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Special Issue "Adipose Stem Cells"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Barbara Zavan Website E-Mail
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Viale Giuseppe Colombo, 3, Padova 35131, Italy
Phone: 00390498276096
Interests: tissue enginering; regenerative medicine; stem cell biology; tissue homeostasis and repair; scaffolds; mesenchymal stem cells
Guest Editor
Prof. Adriano Piatelli Website E-Mail
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; bone regeneration; bioengineering; biomedical engineering
Guest Editor
Prof. Giovanna Iezzi Website E-Mail
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; bone regeneration; bioengineering; biomedical engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adipose tissue is a complex organ and in this last years it has received great attention thanks to its high stem cell content: Adipose Stem Cells (ASC).

By definition, a stem cell is characterized by its ability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation, and form terminally differentiated cells. Ideally, a stem cell for regenerative medicinal applications should meet the following set of criteria: (i) it should be found in abundant quantities (millions to billions of cells); (ii) it can be collected and harvested by a minimally invasive procedure; (iii) it can be differentiated along multiple cell lineage pathways in a reproducible manner; (iv) it can be safely and effectively transplanted to either an autologous or allogeneic host. Adipose tissue serves as an abundant, accessible and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications.

The plasticity of ASC most often refers to the inherent ability retained within stem cells to cross lineage barriers and adopt the phenotypic, biochemical and functional properties of cells unique to other tissues.

There has been increased interest in Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biomaterial development and application, and with this in mind, the aim of the present special issue is

1)     characterisation of physiology of ASC
2)     characterisation of secretoma ativity of ASC
3)     defining on of transcriptional and non-transcriptional events related to their commitment
4)     application of ASC as tool to test novel biomaterials for regenerrative medicine.

Prof. Barbara Zavan
Prof. Adriano Piattelli
Prof. Giovanna Iezzi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Adult stem cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cell
  • Biomaterial
  • Tissue regeneration
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Implant surfaces
  • Bone regeneration
  • Osseointegration
  • Wound healing

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Proteins Expressed between Human and Mouse Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by a Proteome Analysis through Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113497 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have become a common cell source for cell transplantation therapy. Clinical studies have used ADSCs to develop treatments for tissue fibrosis, such as liver cirrhosis and pulmonary fibroma. The need to examine and compare basic research data using [...] Read more.
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have become a common cell source for cell transplantation therapy. Clinical studies have used ADSCs to develop treatments for tissue fibrosis, such as liver cirrhosis and pulmonary fibroma. The need to examine and compare basic research data using clinical research data derived from mice and humans is expected to increase in the future. Here, to better characterize the cells, the protein components expressed by human ADSCs used for treatment, and mouse ADSCs used for research, were comprehensively analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. We found that 92% (401 type proteins) of the proteins expressed by ADSCs in humans and mice were consistent. When classified by the protein functions in a gene ontology analysis, the items that differed by >5% between human and mouse ADSCs were “biological adhesion, locomotion” in biological processes, “plasma membrane” in cellular components, and “antioxidant activity, molecular transducer activity” in molecular functions. Most of the listed proteins were sensitive to cell isolation processes. These results show that the proteins expressed by human and murine ADSCs showed a high degree of correlation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome from Bone Marrow or Adipose-Derived Tissue Sources for Treatment of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Epithelial Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102996 - 30 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Alveolar epithelial dysfunction induced by hypoxic stress plays a significant role in the pathological process of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in exerting protective immunomodulatory effects, thereby reducing airway inflammation in several pulmonary diseases. Aim: This [...] Read more.
Alveolar epithelial dysfunction induced by hypoxic stress plays a significant role in the pathological process of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in exerting protective immunomodulatory effects, thereby reducing airway inflammation in several pulmonary diseases. Aim: This study assesses the protective effects of MSC secretome from different cell sources, human bone marrow (BMSC) and adipose tissue (ADSC), in attenuating hypoxia-induced cellular stress and inflammation in pulmonary epithelial cells. Methods: Pulmonary epithelial cells, primary rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) and A549 cell line were pre-treated with BMSC, or ADSC conditioned medium (CM) and subjected to hypoxia for 24 h. Results: Both MSC-CM improved cell viability, reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and enhanced IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine production in hypoxic injured primary rat AECs. ADSC-CM reduced hypoxic cellular injury by mechanisms which include: inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of subunits in primary AECs. Both MSC-CM enhanced translocation of Bcl-2 to the nucleus, expression of cytoprotective glucose-regulated proteins (GRP) and restored matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) function, thereby promoting repair and cellular homeostasis, whereas inhibition of GRP chaperones was detrimental to cell survival. Conclusions: Elucidation of the protective mechanisms exerted by the MSC secretome is an essential step for maximizing the therapeutic effects, in addition to developing therapeutic targets-specific strategies for various pulmonary syndromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone Analogue Inhibits Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells through the Nrf2 Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082215 - 29 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Obesity, characterized by excess lipid accumulation, has emerged as a leading public health problem. Excessive, adipocyte-induced lipid accumulation raises the risk of metabolic disorders. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue. High fat [...] Read more.
