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Special Issue "Chemistry towards Biology"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 17723

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Josef Jampilek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia
2. Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: medicinal chemistry; drug design; structure-–activity relationships; pharmaceutical analysis; polymorphism; drug bioavailability; ADME; nanoparticles; nanoformulations; controlled/targeted delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Miloš Hricovini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia
Interests: carbohydrate structure; dynamics; intermolecular interactions; high-resolution NMR; theoretical analysis of biomolecular structure; DFT

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 10th Central European Conference, “Chemistry towards Biology” (CTB10)/Instruct-ULTRA, will be held at Hotel Tatra, Bratislava, Slovak Republic probably on September, 2022.

The Chemistry towards Biology is the 10th continuation of the series of successful meetings aimed at the exchange of scientific results and ideas in the fields of chemistry and biology. Instruct-ULTRA supports advances in structural biology research, particularly linking atomic structure with molecular properties and cellular context. As these two meetings will be organized together, the theme of this year's Conference will be "Biomolecular structure” and will cover primarily topics – structure and dynamics of biomolecules, intermolecular interactions, experimental and theoretical methods in biomolecular research.

The aim of both structural biology meetings is to develop a platform for scientific contacts between researchers dealing with biomolecules and biomedical sciences from European and other countries, and to support cooperation between scientists in this field. For all details, please see https://www.instruct.sav.sk/index.html.

This meeting has the ambition to build on previous successful years rich in the international participation of scientists from up to 20 countries around the world. The organizers understand that unfortunately, due to the epidemic of COVID-19, the current  border closure and overall limited travel, potential conference participants would face difficulties with active participation. However, they are cordially invited to participate, if the situation allows.

Conference participants are invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, which was created specifically for this conference. Given the pandemic situation and the hospitality of the Editorial Office of the journal, we can announce that this issue is now open to all scientists in respective fields without the condition of attending this conference, although, as mentioned above, we expect the conference to take place. Unfortunately, those who do not attend the conference cannot use a 25% discount for their submission, as mentioned below.

Therefore, we invite scientists from all over the world, whose scientific field covers some of the keywords below, not to hesitate and participate in this Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences called "Chemistry towards Biology".

Prof. Dr. Josef Jampilek
Dr. Miloš Hricovini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Structure of biomolecules
  • Dynamics of biomolecules
  • Intermolecular interactions
  • Theoretical analysis of biomolecular structure
  • Solid state analysis
  • Biophysical methods
  • Molecular biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemical biology
  • Design bioactive molecules
  • Targeting

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Study of Biological Activities and ADMET-Related Properties of Novel Chlorinated N-arylcinnamamides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063159 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 465
Abstract
A series of eighteen 4-chlorocinnamanilides and eighteen 3,4-dichlorocinnamanilides were designed, prepared and characterized. All compounds were evaluated for their activity against gram-positive bacteria and against two mycobacterial strains. Viability on both cancer and primary mammalian cell lines was also assessed. The lipophilicity of [...] Read more.
A series of eighteen 4-chlorocinnamanilides and eighteen 3,4-dichlorocinnamanilides were designed, prepared and characterized. All compounds were evaluated for their activity against gram-positive bacteria and against two mycobacterial strains. Viability on both cancer and primary mammalian cell lines was also assessed. The lipophilicity of the compounds was experimentally determined and correlated together with other physicochemical properties of the prepared derivatives with biological activity. 3,4-Dichlorocinnamanilides showed a broader spectrum of action and higher antibacterial efficacy than 4-chlorocinnamanilides; however, all compounds were more effective or comparable to clinically used drugs (ampicillin, isoniazid, rifampicin). Of the thirty-six compounds, six derivatives showed submicromolar activity against Staphylococcus aureus and clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). (2E)-N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]- 3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enamide was the most potent in series 1. (2E)-N-[3,5-bis(Trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)prop-2-enamide, (2E)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop-2-enamide, (2E)-3-(3,4-dichloro- phenyl)-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop-2-enamide and (2E)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- N-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]prop-2-enamide were the most active in series 2 and in addition to activity against S. aureus and MRSA were highly active against Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis isolates and against fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis and against slow-growing M. marinum, M. tuberculosis non-hazardous test models. In addition, the last three compounds of the above-mentioned showed insignificant cytotoxicity to primary porcine monocyte-derived macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Towards Property Profiling: SYNTHESIS and SAR Probing of New Tetracyclic Diazaphenothiazine Analogues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312826 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
A series of new tertiary phenothiazine derivatives containing a quinoline and a pyridine fragment was synthesized by the reaction of 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-butylthioquinolinium chloride with 3-aminopyridine derivatives bearing various substituents on the pyridine ring. The direction and mechanism of the cyclization reaction of intermediates with [...] Read more.
