic Responses of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) to Salt Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091953 - 12 Sep 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that severely impact plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the physiological and transcriptomic responses of Chinese cabbage “Qingmaye” to salt stress, a main variety in North China. Our results showed that [...] Read more.
Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that severely impact plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the physiological and transcriptomic responses of Chinese cabbage “Qingmaye” to salt stress, a main variety in North China. Our results showed that the growth and photosynthesis of Chinese cabbage were significantly inhibited by salt treatment. However, as a glycophyte, Chinese cabbage could cope with high salinity; it could complete an entire life cycle at 100 mM NaCl. The high salt tolerance of Chinese cabbage was achieved by accumulating osmoprotectants and by maintaining higher activity of antioxidant enzymes. Transcriptomic responses were analyzed using the digital gene expression profiling (DGE) technique after 12 h of treatment by 200 mM NaCl. A total of 1235 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 740 up- and 495 down-regulated genes were identified. Functional annotation analyses showed that the DEGs were related to signal transduction, osmolyte synthesis, transcription factors, and antioxidant proteins. Taken together, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of salt tolerance in Chinese cabbage and provides valuable information for further improvement of salt tolerance in Chinese cabbage breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Conserved and Distinct Molecular Mechanisms of Al Resistance in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Leaves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091859 - 27 Aug 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Being an Al-accumulating crop, buckwheat detoxifies and tolerates Al not only in roots but also in leaves. While much progress has recently been made toward Al toxicity and resistance mechanisms in roots, little is known about the molecular basis responsible for detoxification and [...] Read more.
Being an Al-accumulating crop, buckwheat detoxifies and tolerates Al not only in roots but also in leaves. While much progress has recently been made toward Al toxicity and resistance mechanisms in roots, little is known about the molecular basis responsible for detoxification and tolerance processes in leaves. Here, we carried out transcriptome analysis of buckwheat leaves in response to Al stress (20 µM, 24 h). We obtained 33,931 unigenes with 26,300 unigenes annotated in the NCBI database, and identified 1063 upregulated and 944 downregulated genes under Al stress. Functional category analysis revealed that genes related to protein translation, processing, degradation and metabolism comprised the biological processes most affected by Al, suggesting that buckwheat leaves maintain flexibility under Al stress by rapidly reprogramming their physiology and metabolism. Analysis of genes related to transcription regulation revealed that a large proportion of chromatin-regulation genes are specifically downregulated by Al stress, whereas transcription factor genes are overwhelmingly upregulated. Furthermore, we identified 78 upregulated and 22 downregulated genes that encode transporters. Intriguingly, only a few genes were overlapped with root Al-regulated transporter genes, which include homologs of AtMATE, ALS1, STAR1, ALS3 and a divalent ion symporter. In addition, we identified a subset of genes involved in development, in which genes associated with flowering regulation were important. Based on these data, it is proposed that buckwheat leaves develop conserved and distinct mechanisms to cope with Al toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the GmSnRK2 Family in Soybean
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091834 - 23 Aug 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) that were reported to be involved in the transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Compared to the systemic investigation of SnRK2s in Arabidopsis thaliana [...] Read more.
Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) that were reported to be involved in the transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Compared to the systemic investigation of SnRK2s in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, little is known regarding SnRK2s in soybean, which is one of the most important oil and protein crops. In the present study, we performed genome-wide identification and characterization of GmSnRK2s in soybean. In summary, 22 GmSnRK2s were identified and clustered into four groups. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the expansion of SnRK2 gene family during the evolution of soybean. Various cis-acting elements such as ABA Response Elements (ABREs) were identified and analyzed in the promoter regions of GmSnRK2s. The results of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for different soybean tissues showed that GmSnRK2s exhibited spatio-temporally specific expression patterns during soybean growth and development. Certain GmSnRK2s could respond to the treatments including salinity, ABA and strigolactones. Our results provide a foundation for the further elucidation of the function of GmSnRK2 genes in soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Circadian and Light Regulated Expression of CBFs and their Upstream Signalling Genes in Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081828 - 22 Aug 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
CBF (C-repeat binding factor) transcription factors show high expression levels in response to cold; moreover, they play a key regulatory role in cold acclimation processes. Recently, however, more and more information has led to the conclusion that, apart from cold, light—including its spectra—also [...] Read more.