Obesity, characterized by excess lipid accumulation, has emerged as a leading public health problem. Excessive, adipocyte-induced lipid accumulation raises the risk of metabolic disorders. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue. High fat mass could be caused by an increase in the size (hypertrophy) and number (hyperplasia) of adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Lowering the level of ROS is important to blocking or retarding the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that mediates various antioxidant enzymes and regulates cellular ROS levels. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), widely used as artificial sweetener, has been shown to have significant free radical scavenging activity. In the present study, (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (CTP), a novel NHDC analogue, was synthesized and examined to determine whether it could inhibit adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of adipogenic differentiation in hASCs was tested using NHDC and CTP. In the CTP group, reduced Oil Red O staining was observed compared with the differentiation group. CTP treatment also downregulated the expression of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α, adipogenic differentiation markers in hASCs, compared to the adipogenic differentiation group. The expression of FAS and SREBP-1 decreased in the CTP group, along with the fluorescent intensity (amount) of ROS. Expression of the Nrf2 protein was slightly decreased in the differentiation group. Meanwhile, in both the NHDC and CTP groups, Nrf2 expression was restored to the level of the control group. Moreover, the expression of HO-1 and NQO-1 increased significantly in the CTP group. Taken together, these results suggest that CTP treatment suppresses the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs by decreasing intracellular ROS, possibly through activation of the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway. Thus, the use of bioactive substances such as CTP, which activates Nrf2 to reduce the cellular level of ROS and inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs, could be a new strategy for overcoming obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
A Non-Enzymatic Method to Obtain a Fat Tissue Derivative Highly Enriched in Adipose Stem Cells (ASCs) from Human Lipoaspirates: Preliminary Results
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072061 - 15 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Adipose tissue possesses phenotypic gene expression characteristics that are similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Nevertheless, the multilineage potential may be inhibited, and cells may not expand adequately to satisfy the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). An autologous hMSC-enriched fat product [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue possesses phenotypic gene expression characteristics that are similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Nevertheless, the multilineage potential may be inhibited, and cells may not expand adequately to satisfy the requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). An autologous hMSC-enriched fat product would fulfil the void from a biomedical and clinical perspective. In this study, we suggest a novel mechanism using a closed system without enzymes, additives or other modifications, which will produce non-expanded, accessible material. This decentralized fat product, unlike unprocessed lipoaspirates, adequately encloses the vascular stroma with adipocytes and stromal stalks along with their vascular channels and lumina. This fat product contained hASCs and fewer hematopoietic elements such as lipoaspirates, which were digested enzymatically according to flow cytometric investigations, and molecular analysis also showed significant hASC uniformity within the cells of the stromal vascular tissue. Moreover, the fat product produced a higher quantity of hASCs similar to hMSCs in isolation with the typical characteristics of an osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineage. Interestingly, these properties were evident in the non-enzymatic derived adipose tissue, as opposed to hASCs in isolation from the enzymatically digested lipoaspirates, suggesting that the aforementioned procedure may be an adequate alternative to regenerate and engineer tissue for the treatment of various medical conditions and promote efficient patient recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
A Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Analysis of Cells Cultured in DMEM 10% FBS and Chemically Defined Medium Using Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072042 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) are representative cell sources for cell therapy. Classically, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used as culture medium for hADSCs. A chemically defined medium (CDM) containing no heterologous animal components [...] Read more.