A series of new tertiary phenothiazine derivatives containing a quinoline and a pyridine fragment was synthesized by the reaction of 1-methyl-3-benzoylthio-4-butylthioquinolinium chloride with 3-aminopyridine derivatives bearing various substituents on the pyridine ring. The direction and mechanism of the cyclization reaction of intermediates with the structure of 1-methyl-4-(3-pyridyl)aminoquinolinium-3-thiolate was related to the substituents in the 2- and 4-pyridine position. The structures of the compounds were analyzed using 1H, 13C NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) and X-ray analysis, respectively. Moreover, the antiproliferative activity against tumor cells (A549, T47D, SNB-19) and a normal cell line (NHDF) was tested. The antibacterial screening of all the compounds was conducted against the reference and quality control strain Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, three clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In silico computation of the intermolecular similarity was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) on the pool of structure/property-related descriptors calculated for the novel tetracyclic diazaphenothiazine derivatives. The distance-oriented property evaluation was correlated with the experimental anticancer activities and empirical lipophilicity as well. The quantitative shape-based comparison was conducted using the CoMSA method in order to indicate the potentially valid steric, electronic and lipophilic properties. Finally, the numerical sampling of similarity-related activity landscape (SALI) provided a subtle picture of the SAR trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Analysis of Cryopreservation Protocols and Their Harmful Effects on the Endothelial Integrity of Human Corneas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212564 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Corneal cryopreservation can partially solve the worldwide concern regarding donor cornea shortage for keratoplasties. In this study, human corneas were cryopreserved using two standard cryopreservation protocols that are employed in the Tissue Bank of the Teresa Herrera Hospital (Spain) to store corneas for [...] Read more.
Corneal cryopreservation can partially solve the worldwide concern regarding donor cornea shortage for keratoplasties. In this study, human corneas were cryopreserved using two standard cryopreservation protocols that are employed in the Tissue Bank of the Teresa Herrera Hospital (Spain) to store corneas for tectonic keratoplasties (TK protocol) and aortic valves (AV protocol), and two vitrification protocols, VS55 and DP6. Endothelial viability and general corneal state were evaluated to determine the protocol that provides the best results. The potential corneal cryopreservation protocol was studied in detail taking into consideration some cryopreservation-related variables and the endothelial integrity and stroma arrangement of the resulting cryopreserved corneas. TK corneas showed mostly viable endothelial cells, while the others showed few (AV) or none (DP6 and VS55). The corneal structure was well maintained in TK and AV corneas. TK corneas showed endothelial acellular areas surrounded by injured cells and a normal-like stromal fiber arrangement. Cryoprotectant solutions of the TK protocol presented an increasing osmolality and a physiological pH value. Cooling temperature rate of TK protocol was of 1 °C/min to −40 °C and 3 °C/min to −120 °C, and almost all of dimethyl sulfoxide left the tissue after washing. Future studies should be done changing cryopreservation-related variables of the TK protocol to store corneas of optical grade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Synthesis, In Silico Prediction and In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, DFT Calculation and Theoretical Investigation of Novel Xanthines and Uracil Containing Imidazolone Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010979 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
Novel xanthine and imidazolone derivatives were synthesized based on oxazolone derivatives 2a-c as a key intermediate. The corresponding xanthine 3-5 and imidazolone derivatives 6-13 were obtained via reaction of oxazolone derivative 2a-c with 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-e under various conditions. Xanthine compounds 3-5 were obtained [...] Read more.
