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Extracellular Vesicles and Cancer

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 7474

Special Issue Editor

1. Department of Microgravity and Translational Regenerative Medicine, University Clinic for Plastic, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, Otto von Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
2. Research Group "Magdeburger Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung unter Raumfahrt- und Schwerelosigkeitsbedingungen" (MARS), Otto von Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
Interests: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; small EVs; tumor microenvironment; cell-cell crosstalk; immune escape; cancer research; tumor education; immune system; real and simulated microgravity; microgravity-related health problems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the many advances in research and medical care, to date cancer is still a scourge of humanity. According to the Agency for Research on Cancer an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths occurred in 2020 worldwide. The disease’s heterogeneity in regard to the causes, development, progression, and immune escape are reasons for the need of wide-ranging approaches  in research.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have become a fast-growing focal point in biomedical research over the last decade, as they show high potential as biomarkers and in clinical applications due to their emerging roles in disease as well as normal physiology. This family of membrane vesicles are secreted into the extracellular environment by the majority of (if not all) cells and functionally mediate cell-cell communication. Numerous studies on the role of EVs in the tumour environment have shown their involvement in the modulation of immune and therapy response, the promote matrix remodelling as well as angiogenesis. Furthermore, EVs regulate tumorigenesis by increasing tumour cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy, and migration. Their importance as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis, and their promise to a variety of future therapeutic approaches for a wide array of diseases even aside from cancer is apparent.

Dr. Petra Wise
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles
  • exosomes
  • cell microenvironment
  • cell-cell crosstalk
  • cancer research
  • immune escape
  • microgravity research
  • translational regenerative medicine

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1325 KiB  
Communication
In Vitro Interaction of Melanoma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles with Collagen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043703 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles are now considered as active contributors to melanoma progression through their capacity to modify the tumor microenvironment and to favor the formation of a pre-metastatic niche. These prometastatic roles of tumor-derived EVs would pass through their interaction with the extracellular matrix [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles are now considered as active contributors to melanoma progression through their capacity to modify the tumor microenvironment and to favor the formation of a pre-metastatic niche. These prometastatic roles of tumor-derived EVs would pass through their interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its remodeling, in turn providing a substrate favoring persistent tumor cell migration. Nevertheless, the capacity of EVs to directly interact with ECM components is still questionable. In this study, we use electron microscopy and a pull-down assay to test the capacity of sEVs, derived from different melanoma cell lines, to physically interact with collagen I. We were able to generate collagen fibrils coated with sEVs and to show that melanoma cells release subpopulations of sEVs that can differentially interact with collagen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Cancer)
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14 pages, 4496 KiB  
Article
Extracellular Vesicles Released from Cancer Cells Promote Tumorigenesis by Inducing Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition via β-Catenin Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043500 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, in part due to a lack of early diagnostic tools and effective pharmacological interventions. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-based membrane-bound particles released from all living cells in both physiological and pathological states. To [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, in part due to a lack of early diagnostic tools and effective pharmacological interventions. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-based membrane-bound particles released from all living cells in both physiological and pathological states. To understand the effects of lung-cancer-derived EVs on healthy cells, we isolated and characterized EVs derived from A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and transferred them to healthy human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBe14o). We found that A549-derived EVs carry oncogenic proteins involved in the pathway of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that are regulated by β-catenin. The exposure of 16HBe14o cells to A549-derived EVs resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via upregulating EMT markers such as E-Cadherin, Snail, and Vimentin and cell adhesion molecules such as CEACAM-5, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, with concomitant downregulation of EpCAM. Our study suggests a role for cancer-cell-derived EVs to induce tumorigenesis in adjacent healthy cells by promoting EMT via β-catenin signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Cancer)
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Review

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21 pages, 1573 KiB  
Review
Extracellular Vesicles-Based Cell-Cell Communication in Melanoma: New Perspectives in Diagnostics and Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24020965 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of cell-secreted particles that carry cargo of functional biomolecules crucial for cell-to-cell communication with both physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review, we focus on evidence demonstrating that the EV-mediated crosstalk between melanoma cells within tumor, [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of cell-secreted particles that carry cargo of functional biomolecules crucial for cell-to-cell communication with both physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review, we focus on evidence demonstrating that the EV-mediated crosstalk between melanoma cells within tumor, between melanoma cells and immune and stromal cells, promotes immune evasion and influences all steps of melanoma development from local progression, pre-metastatic niche formation, to metastatic colonization of distant organs. We also discuss the role of EVs in the development of resistance to immunotherapy and therapy with BRAFV600/MEK inhibitors, and shortly summarize the recent advances on the potential applications of EVs in melanoma diagnostics and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Cancer)
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24 pages, 1051 KiB  
Review
Tumor-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles Involved in Breast Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315236 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most serious and terrifying threats to the health of women. Recent studies have demonstrated that interaction among cancer cells themselves and those with other cells, including immune cells, in a tumor microenvironment potentially and intrinsically regulate and [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most serious and terrifying threats to the health of women. Recent studies have demonstrated that interaction among cancer cells themselves and those with other cells, including immune cells, in a tumor microenvironment potentially and intrinsically regulate and determine cancer progression and metastasis. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), a type of lipid-bilayer particles derived from cells, with a size of less than 200 nm, are recognized as one form of important mediators in cell-to-cell communication. sEVs can transport a variety of bioactive substances, including proteins, RNAs, and lipids. Accumulating evidence has revealed that sEVs play a crucial role in cancer development and progression, with a significant impact on proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. In addition, sEVs systematically coordinate physiological and pathological processes, such as coagulation, vascular leakage, and stromal cell reprogramming, to bring about premetastatic niche formation and to determine metastatic organ tropism. There are a variety of oncogenic factors in tumor-derived sEVs that mediate cellular communication between local stromal cells and distal microenvironment, both of which are important in cancer progression and metastasis. Tumor-derived sEVs contain substances that are similar to parental tumor cells, and as such, sEVs could be biomarkers in cancer progression and potential therapeutic targets, particularly for predicting and preventing future metastatic development. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the regulation by tumor-derived sEVs on cancer development and progression, including proliferation, metastasis, drug resistance, and immunosuppression, which coordinately shape the pro-metastatic microenvironment. In addition, we describe the application of sEVs to the development of cancer biomarkers and potential therapeutic modalities and discuss how they can be engineered and translated into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Cancer)
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