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) are representative cell sources for cell therapy. Classically, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used as culture medium for hADSCs. A chemically defined medium (CDM) containing no heterologous animal components has recently been used to produce therapeutic hADSCs. However, how the culture environment using a medium without FBS affects the protein expression of hADSC is unclear. We subjected hADSCs cultured in CDM and DMEM (10% FBS) to a protein expression analysis by tandem mass spectrometry liquid chromatography and noted 98.2% agreement in the proteins expressed by the CDM and DMEM groups. We classified 761 proteins expressed in both groups by their function in a gene ontology analysis. Thirty-one groups of proteins were classified as growth-related proteins in the CDM and DMEM groups, 16 were classified as antioxidant activity-related, 147 were classified as immune system process-related, 557 were involved in biological regulation, 493 were classified as metabolic process-related, and 407 were classified as related to stimulus responses. These results show that the trend in the expression of major proteins related to the therapeutic effect of hADSCs correlated strongly in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Concentrated Conditioned Media from Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mitigates Visual Deficits and Retinal Inflammation Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072016 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Blast concussions are a common injury sustained in military combat today. Inflammation due to microglial polarization can drive the development of visual defects following blast injuries. In this study, we assessed whether anti-inflammatory factors released by the mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose [...] Read more.
Blast concussions are a common injury sustained in military combat today. Inflammation due to microglial polarization can drive the development of visual defects following blast injuries. In this study, we assessed whether anti-inflammatory factors released by the mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (adipose stem cells, ASC) can limit retinal tissue damage and improve visual function in a mouse model of visual deficits following mild traumatic brain injury. We show that intravitreal injection of 1 μL of ASC concentrated conditioned medium from cells pre-stimulated with inflammatory cytokines (ASC-CCM) mitigates loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity four weeks post blast injury. Moreover, blast mice showed increased retinal expression of genes associated with microglial activation and inflammation by molecular analyses, retinal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity, and increased loss of ganglion cells. Interestingly, blast mice that received ASC-CCM improved in all parameters above. In vitro, ASC-CCM not only suppressed microglial activation but also protected against Tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) induced endothelial permeability as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance. Biochemical and molecular analyses demonstrate TSG-6 is highly expressed in ASC-CCM from cells pre-stimulated with TNFα and IFNγ but not from unstimulated cells. Our findings suggest that ASC-CCM mitigates visual deficits of the blast injury through their anti-inflammatory properties on activated pro-inflammatory microglia and endothelial cells. A regenerative therapy for immediate delivery at the time of injury may provide a practical and cost-effective solution against the traumatic effects of blast injuries to the retina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Radiation Sensitivity of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Isolated from Breast Tissue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071988 - 07 Jul 2018
Abstract
Within their niche, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are essential for homeostasis as well as for regeneration. Therefore, the interest of physicians is to use ADSCs as a tool for radiation oncology and regenerative medicine. To investigate related risks, this study analyses the radiation [...] Read more.
Within their niche, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are essential for homeostasis as well as for regeneration. Therefore, the interest of physicians is to use ADSCs as a tool for radiation oncology and regenerative medicine. To investigate related risks, this study analyses the radiation response of adult stem cells isolated from the adipose tissue of the female breast. To avoid donor-specific effects, ADSCs isolated from breast reduction mammoplasties of 10 donors were pooled and used for the radiobiological analysis. The clonogenic survival fraction assay was used to classify the radiation sensitivity in comparison to a more radiation-sensitive (ZR-75-1), moderately sensitive (MCF-7), and resistant (MCF10A) cell lines. Afterwards, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of irradiation on ADSCs were investigated. On the basis of clonogenic cell survival rates of ADSCs after irradiation, we assign ADSCs an intermediate radiation sensitivity. Furthermore, a high repair capacity of double-strand breaks is related to an altered cell cycle arrest and increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21. ADSCs isolated from breast tissue exhibit intermediate radiation sensitivity, caused by functional repair mechanisms. Therefore, we propose ADSCs to be a promising tool in radiation oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation of Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells from Cryopreserved Fat Tissue and Transplantation into Rats with Spinal Cord Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071963 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Adipose tissue contains multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), which have therapeutic potential for various diseases. Although the demand for adipose tissue for research use remains high, no adipose tissue bank exists. In this study, we attempted to isolate ASCs from [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue contains multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), which have therapeutic potential for various diseases. Although the demand for adipose tissue for research use remains high, no adipose tissue bank exists. In this study, we attempted to isolate ASCs from cryopreserved adipose tissue with the aim of developing a banking system. ASCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved adipose tissue of rats and compared for proliferation (doubling time), differentiation capability (adipocytes), and cytokine (hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor) secretion. Finally, ASCs (2.5 × 106) were intravenously infused into rats with spinal cord injury, after which hindlimb motor function was evaluated. Isolation and culture of ASCs from cryopreserved adipose tissue were possible, and their characteristics were not significantly different from those of fresh tissue. Transplantation of ASCs derived from cryopreserved tissue significantly promoted restoration of hindlimb movement function in injured model rats. These results indicate that cryopreservation of adipose tissue may be an option for clinical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Donor Site Location Is Critical for Proliferation, Stem Cell Capacity, and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: Implications for Bone Tissue Engineering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071868 - 26 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Human adipose mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (Ad-MSCs) have been proposed as a suitable option for bone tissue engineering. However, donor age, weight, and gender might affect the outcome. There is still a lack of knowledge of the effects the donor tissue site might have [...] Read more.