Novel xanthine and imidazolone derivatives were synthesized based on oxazolone derivatives 2a-c as a key intermediate. The corresponding xanthine 3-5 and imidazolone derivatives 6-13 were obtained via reaction of oxazolone derivative 2a-c with 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-e under various conditions. Xanthine compounds 3-5 were obtained by cyclocondensation of 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-c with different oxazolones in glacial acetic acid. Moreover, 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-e were reacted with oxazolones 2a-c in presence of drops of acetic acid under fused condition yielding the imidazolone derivatives 6-13. Furthermore, Schiff base of compounds 14-16 were obtained by condensing 5,6-diaminouracils 1a,b,e with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in acetic acid. The structural identity of the resulting compounds was resolved by IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR and Mass spectral analyses. The novel synthesized compounds were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3, 6, 13 and 16 displayed the highest activity against Escherichia coli as revealed from the IC50 values (1.8–1.9 µg/mL). The compound 16 displayed a significant antifungal activity against Candia albicans (0.82 µg/mL), Aspergillus flavus (1.2 µg/mL) comparing to authentic antibiotics. From the TEM microgram, the compounds 3, 12, 13 and 16 exhibited a strong deformation to the cellular entities, by interfering with the cell membrane components, causing cytosol leakage, cellular shrinkage and irregularity to the cell shape. In addition, docking study for the most promising antimicrobial tested compounds depicted high binding affinity against acyl carrier protein domain from a fungal type I polyketide synthase (ACP), and Baumannii penicillin- binding protein (PBP). Moreover, compound 12 showed high drug- likeness, and excellent pharmacokinetics, which needs to be in focus for further antimicrobial drug development. The most promising antimicrobial compounds underwent theoretical investigation using DFT calculation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
The Influence of UV Light on Photodegradation of Acetylsalicylic Acid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084046 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Photodegradation of the aqueous solutions of acetylsalicylic acid, in the absence (ASA) and the presence of excipients (ASE), is demonstrated by the photoluminescence (PL). A shift of the PL bands from 342 and 338 nm to 358 and 361–397 nm for ASA and [...] Read more.
Photodegradation of the aqueous solutions of acetylsalicylic acid, in the absence (ASA) and the presence of excipients (ASE), is demonstrated by the photoluminescence (PL). A shift of the PL bands from 342 and 338 nm to 358 and 361–397 nm for ASA and ASE in solid state and as aqueous solutions was reported. By exposure of the solution of ASA 0.3 M to UV light, a decrease in the PL band intensity was highlighted. This behavior was revealed for ASA in the presence of phosphate buffer (PB) having the pH equal to 6.4, 7, and 8 or by the interaction with NaOH 0.3 M. A different behavior was reported in the case of ASE. In the presence of PB, an increase in the intensity of the PL band of ASE simultaneously with a change of the ratio between the intensities of the bands at 361–364 and 394–397 nm was highlighted. The differences between PL spectra of ASA and ASE have their origin in the presence of salicylic acid (SAL). The interaction of ASE with NaOH induces a shift of the PL band at 405–407 nm. Arguments for the reaction of ASA with NaOH are shown by Raman scattering and FTIR spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Structure Driven Prediction of Chromatographic Retention Times: Applications to Pharmaceutical Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083848 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
Pharmaceutical drug development relies heavily on the use of Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography methods. These methods are used to characterize active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products by separating the main component from related substances such as process related impurities or main component degradation products. [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical drug development relies heavily on the use of Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography methods. These methods are used to characterize active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products by separating the main component from related substances such as process related impurities or main component degradation products. The results presented here indicate that retention models based on Quantitative Structure Retention Relationships can be used for de-risking methods used in pharmaceutical analysis and for the identification of optimal conditions for separation of known sample constituents from postulated/hypothetical components. The prediction of retention times for hypothetical components in established methods is highly valuable as these compounds are not usually readily available for analysis. Here we discuss the development and optimization of retention models, selection of the most relevant structural molecular