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Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 12437

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomechanics and Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-008 Cracow, Poland
Interests: inflammatory bowel diseases; colitis; intestinal permeability; leaky gut; intestinal alkaline phosphatase; physical exercise; muscle fat crosstalk; myokines; adipokines
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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Cracow, Poland
Interests: brain–gut axis; experimental colitis; intestinal permeability; inflammatory bowel diseases; proinflammatory cytokines; adipokines; myokines; lipopolysaccharide; microbiota; obesity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Exercise has been shown to have a great impact on human life expectancy due to improved metabolic parameters mainly in obese individuals. However, whether exercises affect the course of various diseases in humans is very intriguing and should be further defined. In this context, physical activity and nutrition seem to be important components in optimizing human health benefits. Both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are considered hormonal organs because of their ability to produce and secrete several bioactive peptides (e.g., myokines and adipokines). Recently, the protective activity of myokines, such as irisin, and adipokines, such as adiponectin or resistin, has been underlined. In addition, the beneficial effect of exercise of varying intensity may depend on adipokines released from adipose tissue and myokines released from working skeletal muscles, which corresponds to their therapeutic effects against various disorders associated not only with metabolic diseases, but also with other body systems, including cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, digestive tract, and nervous system. Although it is well accepted that exercise can induce changes in the composition and functioning of the intestinal microflora that are associated with the appearance of several pathological disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, the contribution of microbiota to the regulation of the myokine-adipokine profile and the function of these peptides remains largely unknown and requires further research in experimental animal models and humans.

Thus, this Special Issue entitled 'Adipokines, Myokines, and Exercise in Health and Disease' will publish experimental data and reviews on this innovative approach to this topic. Topics related to both original and reviewed articles on the impact of exercise on disease and health presented in experimental and clinical studies with an emphasis on physiological mediators and pharmacological agents are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jan Bilski
Prof. Dr. Tomasz Brzozowski
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Adipokines, Myokines, and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0”
by Jan Bilski and Tomasz Brzozowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25020940 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
We are pleased to present our Editorial to this Special Issue on “Adipokines, Myokines, and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)