Human adipose mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (Ad-MSCs) have been proposed as a suitable option for bone tissue engineering. However, donor age, weight, and gender might affect the outcome. There is still a lack of knowledge of the effects the donor tissue site might have on Ad-MSCs function. Thus, this study investigated proliferation, stem cell, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of human Ad-MSCs obtained from subcutaneous fat tissue acquired from different locations (abdomen, hip, thigh, knee, and limb). Ad-MSCs from limb and knee showed strong proliferation despite the presence of osteogenic stimuli, resulting in limited osteogenic characteristics. The less proliferative Ad-MSCs from hip and thigh showed the highest alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and matrix mineralization. Ad-MSCs from the abdomen showed good proliferation and osteogenic characteristics. Interestingly, the observed differences were not dependent on donor age, weight, or gender, but correlated with the expression of Sox2, Lin28A, Oct4α, and Nanog. Especially, low basal Sox2 levels seemed to be pivotal for osteogenic differentiation. Our data clearly show that the donor tissue site affects the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of Ad-MSCs significantly. Thus, for bone tissue engineering, the donor site of the adipose tissue from which the Ad-MSCs are derived should be adapted depending on the requirements, e.g., cell number and differentiation state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis between the In Vivo Biodistribution and Therapeutic Efficacy of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Administered Intraperitoneally in Experimental Colitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071853 - 23 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising treatment for inflammatory diseases. The immunomodulatory effect of MSCs takes place both by direct cell-to-cell contact and by means of soluble factors that leads to an increased accumulation of regulatory immune cells at the [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising treatment for inflammatory diseases. The immunomodulatory effect of MSCs takes place both by direct cell-to-cell contact and by means of soluble factors that leads to an increased accumulation of regulatory immune cells at the sites of inflammation. Similar efficacy of MSCs has been described regardless of the route of administration used, the inflammation conditions and the major histocompatibility complex context. These observations raise the question of whether the migration of the MSCs to the inflamed tissues is a pre-requisite to achieve their beneficial effect. To address this, we examined the biodistribution and the efficacy of intraperitoneal luciferase-expressing human expanded adipose-derived stem cells (Luci-eASCs) in a mouse model of colitis. Luci-eASC-infused mice were stratified according to their response to the Luci-eASC treatment. According to the stratification criteria, there was a tendency to increase the bioluminescence signal in the intestine at the expense of a decrease in the bioluminescence signal in the liver in the “responder” mice. These data thus suggest that the accumulation of the eASCs to the inflamed tissues is beneficial for achieving an optimal modulation of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Preconditioning Regimens on the Expression Profile of Murine Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061719 - 10 Jun 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Stem cell-based therapies require cells with a maximum regenerative capacity in order to support regeneration after tissue injury and organ failure. Optimization of this regenerative potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) or their conditioned medium by in vitro preconditioning regimens are considered to [...] Read more.
Stem cell-based therapies require cells with a maximum regenerative capacity in order to support regeneration after tissue injury and organ failure. Optimization of this regenerative potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) or their conditioned medium by in vitro preconditioning regimens are considered to be a promising strategy to improve the release of regenerative factors. In the present study, MSC were isolated from inguinal adipose tissue (mASC) from C57BL/6 mice, cultured, and characterized. Then, mASC were either preconditioned by incubation in a hypoxic environment (0.5% O2), or in normoxia in the presence of murine epidermal growth factor (EGF) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) for 48 h. Protein expression was measured by a commercially available array. Selected factors were verified by PCR analysis. The expression of 83 out of 308 proteins (26.9%) assayed was found to be increased after preconditioning with TNFα, whereas the expression of 61 (19.8%) and 70 (22.7%) proteins was increased after incubation with EGF or in hypoxia, respectively. Furthermore, we showed the proliferation-promoting effects of the preconditioned culture supernatants on injured epithelial cells in vitro. Our findings indicate that each preconditioning regimen tested induced an individual expression profile with a wide variety of factors, including several growth factors and cytokines, and therefore may enhance the regenerative potential of mASC for cell-based therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Supplementation with IL-6 and Muscle Cell Culture Conditioned Media Enhances Myogenic Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells through STAT3 Activation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061557 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mature skeletal muscle cells cannot be expanded in culture systems. Therefore, it is difficult to construct an in vitro model for muscle diseases. To establish an efficient protocol for myogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs), we investigated whether addition of [...] Read more.
