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Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Microbes and Enzymes 3.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 2897

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Guest Editor
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: biohydrometallurgy; biocorrosion; bioremediation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes represent a fascinating class of microorganisms, not only because of their resilience to thrive at elevated temperatures and in harsh environments, but also because of the enzymes that they harbor. These microorganisms fall mainly in the bacteria and archaea domains, and exist in many habitats including hot springs, hydrothermal vents, or volcanic ash sediments, among others. These habitats all exhibit thermophilic or hyperthermophilic temperatures, but can also be acidic, alkaline, or contain high levels of salts. In order to thrive in such harsh environments, these microorganisms have evolved robust enzymes that are able to function at peak activity in these harsh conditions. These microorganisms represent a rich source of enzymes with an increased stability, which are purposely modified by protein engineering and can excel in harsh industrial conditions, making them especially appealing for biotechnological applications. Sometimes, they display promiscous activities that represent a peculiar basis for evolution. Bioprospecting for enzymes in these microbes has gained popularity in the last two decades, as they also represent ideal templates and strategies for re-engineering essential but less stable enzymes, catalyzing reactions that do not exist in thermophiles.

This Special Issue seeks original research articles, perspectives, and reviews on the topic of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes and enzymes. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Bioprospecting;
  • Enzyme characterization;
  • Microbial phenotypes;
  • Novel metabolic pathways;
  • Novel metabolic enzymes;
  • Bioremediation;
  • Enzyme evolution and engineering;
  • Proteomics approach;
  • Microbial ecology;
  • Microbial consortia.

Prof. Dr. Chengying Jiang
Guest Editor

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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16 pages, 2571 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Characterization of Thermus thermophilus Strain ET-1: An Extremely Thermophilic Bacterium with Extracellular Thermostable Proteolytic Activity Isolated from El Tatio Geothermal Field, Antofagasta, Chile
by Bernardita Valenzuela, Francisco Solís-Cornejo, Rubén Araya and Pedro Zamorano
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(19), 14512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241914512 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The present study describes the isolation of an extremely thermophilic bacterium from El Tatio, a geyser field in the high planes of Northern Chile. The thermophile bacterium named Thermus thermophilus strain ET-1 showed 99% identity with T. thermophilus SGO.5JP 17-16 (GenBank accession No. [...] Read more.
The present study describes the isolation of an extremely thermophilic bacterium from El Tatio, a geyser field in the high planes of Northern Chile. The thermophile bacterium named Thermus thermophilus strain ET-1 showed 99% identity with T. thermophilus SGO.5JP 17-16 (GenBank accession No. CP002777) by 16S rDNA gene analysis. Morphologically, the cells were non-sporeforming Gram-negative rods that formed colonies with yellow pigmentation. This strain is able to proliferate between 55 and 80 °C with a pH range of 6–10, presenting an optimum growth rate at 80 °C and pH 8. The bacterium produces an extracellular protease activity. Characterization of this activity in a concentrated enzyme preparation revealed that extracellular protease had an optimal enzymatic activity at 80 °C at pH 10, a high thermostability with a half-life at 80 °C of 10 h, indicating that this enzyme can be classified as an alkaline protease. The proteolytic enzyme exhibits great stability towards chelators, divalent ions, organic solvents, and detergents. The enzyme was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), implying that it was a serine protease. The high thermal and pH stability and the resistance to chelators/detergents suggest that the protease activity from this T. thermophilus. strain could be of interest in biotechnological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Microbes and Enzymes 3.0)
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18 pages, 5789 KiB  
Article
Archaeal and Extremophilic Bacteria from Different Archaeological Excavation Sites
by J. Michael Köhler, Linda Ehrhardt and P. Mike Günther
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065519 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Beside natural factors, human activities are important for the development of microbiomes. Thus, local soil bacterial communities are affected by recent activities such as agriculture, mining and industry. In addition, ancient human impacts dating back centuries or millennia have changed soils and can [...] Read more.
Beside natural factors, human activities are important for the development of microbiomes. Thus, local soil bacterial communities are affected by recent activities such as agriculture, mining and industry. In addition, ancient human impacts dating back centuries or millennia have changed soils and can emboss the recent bacterial communities up to now, representing a certain long-term “memory of soil”. Soil samples from five different archaeological excavation places were investigated for the presence of Archaea with a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis of the DNA coding for 16S r-RNA sequences. It was found that the abundance of Archaea differs strongly between less than one and more than 40 percent of bacteria. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all samples shows that the archaeological excavation places can be distinguished from each other by the archaeal component of soil bacterial communities, which presents a typical pattern for each place. Most samples are marked by the dominance of Crenarchaeota, which are presented mainly by ammonia-related types. High contents of Nanoarchaeaota have been observed in one ash deposit of a historical saline and all samples of a historical tannery area. These samples are also marked by a significant presence of Dadabacteria. The specific abundancies of special Archaea—among them ammonia-oxidizing and sulphur-related types—are due obviously to former human activities and support the concept of the “ecological memory of soil”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Microbes and Enzymes 3.0)
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