Research

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21 pages, 3965 KiB  
Article
Alkaline Phosphatase Relieves Colitis in Obese Mice Subjected to Forced Exercise via Its Anti-Inflammatory and Intestinal Microbiota-Shaping Properties
by Dagmara Wojcik-Grzybek, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Slawomir Kwiecien, Grzegorz Ginter, Marcin Surmiak, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Anna Chmura, Adrianna Wojcik, Tomasz Kosciolek, Aleksandra Danielak, Aneta Targosz, Malgorzata Strzalka, Urszula Szczyrk, Agata Ptak-Belowska, Marcin Magierowski, Jan Bilski and Tomasz Brzozowski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25020703 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an enzyme that plays a protective role in the gut. This study investigated the effect of IAP treatment on experimental colitis in mice subjected to forced exercise on a high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice with TNBS colitis were fed [...] Read more.
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an enzyme that plays a protective role in the gut. This study investigated the effect of IAP treatment on experimental colitis in mice subjected to forced exercise on a high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice with TNBS colitis were fed a high-fat diet and subjected to forced treadmill exercise with or without IAP treatment. Disease activity, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and gut microbiota were assessed. Forced exercise exacerbated colitis in obese mice, as evidenced by increased disease activity index (DAI), oxidative stress markers, and proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines. IAP treatment significantly reduced these effects and promoted the expression of barrier proteins in the colonic mucosa. Additionally, IAP treatment altered the gut microbiota composition, favoring beneficial Verrucomicrobiota and reducing pathogenic Clostridia and Odoribacter. IAP treatment ameliorates the worsening effect of forced exercise on murine colitis by attenuating oxidative stress, downregulating proinflammatory biomarkers, and modulating the gut microbiota. IAP warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)
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10 pages, 1274 KiB  
Article
MOTS-c Serum Concentration Positively Correlates with Lower-Body Muscle Strength and Is Not Related to Maximal Oxygen Uptake—A Preliminary Study
by Remigiusz Domin, Michał Pytka, Mikołaj Żołyński, Jan Niziński, Marcin Rucinski, Przemysław Guzik, Jacek Zieliński and Marek Ruchała
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(19), 14951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241914951 - 06 Oct 2023
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Abstract
The mitochondrial open reading frame of 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) is a mitochondrial-derived peptide that regulates the nuclear genome during stressful conditions such as hypoxia, which is typical of exercise and training. We aim to mainly investigate the relationship between serum MOTS-c concentration and [...] Read more.
The mitochondrial open reading frame of 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) is a mitochondrial-derived peptide that regulates the nuclear genome during stressful conditions such as hypoxia, which is typical of exercise and training. We aim to mainly investigate the relationship between serum MOTS-c concentration and muscle strength parameters measured during the countermovement jump test with oxygen consumption (VO2) measured during the cardiopulmonary exercise test to exhaustion. Physically active healthy volunteers (17 male, three female, median age 30 years), not involved in any regular exercise program or participating in any sports competitions, performed five consecutive countermovement jump tests and cardiopulmonary exercise tests until maximal exhaustion and underwent a body composition assessment by means of bioelectrical impedance analysis, and had serum MOTS-c concentration measured at rest. Serum MOTS-c concentration was positively correlated with the average power and average and maximal force of the jumps, both overall muscle mass and leg muscle mass, but not with body fat percentage. There was no correlation with peak VO2. A higher serum MOTS-c concentration is associated with greater muscle mass, force, and power generated during jumping in healthy individuals but not exercise capacity reflected by peak VO2. More studies are needed to better understand the physiological and clinical values of these findings and why MOTS-c is better associated with measures of muscle strength and not endurance in physically active people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)
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13 pages, 1771 KiB  
Communication
Circulating Concentrations of Cathelicidin Anti-Microbial Peptide (CAMP) Are Increased during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
by Alexandra Höpfinger, Thomas Karrasch, Andreas Schäffler and Andreas Schmid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612901 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
Recent investigation has revealed the significant role of Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) in infection defense and innate immunity processes in adipose tissue. Meanwhile, knowledge of its regulation and functions in metabolic contexts as an adipokine remains sparce. The present study investigated the postprandial [...] Read more.
Recent investigation has revealed the significant role of Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) in infection defense and innate immunity processes in adipose tissue. Meanwhile, knowledge of its regulation and functions in metabolic contexts as an adipokine remains sparce. The present study investigated the postprandial regulation of circulating CAMP levels during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Eighty-six metabolically healthy volunteers participated in a standardized 75 g-2 h-OGTT setting. The effects of exogenous glucose, insulin, and incretins on CAMP expression in human adipocyte culture (cell-line SGBS) were studied in vitro. CAMP concentrations in blood serum samples were measured by ELISA techniques and adipocyte gene expression levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Of note, base-line CAMP serum quantities were negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol levels as well as with the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin. During the 2 h following glucose ingestion, a significant rise in circulating CAMP concentrations was observed in considerable contrast to reduced quantities of fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) 2 and 4 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). In SGBS adipocytes, neither differing glucose levels nor insulin or incretin treatment significantly induced CAMP mRNA levels. According to our data, glucose represents a positive postprandial regulator of systemic CAMP. This effect apparently is not mediated by the regulatory impact of glucose metabolism on adipocyte CAMP expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)
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15 pages, 2688 KiB  
Article
Apelin as a Potential Regulator of Peak Athletic Performance
by Roland Ligetvári, István Szokodi, Gabriella Far, Éva Csöndör, Ákos Móra, Zsolt Komka, Miklós Tóth, András Oláh and Pongrác Ács
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(9), 8195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24098195 - 03 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Apelin, as a cardiokine/myokine, is emerging as an important regulator of cardiac and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Loss of apelin signaling results in premature cardiac aging and sarcopenia. However, the contribution of apelin to peak athletic performance remains largely elusive. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
Apelin, as a cardiokine/myokine, is emerging as an important regulator of cardiac and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Loss of apelin signaling results in premature cardiac aging and sarcopenia. However, the contribution of apelin to peak athletic performance remains largely elusive. In this paper, we assessed the impact of maximal cardiorespiratory exercise testing on the plasma apelin levels of 58 male professional soccer players. Circulating apelin-13 and apelin-36, on average, increased transiently after a single bout of treadmill exercise; however, apelin responses (Δapelin = peak − baseline values) showed a striking interindividual variability. Baseline apelin-13 levels were inversely correlated with those of Δapelin-13 and Δapelin-36. Δapelin-13 showed a positive correlation with the maximal metabolic equivalent, relative maximal O2 consumption, and peak circulatory power, whereas such an association in the case of Δapelin-36 could not be detected. In conclusion, we observed a pronounced individual-to-individual variation in exercise-induced changes in the plasma levels of apelin-13 and apelin-36. Since changes in plasma apelin-13 levels correlated with the indicators of physical performance, whole-body oxygen consumption and pumping capability of the heart, apelin, as a novel exerkine, may be a determinant of peak athletic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)
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Review

