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Old and New Mechanisms of Microbial Drug Resistance

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 May 2023) | Viewed by 2723

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biology and Biotechnology “Lazzaro Spallanzani”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: mycobacteria; tuberculosis; infection diseases; early drug discovery; nontuberculous mycobacteria; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium abscessus
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2017, WHO declared the critical need for research for new antibiotics to fight microbial drug resistance. In addition, WHO recently highlighted that the rise of antimicrobial resistance has been reinforced by the inappropriate use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, international action plans for fighting antimicrobial resistance should be mandatory in the post-COVID-19 era.

Worldwide, more than a million people die each year from infections that do not respond to drugs, and scientists estimate that annual deaths will exceed 10 million by 2050.

According to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) report, infections caused by drug-resistant microorganisms increased by 15% during the first year of the pandemic. In particular, some nosocomial pathogens are on the rise in intensive care and are of great concern to health authorities; these include antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (increased by 78%) and the fungus Candida auris (increased by 60%). Bacteria, like viruses, develop mutations that are then selected by the environment; if the environment is full of antibiotics, the mutations that make the bacteria resistant to them will be favored.

Therefore, the study and the better understanding of the mechanisms related to microbial drug resistance could help us to look for novel strategies to surpass this problem.

Prof. Dr. Maria Rosalia Pasca
Dr. Giulia Degiacomi
Dr. Chiarelli Laurent
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • multidrug resistance
  • new drugs
  • bacterial pathogens
  • mycobacteria

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

21 pages, 2453 KiB  
Review
COVID-19 and Diarylamidines: The Parasitic Connection
by John Hulme
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(7), 6583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24076583 - 01 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2340
Abstract
As emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants (Omicron) continue to outpace and negate combinatorial vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies targeting the spike protein (S) receptor binding domain (RBD), the appetite for developing similar COVID-19 treatments has significantly diminished, with the [...] Read more.
As emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants (Omicron) continue to outpace and negate combinatorial vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies targeting the spike protein (S) receptor binding domain (RBD), the appetite for developing similar COVID-19 treatments has significantly diminished, with the attention of the scientific community switching to long COVID treatments. However, treatments that reduce the risk of “post-COVID-19 syndrome” and associated sequelae remain in their infancy, particularly as no established criteria for diagnosis currently exist. Thus, alternative therapies that reduce infection and prevent the broad range of symptoms associated with ‘post-COVID-19 syndrome’ require investigation. This review begins with an overview of the parasitic–diarylamidine connection, followed by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSSR2) involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Subsequently, the ability of diarylamidines to inhibit S-protein binding and various membrane serine proteases associated with SARS-CoV-2 and parasitic infections are discussed. Finally, the roles of diarylamidines (primarily DIZE) in vaccine efficacy, epigenetics, and the potential amelioration of long COVID sequelae are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Old and New Mechanisms of Microbial Drug Resistance)
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