descriptors, regression model building and validation. We also present a practical example applied to chromatographic method development and discuss the accuracy of these models on selection of optimal separation parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Obeticholic Acid Derivative, T-2054 Suppresses Osteoarthritis via Inhibiting NF-κB-Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22083807 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disorder, has been reported as the most common cause of disability worldwide. The production of inflammatory cytokines is the main factor in OA. Previous studies have been reported that obeticholic acid (OCA) and OCA derivatives inhibited the release [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disorder, has been reported as the most common cause of disability worldwide. The production of inflammatory cytokines is the main factor in OA. Previous studies have been reported that obeticholic acid (OCA) and OCA derivatives inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines in acute liver failure, but they have not been studied in the progression of OA. In our study, we screened our small synthetic library of OCA derivatives and found T-2054 had anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells and ATDC5 cells were not affected by T-2054. T-2054 treatment significantly relieved the release of NO, as well as mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, T-2054 promoted extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis in TNF-α-treated ATDC5 chondrocytes. Moreover, T-2054 could relieve the infiltration of inflammatory cells and degeneration of the cartilage matrix and decrease the levels of serum IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in DMM-induced C57BL/6 mice models. At the same time, T-2054 showed no obvious toxicity to mice. Mechanistically, T-2054 decreased the extent of p-p65 expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and TNF-α-treated ATDC5 chondrocytes. In summary, we showed for the first time that T-2054 effectively reduced the release of inflammatory mediators, as well as promoted extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis via the NF-κB-signaling pathway. Our findings support the potential use of T-2054 as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Synthesis and Hybrid SAR Property Modeling of Novel Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073444 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
A library of novel 4-{[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino}-2-hydroxybenzoic acid amides was designed and synthesized in order to provide potential acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) inhibitors; the in vitro inhibitory profile and selectivity index were specified. Benzyl(3-hydroxy-4-{[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]carbamoyl}phenyl)carbamate was the best AChE inhibitor with the inhibitory concentration of IC [...] Read more.
A library of novel 4-{[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]amino}-2-hydroxybenzoic acid amides was designed and synthesized in order to provide potential acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) inhibitors; the in vitro inhibitory profile and selectivity index were specified. Benzyl(3-hydroxy-4-{[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]carbamoyl}phenyl)carbamate was the best AChE inhibitor with the inhibitory concentration of IC50 = 36.05 µM in the series, while benzyl{3-hydroxy-4-[(2-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl}-carbamate was the most potent BChE inhibitor (IC50 = 22.23 µM) with the highest selectivity for BChE (SI = 2.26). The cytotoxic effect was evaluated in vitro for promising AChE/BChE inhibitors. The newly synthesized adducts were subjected to the quantitative shape comparison with the generation of an averaged pharmacophore pattern. Noticeably, three pairs of fairly similar fluorine/bromine-containing compounds can potentially form the activity cliff that is manifested formally by high structure–activity landscape index (SALI) numerical values. The molecular docking study was conducted for the most potent AChE/BChE inhibitors, indicating that the hydrophobic interactions were overwhelmingly generated with Gln119, Asp70, Pro285, Thr120, and Trp82 aminoacid residues, while the hydrogen bond (HB)-donor ones were dominated with Thr120. π-stacking interactions were specified with the Trp82 aminoacid residue of chain A as well. Finally, the stability of chosen liganded enzymatic systems was assessed using the molecular dynamic simulations. An attempt was made to explain the noted differences of the selectivity index for the most potent molecules, especially those bearing unsubstituted and fluorinated methoxy group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Altering the Sex Pheromone Cyclo(l-Pro-l-Pro) of the Diatom Seminavis robusta towards a Chemical Probe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031037 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
As a major group of algae, diatoms are responsible for a substantial part of the primary production on the planet. Pennate diatoms have a predominantly benthic lifestyle and are the most species-rich diatom group, with members of the raphid clades being motile and [...] Read more.