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27 pages, 2463 KiB  
Review
Organokines, Sarcopenia, and Metabolic Repercussions: The Vicious Cycle and the Interplay with Exercise
by Giulia Minniti, Letícia Maria Pescinini-Salzedas, Guilherme Almeida dos Santos Minniti, Lucas Fornari Laurindo, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Renata Vargas Sinatora, Lance Alan Sloan, Rafael Santos de Argollo Haber, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Karina Quesada, Jesselina F. dos Santos Haber, Marcelo Dib Bechara and Katia Portero Sloan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113452 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3595
Abstract
Sarcopenia is a disease that becomes more prevalent as the population ages, since it is directly linked to the process of senility, which courses with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle strength. Over time, sarcopenia is linked to obesity, being known as sarcopenic [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is a disease that becomes more prevalent as the population ages, since it is directly linked to the process of senility, which courses with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle strength. Over time, sarcopenia is linked to obesity, being known as sarcopenic obesity, and leads to other metabolic changes. At the molecular level, organokines act on different tissues and can improve or harm sarcopenia. It all depends on their production process, which is associated with factors such as physical exercise, the aging process, and metabolic diseases. Because of the seriousness of these repercussions, the aim of this literature review is to conduct a review on the relationship between organokines, sarcopenia, diabetes, and other metabolic repercussions, as well the role of physical exercise. To build this review, PubMed-Medline, Embase, and COCHRANE databases were searched, and only studies written in English were included. It was observed that myokines, adipokines, hepatokines, and osteokines had direct impacts on the pathophysiology of sarcopenia and its metabolic repercussions. Therefore, knowing how organokines act is very important to know their impacts on age, disease prevention, and how they can be related to the prevention of muscle loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)
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16 pages, 2935 KiB  
Review
Characteristics of the Protocols Used in Electrical Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Cells for Mimicking In Vivo Exercise: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression
by Eleni Nintou, Eleni Karligiotou, Maria Vliora, Leonidas G. Ioannou and Andreas D. Flouris
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(21), 13446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113446 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
While exercise benefits a wide spectrum of diseases and affects most tissues and organs, many aspects of its underlying mechanistic effects remain unsolved. In vitro exercise, mimicking neuronal signals leading to muscle contraction in vitro, can be a valuable tool to address this [...] Read more.
While exercise benefits a wide spectrum of diseases and affects most tissues and organs, many aspects of its underlying mechanistic effects remain unsolved. In vitro exercise, mimicking neuronal signals leading to muscle contraction in vitro, can be a valuable tool to address this issue. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched EMBASE and PubMed (from database inception to 4 February 2022) for relevant studies assessing in vitro exercise using electrical pulse stimulation to mimic exercise. Meta-analyses of mean differences and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Of 985 reports identified, 41 were eligible for analysis. We observed variability among existing protocols of in vitro exercise and heterogeneity among protocols of the same type of exercise. Our analyses showed that AMPK, Akt, IL-6, and PGC1a levels and glucose uptake increased in stimulated compared to non-stimulated cells, following the patterns of in vivo exercise, and that these effects correlated with the duration of stimulation. We conclude that in vitro exercise follows motifs of exercise in humans, allowing biological parameters, such as the aforementioned, to be valuable tools in defining the types of in vitro exercise. It might be useful in transferring obtained knowledge to human research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease 2.0)
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