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Special Issue "G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Their Kinases in Cell Biology and Disease 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alessandro Cannavo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Center for Translational Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
Interests: Cardiovascular Disease; G protein coupled receptor; Neurodegenerative disorders; Periodontitis; Pharmacology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past three decades, since Nobel prize winners Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka characterized the structure of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plenty of clinical and pharmacological evidence has advanced our knowledge around how these receptors, and their signaling pathways, influence almost every aspect of mammals’ physiology. Indeed, GPCRs can transduce cellular signals from neurohormones, sensory stimuli, and ions, and their activity is directly modulated by GPCR kinases (GRKs) by phosphorylation and subsequent desensitization. Nevertheless, an alteration in GRKs’ expression, with subsequent GPCR dysfunction, may induce, or at least influence, the development and progression of different systemic disorders. Thus, several drugs which are able to directly inhibit or enhance GPCR signaling have been developed and are currently used in clinical practice.

This Special Issue is calling for both original articles and reviews providing to the readers of IJMS a comprehensive elucidation of GPCR and GRK functions in cell biology necessary for developing novel research approaches as well as therapeutic strategies.

Dr. Alessandro Cannavo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cell biology
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • G protein-coupled receptor
  • GRK Ischemia
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Inflammation
  • Metabolism
  • Pharmacology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
ERα36–GPER1 Collaboration Inhibits TLR4/NFκB-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activity in Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147603 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Inflammation is important for the initiation and progression of breast cancer. We have previously reported that in monocytes, estrogen regulates TLR4/NFκB-mediated inflammation via the interaction of the Erα isoform ERα36 with GPER1. We therefore investigated whether a similar mechanism is present in breast [...] Read more.
Inflammation is important for the initiation and progression of breast cancer. We have previously reported that in monocytes, estrogen regulates TLR4/NFκB-mediated inflammation via the interaction of the Erα isoform ERα36 with GPER1. We therefore investigated whether a similar mechanism is present in breast cancer epithelial cells, and the effect of ERα36 expression on the classic 66 kD ERα isoform (ERα66) functions. We report that estrogen inhibits LPS-induced NFκB activity and the expression of downstream molecules TNFα and IL-6. In the absence of ERα66, ERα36 and GPER1 are both indispensable for this effect. In the presence of ERα66, ERα36 or GPER1 knock-down partially inhibits NFκB-mediated inflammation. In both cases, ERα36 overexpression enhances the inhibitory effect of estrogen on inflammation. We also verify that ERα36 and GPER1 physically interact, especially after LPS treatment, and that GPER1 interacts directly with NFκB. When both ERα66 and ERα36 are expressed, the latter acts as an inhibitor of ERα66 via its binding to estrogen response elements. We also report that the activation of ERα36 leads to the inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. Our data support that ERα36 is an inhibitory estrogen receptor that, in collaboration with GPER1, inhibits NFκB-mediated inflammation and ERα66 actions in breast cancer cells. Full article
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Article
Functional Characterization of the Obesity-Linked Variant of the β3-Adrenergic Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115721 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Adrenergic receptor β3 (ADRβ3) is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor family. The binding of the ligand to ADRβ3 activates adenylate cyclase and increases cAMP in the cells. ADRβ3 is highly expressed in white and brown [...] Read more.
Adrenergic receptor β3 (ADRβ3) is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor family. The binding of the ligand to ADRβ3 activates adenylate cyclase and increases cAMP in the cells. ADRβ3 is highly expressed in white and brown adipocytes and controls key regulatory pathways of lipid metabolism. Trp64Arg (W64R) polymorphism in the ADRβ3 is associated with the early development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, lower resting metabolic rate, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance. It is unclear how the substitution of W64R affects the functioning of ADRβ3. This study was initiated to functionally characterize this obesity-linked variant of ADRβ3. We evaluated in detail the expression, subcellular distribution, and post-activation behavior of the WT and W64R ADRβ3 using single cell quantitative fluorescence microscopy. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, ADRβ3 shows a typical distribution displayed by other GPCRs with a predominant localization at the cell surface. Unlike adrenergic receptor β2 (ADRβ2), agonist-induced desensitization of ADRβ3 does not involve loss of cell surface expression. WT and W64R variant of ADRβ3 displayed comparable biochemical properties, and there was no significant impact of the substitution of tryptophan with arginine on the expression, cellular distribution, signaling, and post-activation behavior of ADRβ3. The obesity-linked W64R variant of ADRβ3 is indistinguishable from the WT ADRβ3 in terms of expression, cellular distribution, signaling, and post-activation behavior. Full article
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Article
Deregulation of Ca2+-Signaling Systems in White Adipocytes, Manifested as the Loss of Rhythmic Activity, Underlies the Development of Multiple Hormonal Resistance at Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105109 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Various types of cells demonstrate ubiquitous rhythmicity registered as simple and complex Ca2+-oscillations, spikes, waves, and triggering phenomena mediated by G-protein and tyrosine kinase coupled receptors. Phospholipase C/IP3-receptors (PLC/IP3R) and endothelial NO-synthase/Ryanodine receptors (NOS/RyR)–dependent Ca2+ signaling [...] Read more.
Various types of cells demonstrate ubiquitous rhythmicity registered as simple and complex Ca2+-oscillations, spikes, waves, and triggering phenomena mediated by G-protein and tyrosine kinase coupled receptors. Phospholipase C/IP3-receptors (PLC/IP3R) and endothelial NO-synthase/Ryanodine receptors (NOS/RyR)–dependent Ca2+ signaling systems, organized as multivariate positive feedback generators (PLC-G and NOS-G), underlie this rhythmicity. Loss of rhythmicity at obesity may indicate deregulation of these signaling systems. To issue the impact of cell size, receptors’ interplay, and obesity on the regulation of PLC-G and NOS-G, we applied fluorescent microscopy, immunochemical staining, and inhibitory analysis using cultured adipocytes of epididumal white adipose tissue of mice. Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, atrial natriuretic peptide, bradykinin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin II, and insulin evoked complex [Ca2+]i responses in adipocytes, implicating NOS-G or PLC-G. At low sub-threshold concentrations, acetylcholine and norepinephrine or acetylcholine and peptide hormones (in paired combinations) recruited NOS-G, based on G proteins subunits interplay and signaling amplification. Rhythmicity was cell size- dependent and disappeared in hypertrophied cells filled with lipids. Contrary to control cells, adipocytes of obese hyperglycemic and hypertensive mice, growing on glucose, did not accumulate lipids and demonstrated hormonal resistance being non responsive to any hormone applied. Preincubation of preadipocytes with palmitoyl-L-carnitine (100 nM) provided accumulation of lipids, increased expression and clustering of IP3R and RyR proteins, and partially restored hormonal sensitivity and rhythmicity (5–15% vs. 30–80% in control cells), while adipocytes of diabetic mice were not responsive at all. Here, we presented a detailed kinetic model of NOS-G and discussed its control. Collectively, we may suggest that universal mechanisms underlie loss of rhythmicity, Ca2+-signaling systems deregulation, and development of general hormonal resistance to obesity. Full article
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Review