As a major group of algae, diatoms are responsible for a substantial part of the primary production on the planet. Pennate diatoms have a predominantly benthic lifestyle and are the most species-rich diatom group, with members of the raphid clades being motile and generally having heterothallic sexual reproduction. It was recently shown that the model species Seminavis robusta uses multiple sexual cues during mating, including cyclo(l-Pro-l-Pro) as an attraction pheromone. Elaboration of the pheromone-detection system is a key aspect in elucidating pennate diatom life-cycle regulation that could yield novel fundamental insights into diatom speciation. This study reports the synthesis and bio-evaluation of seven novel pheromone analogs containing small structural alterations to the cyclo(l-Pro-l-Pro) pheromone. Toxicity, attraction, and interference assays were applied to assess their potential activity as a pheromone. Most of our analogs show a moderate-to-good bioactivity and low-to-no phytotoxicity. The pheromone activity of azide- and diazirine-containing analogs was unaffected and induced a similar mating behavior as the natural pheromone. These results demonstrate that the introduction of confined structural modifications can be used to develop a chemical probe based on the diazirine- and/or azide-containing analogs to study the pheromone-detection system of S. robusta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and DNA-Protective Potential of 2,3-Substituted Quinazolinones: Structure—Activity Relationship Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020610 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
The evaluation of antioxidant compounds that counteract the mutagenic effects caused by the direct action of reactive oxygen species on DNA molecule is of considerable interest. Therefore, a series of 2,3-substituted quinazolinone derivatives (Q1–Q8) were investigated by different assays, and the relationship between [...] Read more.
The evaluation of antioxidant compounds that counteract the mutagenic effects caused by the direct action of reactive oxygen species on DNA molecule is of considerable interest. Therefore, a series of 2,3-substituted quinazolinone derivatives (Q1–Q8) were investigated by different assays, and the relationship between their biological properties and chemical structure was examined. Genotoxicity and the potential DNA-protective effects of Q1–Q8 were evaluated by comet assay and DNA topology assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by DPPH-radical-scavenging, reducing-power, and total antioxidant status (TAS) assays. The cytotoxic effect of compounds was assessed in human renal epithelial cells (TH-1) and renal carcinoma cells (Caki-1) by MTT assay. Analysis of the structure–activity relationship disclosed significant differences in the activity depending on the substitution pattern. Derivatives Q5–Q8, bearing electron-donating moieties, were the most potent members of this series. Compounds were not genotoxic and considerably decreased the levels of DNA lesions induced by oxidants (H2O2, Fe2+ ions). Furthermore, compounds exhibited higher cytotoxicity in Caki-1 compared to that in TH-1 cells. Substantial antioxidant effect and DNA-protectivity along with the absence of genotoxicity suggested that the studied quinazolinones might represent potential model structures for the development of pharmacologically active agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Advantages and Pitfalls of Capillary Electrophoresis of Pharmaceutical Compounds and Their Enantiomers in Complex Samples: Comparison of Hydrodynamically Opened and Closed Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186852 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Several research disciplines require fast, reliable and highly automated determination of pharmaceutically active compounds and their enantiomers in complex biological matrices. To address some of the challenges of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), such as low concentration sensitivity and performance degradation linked to the adsorption [...] Read more.
Several research disciplines require fast, reliable and highly automated determination of pharmaceutically active compounds and their enantiomers in complex biological matrices. To address some of the challenges of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), such as low concentration sensitivity and performance degradation linked to the adsorption and interference of matrix components, CE in a hydrodynamically closed system was evaluated using the model compounds Pindolol and Propranolol. Some established validation parameters such as repeatability of injection efficiency, resolution and sensitivity were used to assess its performance, and it was found to be broadly identical to that of hydrodynamically opened systems. While some reduction in separation efficiency was observed, this was mainly due to dispersion caused by injection and it had no impact on the ability to resolve enantiomers of model compounds even when spiked into complex biological matrix such as blood serum. An approximately 18- to 23-fold increase in concentration sensitivity due to the employment of wide bore capillaries was observed. This brings the sensitivity of CE to a level similar to that of liquid chromatography techniques. In addition to this benefit and unlike in hydrodynamically opened systems, suppression of electroosmotic flow, which is essential for hydrodynamically closed systems practically eliminates the matrix effects that are linked to protein adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Ternary Cu(II) Complex with GHK Peptide and Cis-Urocanic Acid as a Potential Physiologically Functional Copper Chelate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176190 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
The tripeptide NH2–Gly–His–Lys–COOH (GHK), cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA) and Cu(II) ions are physiological constituents of the human body and they co-occur (e.g., in the skin and the plasma). While GHK is known as Cu(II)-binding molecule, we found that urocanic [...] Read more.