Mature skeletal muscle cells cannot be expanded in culture systems. Therefore, it is difficult to construct an in vitro model for muscle diseases. To establish an efficient protocol for myogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs), we investigated whether addition of IL-6 and/or myocyte-conditioned media (CM) to conventional differentiation media can shorten the differentiation period. hADSCs were differentiated to myocytes using the conventional protocol or modified with the addition of 25 pg/mL IL-6 and/or C2C12 CM (25% v/v). The expression of MyoD and myogenine mRNA was significantly higher at 5–6 days after differentiation using the modified protocol than with the conventional protocol. mRNA and protein expression of myosin heavy chain, a marker of myotubes, was significantly upregulated at 28 and 42 days of differentiation using the modified protocol, and the level achieved after a 4-week differentiation period was similar to that achieved at 6 weeks using the conventional protocol. The expression of p-STAT3 was significantly increased when the modified protocol was used. Similarly, addition of colivelin, a STAT3 activator, instead of IL-6 and C2C12 CM, promoted the myogenic differentiation of ADSCs. The modified protocol improved differentiation efficiency and reduced the time required for differentiation of myocytes. It might be helpful to save cost and time when preparing myocytes for cell therapies and drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Human Macrophages Preferentially Infiltrate the Superficial Adipose Tissue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051404 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue consists of two individual layers—the superficial adipose tissue (SAT) and deep adipose tissue (DAT)—separated by the Scarpa’s fascia. The present study focuses on the analysis of morphological and immunological differences of primary adipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), and [...] Read more.
Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue consists of two individual layers—the superficial adipose tissue (SAT) and deep adipose tissue (DAT)—separated by the Scarpa’s fascia. The present study focuses on the analysis of morphological and immunological differences of primary adipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), and tissue-infiltrating immune cells found in SAT and DAT. Adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated from human SAT and DAT specimens and phenotypically characterized by in vitro assays. Ex vivo analysis of infiltrating immune cells was performed by flow cytometry. Primary adipocytes from SAT are larger in size but did not significantly differ in cytokine levels of LEPTIN, ADIPOQ, RBP4, CHEMERIN, DEFB1, VISFATIN, MCP1, or MSCF. ASC isolated from SAT proliferated faster and exhibited a higher differentiation potential than those isolated from DAT. Flow cytometry analysis indicated no specific differences in the relative numbers of ASC, epithelial progenitor cells (EPC), or CD3+ T-cells, but showed higher numbers of tissue-infiltrating macrophages in SAT compared to DAT. Our findings suggest that ASC isolated from SAT have a higher regenerative potential than DAT-ASC. Moreover, spatial proximity to skin microbiota might promote macrophage infiltration in SAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Culture with Human Osteoblasts and Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Improve Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040994 - 27 Mar 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) have been proposed as suitable option for cell-based therapies to support bone regeneration. In the bone environment, Ad-MSCs will receive stimuli from resident cells that may favor their osteogenic differentiation. There is recent evidence that this process [...] Read more.
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) have been proposed as suitable option for cell-based therapies to support bone regeneration. In the bone environment, Ad-MSCs will receive stimuli from resident cells that may favor their osteogenic differentiation. There is recent evidence that this process can be further improved by extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMFs). Thus, the project aimed at (i) investigating whether co-culture conditions of human osteoblasts (OBs) and Ad-MSCs have an impact on their proliferation and osteogenic differentiation; (ii) whether this effect can be further improved by repetitive exposure to two specific ELF-PEMFs (16 and 26 Hz); (iii) and the effect of these ELF-PEMFs on human osteoclasts (OCs). Osteogenic differentiation was improved by co-culturing OBs and Ad-MSCs when compared to the individual mono-cultures. An OB to Ad-MSC ratio of 3:1 had best effects on total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and matrix mineralization. Osteogenic differentiation was further improved by both ELF-PEMFs investigated. Interestingly, only repetitive exposure to 26 Hz ELF-PEMF increased Trap5B activity in OCs. Considering this result, a treatment with gradually increasing frequency might be of interest, as the lower frequency (16 Hz) could enhance bone formation, while the higher frequency (26 Hz) could enhance bone remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells toward the Smooth Muscle Phenotype
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020517 - 08 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on [...] Read more.
Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% were used during differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of smooth muscle cells-specific markers, including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. The specific contractile properties of cells were verified with both a single cell contraction assay and a gel contraction assay. Five percent oxygen concentration significantly increased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain in adipose-derived stem cell cultures after 2 weeks of induction (p < 0.01). Cells differentiated in 5% oxygen conditions showed greater contraction effect (p < 0.01). Hypoxia influences differentiation of smooth muscle cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to generate smooth muscle cells that contract from adipose stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Activation of Adipose Tissue and Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Novel Anti-Inflammatory Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010267 - 16 Jan 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory proteins, such as TNF, IL-6, and CXCL8. Most of their production occurs in macrophages that act as scavengers of dying adipocytes. The application of an orbital mechanical force for 6–10 min at 97 g to [...] Read more.
The adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory proteins, such as TNF, IL-6, and CXCL8. Most of their production occurs in macrophages that act as scavengers of dying adipocytes. The application of an orbital mechanical force for 6–10 min at 97 g to the adipose tissue, lipoaspirated and treated according to Coleman procedures, abolishes the expression of TNF-α and stimulates the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). This protein had protective and anti-inflammatory effects when applied to animal models of rheumatic diseases. We examined biopsy, lipoaspirate, and mechanically activated fat and observed that in addition to the increased TSG-6, Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 were also strongly augmented by mechanical activation, suggesting an effect on stromal cell stemness. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs), produced from activated fat, grow and differentiate normally with proper cell surface markers and chromosomal integrity, but their anti-inflammatory action is far superior compared to those mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from lipoaspirate. The expression and release of inflammatory cytokines from THP-1 cells was totally abolished in mechanically activated adipose tissue-derived hADSCs. In conclusion, we report that the orbital shaking of adipose tissue enhances its anti-inflammatory properties, and derived MSCs maintain such enhanced activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Autologous Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Burn-Induced Neuropathic Pain in a Rat Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010034 - 22 Dec 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Burn scar pain is considered as neuropathic pain. The anti-inflammation and anti-neuroinflammation effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were observed in several studies. We designed a study using a murine model involving the transplantation of autologous ASCs in rats subjected to burn [...] Read more.
Background: Burn scar pain is considered as neuropathic pain. The anti-inflammation and anti-neuroinflammation effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were observed in several studies. We designed a study using a murine model involving the transplantation of autologous ASCs in rats subjected to burn injuries. The aim was to detect the anti-neuroinflammation effect of ASC transplantation and clarify the relationships between ASCs, scar pain, apoptosis and autophagy. Methods: We randomized 24 rats into 4 groups as followings: Group A and B, received saline injections and autologous transplantation of ASCs 4 weeks after sham burn, respectively; Group C and D, received saline injections and autologous transplantation 4 weeks after burn injuries. A designed behavior test was applied for pain evaluation. Skin tissues and dorsal horn of lumbar spinal cords were removed for biochemical analysis. Results: ASC transplantation significantly restored the mechanical threshold reduced by burn injury. It also attenuated local inflammation and central neuroinflammation and ameliorated apoptosis and autophagy in the spinal cord after the burn injury. Conclusion: In a rat model, autologous ASC subcutaneous transplantation in post-burn scars elicited anti-neuroinflammation effects locally and in the spinal cord that might be related to the relief of post-burn neuropathic pain and attenuated cell apoptosis. Thus, ASC transplantation post-burn scars shows the potential promising clinical benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
