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Adaptations of Plant Metabolism and Their Consequences on Nutritive Potential and Bioactivity

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 August 2024 | Viewed by 4178

Special Issue Editor

Department of Biology, Division of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Marulićev trg 9a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: phytochemistry; plant specialized metabolites; plant extract bioactivity; biotic stress; abiotic stress
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasingly pronounced changes in environmental conditions that occur due to climate change (high/low temperatures, drought/flooding), anthropogenic influence (such as the use of pesticides, planting monocultures, enriching the soil with minerals, water pollution, etc.), and the appearance of various pathogens (bacteria, viruses, viroids, fungi, phytoplasmas, etc.) inevitably affect plant organisms. In order to survive these conditions, plants adapt their primary (gene expression, protein, carbohydrate and lipid profile) and specialized metabolism (phenolics, glucosinolates, vitamins, etc.). Such adaptations could have profound consequences on the nutritional value of plants and bioactivity of their extracts as well.

In this Special Issue, the contributing authors explore changes in plants’ primary and specialized metabolisms under the influence of environmental pressure. They investigate the potential of adaptation in different stages of plant development, among different plant varieties, under the influence of short or constant, sudden or gradual stress, etc. The approaches employed include different techniques and methods, such as HPLC, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS, NMR, ICP-MS, spectrophotometry, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, NGS, etc. They also investigate potential consequences of such changes on the nutritional value of plant material, as well as the biological effects of its extracts using methods like MTT assay, neutral red, comet assay, effects on enzymes activity, etc. Manuscripts describing different models of prediction are welcome.

Dr. Ivana Sola
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • plant primary metabolism
  • plant specialized metabolism
  • phytochemistry
  • plant bioactive components
  • plant metabolic plasticity
  • plant nutritional value
  • bioactivity of plant extracts
  • plant–stress response
  • abiotic stress
  • climate change
  • global warming
  • environmental pressure
  • biotic stress
  • anthropogenic influence on plant metabolites
  • predictive models