The tripeptide NH2–Gly–His–Lys–COOH (GHK), cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA) and Cu(II) ions are physiological constituents of the human body and they co-occur (e.g., in the skin and the plasma). While GHK is known as Cu(II)-binding molecule, we found that urocanic acid also coordinates Cu(II) ions. Furthermore, both ligands create ternary Cu(II) complex being probably physiologically functional species. Regarding the natural concentrations of the studied molecules in some human tissues, together with the affinities reported here, we conclude that the ternary complex [GHK][Cu(II)][cis-urocanic acid] may be partly responsible for biological effects of GHK and urocanic acid described in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Article
Cationic Pillar[6]arene Induces Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation Via Host–Guest Recognition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144979 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
We reported for the first time that cationic pillar[6]arene (cPA6) could tightly bind to peptide polymer (MW~20–50 kDa), an artificial substrate for tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation, and efficiently inhibit Tyr protein phosphorylation through host–guest recognition. We synthesized a nanocomposite of black phosphorus nanosheets loaded [...] Read more.
We reported for the first time that cationic pillar[6]arene (cPA6) could tightly bind to peptide polymer (MW~20–50 kDa), an artificial substrate for tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation, and efficiently inhibit Tyr protein phosphorylation through host–guest recognition. We synthesized a nanocomposite of black phosphorus nanosheets loaded with cPA6 ([email protected]) to explore the effect of cPA6 on cells. [email protected] was able to enter HepG2 cells, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation by reducing the level of Tyr phosphorylation. Furthermore, [email protected] showed a stronger ability of inhibiting cell proliferation in tumor cells than in normal cells. Our results revealed the supramolecular modulation of enzymatic Tyr phosphorylation by the host–guest recognition of cPA6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Review

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Review
Evolutionary Overview of Molecular Interactions and Enzymatic Activities in the Yeast Cell Walls
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 8996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21238996 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
Fungal cell walls are composed of a polysaccharide network that serves as a scaffold in which different glycoproteins are embedded. Investigation of fungal cell walls, besides simple identification and characterization of the main cell wall building blocks, covers the pathways and regulations of [...] Read more.
Fungal cell walls are composed of a polysaccharide network that serves as a scaffold in which different glycoproteins are embedded. Investigation of fungal cell walls, besides simple identification and characterization of the main cell wall building blocks, covers the pathways and regulations of synthesis of each individual component of the wall and biochemical reactions by which they are cross-linked and remodeled in response to different growth phase and environmental signals. In this review, a survey of composition and organization of so far identified and characterized cell wall components of different yeast genera including Saccharomyces, Candida, Kluyveromyces, Yarrowia, and Schizosaccharomyces are presented with the focus on their cell wall proteomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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Review
The Role of Extracellular Proteases in Tumor Progression and the Development of Innovative Metal Ion Chelators That Inhibit Their Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186805 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The role of extracellular proteases in cancer progression is well-known, especially in relation to the promotion of cell invasion through extracellular matrix remodeling. This also occurs by the ability of extracellular proteases to induce the shedding of transmembrane proteins at the plasma membrane [...] Read more.
The role of extracellular proteases in cancer progression is well-known, especially in relation to the promotion of cell invasion through extracellular matrix remodeling. This also occurs by the ability of extracellular proteases to induce the shedding of transmembrane proteins at the plasma membrane surface or within extracellular vesicles. This process results in the regulation of key signaling pathways by the modulation of kinases, e.g., the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Considering their regulatory roles in cancer, therapeutics targeting various extracellular proteases have been discovered. These include the metal-binding agents di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) and di-2-pyridylketone-4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC), which increase c-MET degradation by multiple mechanisms. Both the direct and indirect inhibition of protease expression and activity can be achieved through metal ion depletion. Considering direct mechanisms, chelators can bind zinc(II) that plays a catalytic role in enzyme activity. In terms of indirect mechanisms, Dp44mT and DpC potently suppress the expression of the kallikrein-related peptidase—a prostate-specific antigen—in prostate cancer cells. The mechanism of this activity involves promotion of the degradation of the androgen receptor. Additional suppressive mechanisms of Dp44mT and DpC on matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) relate to their ability to up-regulate the metastasis suppressors N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) and NDRG2, which down-regulate MMPs that are crucial for cancer cell invasion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry towards Biology)
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