hASC and DFAT, Multipotent Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine: A Comparison of Their Potential Differentiation In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122699 - 13 Dec 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Adipose tissue comprises both adipose and non-adipose cells such as mesenchymal stem cells. These cells show a surface antigenic profile similar to that of bone-marrow-derived MSC. The cells derived from the dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes (DFAT) are another cell population with characteristics of [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue comprises both adipose and non-adipose cells such as mesenchymal stem cells. These cells show a surface antigenic profile similar to that of bone-marrow-derived MSC. The cells derived from the dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes (DFAT) are another cell population with characteristics of stemness. The aim of this study is to provide evidence of the stemness, proliferation, and differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASC) and DFAT obtained from human subcutaneous AT and evaluate their potential use in regenerative medicine. Cell populations were studied by histochemical and molecular biology techniques. Both hASC and DFAT were positive for MSC markers. Their proliferative capacity was similar and both populations were able to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. DFAT were able to accumulate lipids and their lipoprotein lipase and adiponectin gene expression were high. Alkaline phosphatase and RUNX2 gene expression were greater in hASC than in DFAT at 14 days but became similar after three weeks. Both cell populations were able to differentiate into chondrocytes, showing positive staining with Alcian Blue and gene expression of SOX9 and ACAN. In conclusion, both hASC and DFAT populations derived from AT have a high differentiation capacity and thus may have applications in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Muscle Conditional Medium Reduces Intramuscular Adipocyte Differentiation and Lipid Accumulation through Regulating Insulin Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081799 - 20 Aug 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Due to the paracrine effects of skeletal muscle, the lipid metabolism of porcine intramuscular (i.m.) preadipocytes was different from that of subcutaneous (s.c.) preadipocytes. To investigate the development of i.m. preadipocytes in vivo, the s.c. preadipocytes were cultured with muscle conditional cultured medium [...] Read more.
Due to the paracrine effects of skeletal muscle, the lipid metabolism of porcine intramuscular (i.m.) preadipocytes was different from that of subcutaneous (s.c.) preadipocytes. To investigate the development of i.m. preadipocytes in vivo, the s.c. preadipocytes were cultured with muscle conditional cultured medium (MCM) for approximating extracellular micro-environment of the i.m. preadipocytes. Insulin signaling plays a fundamental role in porcine adipocyte differentiation. The expression levels of insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in i.m. Preadipocytes were higher than that in s.c. preadipocytes. The effects of MCM on adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and insulin signaling transdution were verified. MCM induced the apoptosis of s.c. preadipocytes but not of s.c. adipocytes. Moreover, MCM inhibited adipocyte differentiation at pre-differentiation and early stages of differentiation, while the expression levels of INSR and IGF-1R were increased. Furthermore, MCM treatment increased adipocyte lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation through induction of genes involved in lipolysis, thermogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. Consistent with the above, treatment of s.c. adipocytes with MCM upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis. Taken together, MCM can approximate the muscle micro-environment and reduce intramuscular adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation via regulating insulin signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessReview
Adipose Stem Cell Translational Applications: From Bench-to-Bedside
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113475 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
During the last five years, there has been a significantly increasing interest in adult adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a suitable tool for translational medicine applications. The abundant and renewable source of ASCs and the relatively simple procedure for cell isolation are only [...] Read more.
During the last five years, there has been a significantly increasing interest in adult adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a suitable tool for translational medicine applications. The abundant and renewable source of ASCs and the relatively simple procedure for cell isolation are only some of the reasons for this success. Here, we document the advances in the biology and in the innovative biotechnological applications of ASCs. We discuss how the multipotential property boosts ASCs toward mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal differentiation cell lineages and how their character is maintained even if they are combined with gene delivery systems and/or biomaterials, both in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessReview
Revisiting the Advances in Isolation, Characterization and Secretome of Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082200 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) seems to be a promising regenerative therapeutic agent due to the minimally invasive approach of their harvest and multi-lineage differentiation potential. The harvested adipose tissues are further digested to extract stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which is cultured, and the [...] Read more.