CBF (C-repeat binding factor) transcription factors show high expression levels in response to cold; moreover, they play a key regulatory role in cold acclimation processes. Recently, however, more and more information has led to the conclusion that, apart from cold, light—including its spectra—also has a crucial role in regulating CBF expression. Earlier, studies established that the expression patterns of some of these regulatory genes follow circadian rhythms. To understand more of this complex acclimation process, we studied the expression patterns of the signal transducing pathways, including signal perception, the circadian clock and phospholipid signalling pathways, upstream of the CBF gene regulatory hub. To exclude the confounding effect of cold, experiments were carried out at 22 °C. Our results show that the expression of genes implicated in the phospholipid signalling pathway follow a circadian rhythm. We demonstrated that, from among the tested CBF genes expressed in Hordeum vulgare (Hv) under our conditions, only the members of the HvCBF4-phylogenetic subgroup showed a circadian pattern. We found that the HvCBF4-subgroup genes were expressed late in the afternoon or early in the night. We also determined the expression changes under supplemental far-red illumination and established that the transcript accumulation had appeared four hours earlier and more intensely in several cases. Based on our results, we propose a model to illustrate the effect of the circadian clock and the quality of the light on the elements of signalling pathways upstream of the HvCBFs, thus integrating the complex regulation of the early cellular responses, which finally lead to an elevated abiotic stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Sulfur Protects Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) Seedlings against Cadmium Stress by Regulating Ascorbate-Glutathione Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081628 - 26 Jul 2017
Cited by 13
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) pollution in food chains pose a potential health risk for humans. Sulfur (S) is a significant macronutrient that plays a significant role in the regulation of plant responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) pollution in food chains pose a potential health risk for humans. Sulfur (S) is a significant macronutrient that plays a significant role in the regulation of plant responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about the impact of S application on ascorbate-glutathione metabolism (ASA-GSH cycle) of Pakchoi plants under Cd stress. The two previously identified genotypes, namely, Aikangqing (a Cd-tolerant cultivar) and Qibaoqing (a Cd-sensitive cultivar), were utilized to investigate the role of S to mitigate Cd toxicity in Pakchoi plants under different Cd regimes. Results showed that Cd stress inhibited plant growth and induced oxidative stress. Exogenous application of S significantly increased the tolerance of Pakchoi seedlings suffering from Cd stress. This effect was demonstrated by increased growth parameters; stimulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes and upregulated genes involved in the ASA-GSH cycle and S assimilation; and by the enhanced ASA, GSH, phytochelatins, and nonprotein thiol production. This study shows that applying S nutrition can mitigate Cd toxicity in Pakchoi plants which has the potential in assisting the development of breeding strategies aimed at limiting Cd phytoaccumulation and decreasing Cd hazards in the food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
BrWRKY65, a WRKY Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Three Leaf Senescence-Associated Genes in Chinese Flowering Cabbage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061228 - 08 Jun 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to function as regulators of leaf senescence, but their association with postharvest leaf senescence of economically important leafy vegetables, is poorly understood. In this work, the characterization of a Group IIe WRKY TF, BrWRKY65, from [...] Read more.
Plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to function as regulators of leaf senescence, but their association with postharvest leaf senescence of economically important leafy vegetables, is poorly understood. In this work, the characterization of a Group IIe WRKY TF, BrWRKY65, from Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) is reported. The expression of BrWRKY65 was up-regulated following leaf chlorophyll degradation and yellowing during postharvest senescence. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation assays showed that BrWRKY65 was localized in the nucleus and exhibited trans-activation ability. Further electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and transient expression analysis clearly revealed that BrWRKY65 directly bound to the W-box motifs in the promoters of three senescence-associated genes (SAGs) such as BrNYC1 and BrSGR1 associated with chlorophyll degradation, and BrDIN1, and subsequently activated their expressions. These findings demonstrate that BrWRKY65 may be positively associated with postharvest leaf senescence, at least partially, by the direct activation of SAGs. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of postharvest leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Photoreceptor PhyB Involved in Arabidopsis Temperature Perception and Heat-Tolerance Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061194 - 05 Jun 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
The influence of temperature on plants is essential. However, our knowledge on the intricate regulation process underlying heat stress (HS) response in plants is limited. Recently, information about thermal sensors in vivo has begun to emerge. In this study, another primary environmental stimulus, [...] Read more.
The influence of temperature on plants is essential. However, our knowledge on the intricate regulation process underlying heat stress (HS) response in plants is limited. Recently, information about thermal sensors in vivo has begun to emerge. In this study, another primary environmental stimulus, light, was verified once again to work with temperature synergistically on plants, through the modulation of numerous biological processes. With the application of transcriptomic analysis, a substantial number of heat-responsive genes were detected involved in both light- and phytohormone-mediated pathways in Arabidopsis. During this process, phytoreceptor phyB acts as a molecular switch to turn on or turn off several other genes HS response, under different light conditions. Furthermore, a morphological study showed the afunction of phyB enhanced plants thermal tolerance, confirming the important role of this phytochrome in temperature perception and response in plants. This study adds data to the picture of light and temperature signaling cross-talk in plants, which is important for the exploration of complicated HS responses or light-mediated mechanisms. Furthermore, based on its influence on Arabidopsis thermal response in both morphological and physiological levels, phyB is a photoreceptor, as revealed before, as well as an essential thermal sensor in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of Tomato GRF Transcription Factor Family Genes in Response to Abiotic Stresses and Phytohormones
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051056 - 13 May 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in diverse biological and physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress and hormone responses. However, the roles of GRFs in vegetative and reproductive growth, development and stress responses in tomato ( [...] Read more.
Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in diverse biological and physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress and hormone responses. However, the roles of GRFs in vegetative and reproductive growth, development and stress responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) have not been extensively explored. In this study, we characterized the 13 SlGRF genes. In silico analysis of protein motif organization, intron–exon distribution, and phylogenetic classification confirmed the presence of GRF proteins in tomato. The tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that most of the SlGRF genes were preferentially expressed in young and growing tissues such as flower buds and meristems, suggesting that SlGRFs are important during growth and development of these tissues. Some of the SlGRF genes were preferentially expressed in fruits at distinct developmental stages suggesting their involvement in fruit development and the ripening process. The strong and differential expression of different SlGRFs under NaCl, drought, heat, cold, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, predict possible functions for these genes in stress responses in addition to their growth regulatory functions. Further, differential expression of SlGRF genes upon gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment indicates their probable function in flower development and stress responses through a gibberellic acid (GA)-mediated pathway. The results of this study provide a basis for further functional analysis and characterization of this important gene family in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Ectopic Expression of Aeluropus littoralis Plasma Membrane Protein Gene AlTMP1 Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco by Improving Water Status and Cation Homeostasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040692 - 24 Mar 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance [...] Read more.
We report here the isolation and functional analysis of AlTMP1 gene encoding a member of the PMP3 protein family. In Aeluropus littoralis, AlTMP1 is highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), cold, salt, and osmotic stresses. Transgenic tobacco expressing AlTMP1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, osmotic, H2O2, heat and freezing stresses at the seedling stage. Under greenhouse conditions, the transgenic plants showed a higher level of tolerance to drought than to salinity. Noteworthy, AlTMP1 plants yielded two- and five-fold more seeds than non-transgenic plants (NT) under salt and drought stresses, respectively. The leaves of AlTMP1 plants accumulated lower Na+ but higher K+ and Ca2+ than those of NT plants. Tolerance to osmotic and salt stresses was associated with higher membrane stability, low electrolyte leakage, and improved water status. Finally, accumulation of AlTMP1 in tobacco altered the regulation of some stress-related genes in either a positive (NHX1, CAT1, APX1, and DREB1A) or negative (HKT1 and KT1) manner that could be related to the observed tolerance. These results suggest that AlTMP1 confers stress tolerance in tobacco through maintenance of ion homeostasis, increased membrane integrity, and water status. The observed tolerance may be due to a direct or indirect effect of AlTMP1 on the expression of stress-related genes which could stimulate an adaptive potential not present in NT plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Analysis of Rice Laccase Gene (OsLAC) Family and Ectopic Expression of OsLAC10 Enhances Tolerance to Copper Stress in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020209 - 30 Jan 2017
Cited by 16
Abstract
Laccases are encoded by a multigene family and widely distributed in plant genomes where they play roles oxidizing monolignols to produce higher-order lignin involved in plant development and stress responses. We identified 30 laccase genes (OsLACs) from rice, which can be [...] Read more.
Laccases are encoded by a multigene family and widely distributed in plant genomes where they play roles oxidizing monolignols to produce higher-order lignin involved in plant development and stress responses. We identified 30 laccase genes (OsLACs) from rice, which can be divided into five subfamilies, mostly expressed during early development of the endosperm, growing roots, and stems. OsLACs can be induced by hormones, salt, drought, and heavy metals stresses. The expression level of OsLAC10 increased 1200-fold after treatment with 20 μM Cu for 12 h. The laccase activities of OsLAC10 were confirmed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Lignin accumulation increased in the roots of Arabidopsis over-expressing OsLAC10 (OsLAC10-OX) compared to wild-type controls. After growth on 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing toxic levels of Cu for seven days, roots of the OsLAC10-OX lines were significantly longer than those of the wild type. Compared to control plants, the Cu concentration decreased significantly in roots of the OsLAC10-OX line under hydroponic conditions. These results provided insights into the evolutionary expansion and functional divergence of OsLAC family. In addition, OsLAC10 is likely involved in lignin biosynthesis, and reduces the uptake of Cu into roots required for Arabidopsis to develop tolerance to Cu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2017)
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