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Review
The LPA3 Receptor: Regulation and Activation of Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136704 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The lysophosphatidic acid 3 receptor (LPA3) participates in different physiological actions and in the pathogenesis of many diseases through the activation of different signal pathways. Knowledge of the regulation of the function of the LPA3 receptor is a crucial element [...] Read more.
The lysophosphatidic acid 3 receptor (LPA3) participates in different physiological actions and in the pathogenesis of many diseases through the activation of different signal pathways. Knowledge of the regulation of the function of the LPA3 receptor is a crucial element for defining its roles in health and disease. This review describes what is known about the signaling pathways activated in terms of its various actions. Next, we review knowledge on the structure of the LPA3 receptor, the domains found, and the roles that the latter might play in ligand recognition, signaling, and cellular localization. Currently, there is some information on the action of LPA3 in different cells and whole organisms, but very little is known about the regulation of its function. Areas in which there is a gap in our knowledge are indicated in order to further stimulate experimental work on this receptor and on other members of the LPA receptor family. We are convinced that knowledge on how this receptor is activated, the signaling pathways employed and how the receptor internalization and desensitization are controlled will help design new therapeutic interventions for treating diseases in which the LPA3 receptor is implicated. Full article
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Review
New Structural Perspectives in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Src Family Kinase Activation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126489 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Src family kinases (SFKs) are key regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The expression of these non-receptor tyrosine kinases is strongly correlated with cancer development and tumor progression. Thus, this family of proteins serves as an attractive drug target. The activation of [...] Read more.
Src family kinases (SFKs) are key regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The expression of these non-receptor tyrosine kinases is strongly correlated with cancer development and tumor progression. Thus, this family of proteins serves as an attractive drug target. The activation of SFKs can occur via multiple signaling pathways, yet many of them are poorly understood. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated regulation of SFKs, which is of considerable interest because GPCRs are among the most widely used pharmaceutical targets. This type of activation can occur through a direct interaction between the two proteins or be allosterically regulated by arrestins and G proteins. We postulate that a rearrangement of binding motifs within the active conformation of arrestin-3 mediates Src regulation by comparison of available crystal structures. Therefore, we hypothesize a potentially different activation mechanism compared to arrestin-2. Furthermore, we discuss the probable direct regulation of SFK by GPCRs and investigate the intracellular domains of exemplary GPCRs with conserved polyproline binding motifs that might serve as scaffolding domains to allow such a direct interaction. Large intracellular domains in GPCRs are often understudied and, in general, not much is known of their contribution to different signaling pathways. The suggested direct interaction between a GPCR and a SFK could allow for a potential immediate allosteric regulation of SFKs by GPCRs and thereby unravel a novel mechanism of SFK signaling. This overview will help to identify new GPCR–SFK interactions, which could serve to explain biological functions or be used to modulate downstream effectors. Full article
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