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) seems to be a promising regenerative therapeutic agent due to the minimally invasive approach of their harvest and multi-lineage differentiation potential. The harvested adipose tissues are further digested to extract stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which is cultured, and the anchorage-dependent cells are isolated in order to characterize their stemness, surface markers, and multi-differentiation potential. The differentiation potential of ASCs is directed through manipulating culture medium composition with an introduction of growth factors to obtain the desired cell type. ASCs have been widely studied for its regenerative therapeutic solution to neurologic, skin, wound, muscle, bone, and other disorders. These therapeutic outcomes of ASCs are achieved possibly via autocrine and paracrine effects of their secretome comprising of cytokines, extracellular proteins and RNAs. Therefore, secretome-derivatives might offer huge advantages over cells through their synthesis and storage for long-term use. When considering the therapeutic significance and future prospects of ASCs, this review summarizes the recent developments made in harvesting, isolation, and characterization. Furthermore, this article also provides a deeper insight into secretome of ASCs mediating regenerative efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessReview
Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Are They a Good Therapeutic Strategy for Osteoarthritis?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071926 - 30 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in elderly population around the world. More than one-third of people over 65 years old shows either clinical or radiological evidence of OA. There is no effective treatment for this degenerative disease, due to the [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in elderly population around the world. More than one-third of people over 65 years old shows either clinical or radiological evidence of OA. There is no effective treatment for this degenerative disease, due to the limited capacity for spontaneous cartilage regeneration. Regarding the use of regenerative therapies, it has been reported that one option to restore degenerated cartilage are adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). The purpose of this review is to describe and compare the efficacy of ASCs versus other therapies in OA. Methods: Recent studies have shown that ASCs exert paracrine effects protecting against degenerative changes in chondrocytes. According to the above, we have carried out a review of the literature using a combination of osteoarthritis, stem cells, and regenerative therapies as keywords. Results: Conventional pharmacological therapies for OA treatment are considered before the surgical option, however, they do not stop the progression of the disease. Moreover, total joint replacement is not recommended for patients under 55 years, and high tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a viable solution to address lower limb malalignment with concomitant OA, but some complications have been described. In recent years, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment strategy for OA is increasing considerably, thanks to their capacity to improve symptoms together with joint functionality and, therefore, the patients’ quality of life. Conclusions: ASC therapy has a positive effect on patients with OA, although there is limited evidence and little long-term follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
Open AccessReview
Methods of Isolation, Characterization and Expansion of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs): An Overview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071897 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Considering the increasing interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine, optimization of methods aimed at isolation, characterization, expansion and evaluation of differentiation potential is critical to ensure (a) the quality of stem cells also in terms of genetic stability; [...] Read more.
Considering the increasing interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine, optimization of methods aimed at isolation, characterization, expansion and evaluation of differentiation potential is critical to ensure (a) the quality of stem cells also in terms of genetic stability; (b) the reproducibility of beneficial effects; and (c) the safety of their use. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms that regulate ASC proliferation, growth and differentiation, however standard protocols about harvesting and processing techniques are not yet defined. It is also important to note that some steps in the procedures of harvesting and/or processing have been reported to affect recovery and/or the physiology of ASCs. Even considering the great opportunity that the ASCs provide for the identification of novel molecular targets for new or old drugs, the definition of homogeneous preparation methods that ensure adequate quality assurance and control, in accordance with current GMPs (good manufacturing practices), is required. Here, we summarize the literature reports to provide a detailed overview of the methodological issues underlying human ASCs isolation, processing, characterization, expansion, differentiation techniques, recalling at the same time their basilar principles, advantages and limits, in particular focusing on how these procedures could affect the ASC quality, functionality and plasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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Open AccessReview
Function of microRNAs in the Osteogenic Differentiation and Therapeutic Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122597 - 02 Dec 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Traumatic wounds with segmental bone defects represent substantial reconstructive challenges. Autologous bone grafting is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment in many cases, but donor site morbidity and associated post-operative complications remain a concern. Advances in regenerative techniques utilizing mesenchymal stem cell [...] Read more.
Traumatic wounds with segmental bone defects represent substantial reconstructive challenges. Autologous bone grafting is considered the gold standard for surgical treatment in many cases, but donor site morbidity and associated post-operative complications remain a concern. Advances in regenerative techniques utilizing mesenchymal stem cell populations from bone and adipose tissue have opened the door to improving bone repair in the limbs, spine, and craniofacial skeleton. The widespread availability, ease of extraction, and lack of immunogenicity have made adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) particularly attractive as a stem cell source for regenerative strategies. Recently it has been shown that small, non-coding miRNAs are involved in the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. Specifically, microRNAs such as miR-17, miR-23a, and miR-31 are expressed during the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and appear to play a role in inhibiting various steps in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) mediated osteogenesis. Importantly, a number of microRNAs including miR-17 and miR-31 that act to attenuate the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs are themselves stimulated by transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1). In addition, transforming growth factor β-1 is also known to suppress the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenic differentiation. These data suggest that preconditioning strategies to reduce TGFβ-1 activity in ASCs may improve the therapeutic potential of ASCs for musculoskeletal application. Moreover, these findings support the isolation of ASCs from subcutaneous fat depots that tend to have low endogenous levels of TGFβ-1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells)
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