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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26 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Adjustments of the Phytochemical Profile of Broccoli to Low and High Growing Temperatures: Implications for the Bioactivity of Its Extracts
by Ivana Šola, Daria Gmižić, Marija Pinterić, Ana Tot and Jutta Ludwig-Müller
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(7), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25073677 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Climate change causes shifts in temperature patterns, and plants adapt their chemical content in order to survive. We compared the effect of low (LT) and high (HT) growing temperatures on the phytochemical content of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L.) Alef. [...] Read more.
Climate change causes shifts in temperature patterns, and plants adapt their chemical content in order to survive. We compared the effect of low (LT) and high (HT) growing temperatures on the phytochemical content of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. convar. botrytis (L.) Alef. var. cymosa Duch.) microgreens and the bioactivity of their extracts. Using different spectrophotometric, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and statistical methods, we found that LT increased the total phenolics and tannins in broccoli. The total glucosinolates were also increased by LT; however, they were decreased by HT. Soluble sugars, known osmoprotectants, were increased by both types of stress, considerably more by HT than LT, suggesting that HT causes a more intense osmotic imbalance. Both temperatures were detrimental for chlorophyll, with HT being more impactful than LT. HT increased hormone indole-3-acetic acid, implying an important role in broccoli’s defense. Ferulic and sinapic acid showed a trade-off scheme: HT increased ferulic while LT increased sinapic acid. Both stresses decreased the potential of broccoli to act against H2O2 damage in mouse embryonal fibroblasts (MEF), human keratinocytes, and liver cancer cells. Among the tested cell types treated by H2O2, the most significant reduction in ROS (36.61%) was recorded in MEF cells treated with RT extracts. The potential of broccoli extracts to inhibit α-amylase increased following both temperature stresses; however, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase was increased by LT only. From the perspective of nutritional value, and based on the obtained results, we conclude that LT conditions result in more nutritious broccoli microgreens than HT. Full article
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17 pages, 1559 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Response of Peach Fruit to Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål.)’s Infestation
by Sasa Gacnik, Denis Rusjan and Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(1), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010606 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys Stål.) is a highly destructive and polyphagous invasive pest that poses a serious threat to more than a hundred reported host plants. In the current study, the metabolic response of peach fruit of two cultivars—‘Maria [...] Read more.
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys Stål.) is a highly destructive and polyphagous invasive pest that poses a serious threat to more than a hundred reported host plants. In the current study, the metabolic response of peach fruit of two cultivars—‘Maria Marta’ and ‘Redhaven’—to BMSB infestation was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). In general, a strong phenolic response to BMSB infestation in peach flesh in the injury zone was observed, with flavanol content increasing by 2.4-fold, hydroxycinnamic acid content by 5.0-fold, flavonol content by 3.2-fold, flavanone content by 11.3-fold, and dihydrochalcones content by 3.2-fold compared with the undamaged tissue in the cultivar ‘Maria Marta’. The phenolic response in the ‘Redhaven’ cultivar was even stronger. Consequently, the total phenolic content in the injured flesh also increased, 3.3-fold in ‘Maria Marta’ and 6.9-fold in ‘Redhaven’, compared with the uninjured flesh. Infestation with BMSB induced the synthesis of cyanidin-3-glucoside, which is not normally present in peach flesh. In comparison, the phenolic response was lower in peach peel, especially in the cultivar ‘Maria Marta’. The study showed that both peach cultivars reacted to BMSB infestation with an increase in phenolic content in the peach flesh, but in a limited area of injury. Full article
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19 pages, 2802 KiB  
Article
Studying the Functional Potential of Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.) Extract Using an In Vitro Methodology
by Danijela Šeremet, Ksenija Durgo, Jelena Kosanović, Ana Huđek Turković, Ana Mandura Jarić, Aleksandra Vojvodić Cebin and Draženka Komes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316975 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Glechoma hederacea L., known as ground ivy, has a long history of use in folk medicine. The main bioactive compounds in ground ivy are polyphenolic compounds known for their potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and thus have high potential as functional ingredients against [...] Read more.
Glechoma hederacea L., known as ground ivy, has a long history of use in folk medicine. The main bioactive compounds in ground ivy are polyphenolic compounds known for their potent antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and thus have high potential as functional ingredients against bacterial infections and the occurrence of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress in the human body. The aim of the present study was to determine the biological activity of ground ivy extract on selected human cell lines, including hepatic (HepG2), tongue (CAL 27), gastric (AGS) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines by evaluating cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species and genotoxicity. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was additionally evaluated using cellular model macromolecules of protein and DNA, bovine serum album and plasmid phiX174 RF1 DNA. The effect of ground ivy extract on representatives of human microflora, including L. plantarum, E. coli and S. aureus, was also studied. The cytotoxicity of the extract depended on the type of cells treated, and the pro-oxidant effect generally decreased with increasing exposure time. The most pronounced genoprotective effect against hydroxyl radical damage was monitored in model plasmid DNA and occurred at the highest tested concentration (0.25 mg mL−1), with 95.89% preservation of the supercoiled form of the plasmid. This concentration also had the most significant antioxidant activity on the model protein—14.01% more than the positive control prepared using Trolox. The ground ivy extract showed high antimicrobial potential against the pathogenic bacteria E. coli and S. aureus. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 1353 KiB  
Review
Environmental Stimuli and Phytohormones in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis: A Comprehensive Review
by Lei Shi, Xing Li, Ying Fu and Changjiang Li
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(22), 16415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242216415 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Anthocyanin accumulation in plants plays important roles in plant growth and development, as well as the response to environmental stresses. Anthocyanins have antioxidant properties and play an important role in maintaining the reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in plant cells. Furthermore, anthocyanins also [...] Read more.
Anthocyanin accumulation in plants plays important roles in plant growth and development, as well as the response to environmental stresses. Anthocyanins have antioxidant properties and play an important role in maintaining the reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in plant cells. Furthermore, anthocyanins also act as a “sunscreen”, reducing the damage caused by ultraviolet radiation under high-light conditions. The biosynthesis of anthocyanin in plants is mainly regulated by an MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex. In recent years, many new regulators in different signals involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified. This review focuses on the regulation network mediated by different environmental factors (such as light, salinity, drought, and cold stresses) and phytohormones (such as jasmonate, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroid, strigolactone, cytokinin, and auxin). We also discuss the potential application value of anthocyanin in agriculture, horticulture, and the food industry. Full article
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