ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 35381

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, 710 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: molecular biology; bioinformatics; plant sciences
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to invite you to publish your innovative research in this Special Issue, focusing on abiotic stresses in plants. In the modern world, there is an urgent need to broaden our knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in abiotic stress-related responses, to facilitate the development of novel approaches in agriculture, plant-based medicine, forestry, food production, and other fields. My intention is to provide a friendly and open forum for sharing high-quality manuscripts that address every possible aspect of this complex problem. Full research papers, impactful communications, comprehensive systematic reviews, or featured opinions are particularly welcome. The main Special Issue topics are as follows:

  • Molecular responses to a variety of ‘classic’ abiotic stresses (drought, temperature-dependent stress, salinity, micro/macronutrient deficiency or excess, etc.);
  • Spectral quality of incident light affecting plant development and/or stress responses;
  • Nanoparticles as a new type of plant stressor;
  • Bioinformatic studies of proteins and/or nucleic acid structures related to abiotic stress responses in plants (docking, molecular dynamics, etc.);
  • miRNAs and other noncoding RNAs involved in abiotic stress in plants;
  • Novel methods for abiotic stress research in plants;
  • Age-dependent abiotic stress in plants;
  • Interdisciplinary approaches for abiotic stress research in plants.

Dr. Martin Bartas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (23 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Reduction of Ferredoxin in PGR5-Deficient Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Stimulated Ferredoxin-Dependent Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem I
by Shu Maekawa, Miho Ohnishi, Shinya Wada, Kentaro Ifuku and Chikahiro Miyake
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052677 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 652
Abstract
The molecular entity responsible for catalyzing ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (Fd-CEF) remains unidentified. To reveal the in vivo molecular mechanism of Fd-CEF, evaluating ferredoxin reduction–oxidation kinetics proves to be a reliable indicator of Fd-CEF activity. Recent research has demonstrated [...] Read more.
The molecular entity responsible for catalyzing ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (Fd-CEF) remains unidentified. To reveal the in vivo molecular mechanism of Fd-CEF, evaluating ferredoxin reduction–oxidation kinetics proves to be a reliable indicator of Fd-CEF activity. Recent research has demonstrated that the expression of Fd-CEF activity is contingent upon the oxidation of plastoquinone. Moreover, chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase does not catalyze Fd-CEF in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we analyzed the impact of reduced Fd on Fd-CEF activity by comparing wild-type and pgr5-deficient mutants (pgr5hope1). PGR5 has been proposed as the mediator of Fd-CEF, and pgr5hope1 exhibited a comparable CO2 assimilation rate and the same reduction–oxidation level of PQ as the wild type. However, P700 oxidation was suppressed with highly reduced Fd in pgr5hope1, unlike in the wild type. As anticipated, the Fd-CEF activity was enhanced in pgr5hope1 compared to the wild type, and its activity further increased with the oxidation of PQ due to the elevated CO2 assimilation rate. This in vivo research clearly demonstrates that the expression of Fd-CEF activity requires not only reduced Fd but also oxidized PQ. Importantly, PGR5 was found to not catalyze Fd-CEF, challenging previous assumptions about its role in this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9773 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Analysis of the Effects of Soil Amendment on Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Photosynthesis under Drip Irrigation with Brackish Water
by Ziwei Li, Hua Fan, Le Yang, Shuai Wang, Dashuang Hong, Wenli Cui, Tong Wang, Chunying Wei, Yan Sun, Kaiyong Wang and Yantao Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(5), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25052521 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Drip irrigation with brackish water increases the risk of soil salinization while alleviating water shortage in arid areas. In order to alleviate soil salinity stress on crops, polymer soil amendments are increasingly used. But the regulation mechanism of a polymer soil amendment composed [...] Read more.
Drip irrigation with brackish water increases the risk of soil salinization while alleviating water shortage in arid areas. In order to alleviate soil salinity stress on crops, polymer soil amendments are increasingly used. But the regulation mechanism of a polymer soil amendment composed of polyacrylamide polyvinyl alcohol, and manganese sulfate (PPM) on rapeseed photosynthesis under drip irrigation with different types of brackish water is still unclear. In this field study, PPM was applied to study the responses of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) phenotype, photosynthetic physiology, transcriptomics, and metabolomics at the peak flowering stage under drip irrigation with water containing 6 g·L−1 NaCl (S) and Na2CO3 (A). The results showed that the inhibitory effect of the A treatment on rapeseed photosynthesis was greater than that of the S treatment, which was reflected in the higher Na+ content (73.30%) and lower photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters (6.30–61.54%) and antioxidant enzyme activity (53.13–77.10%) of the A-treated plants. The application of PPM increased the biomass (63.03–75.91%), photosynthetic parameters (10.55–34.06%), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (33.83–62.52%), leaf pigment content (10.30–187.73%), and antioxidant enzyme activity (28.37–198.57%) under S and A treatments. However, the difference is that under the S treatment, PPM regulated the sulfur metabolism, carbon fixation and carbon metabolism pathways in rapeseed leaves. And it also regulated the photosynthesis-, oxidative phosphorylation-, and TCA cycle-related metabolic pathways in rapeseed leaves under A treatment. This study will provide new insights for the application of polymer materials to tackle the salinity stress on crops caused by drip irrigation with brackish water, and solve the difficulty in brackish water utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6649 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of the Oat (Avena sativa) HSP90 Gene Family Reveals Its Identification, Evolution, and Response to Abiotic Stress
by Jinghan Peng, Siyu Liu, Jiqiang Wu, Tianqi Liu, Boyang Liu, Yi Xiong, Junming Zhao, Minghong You, Xiong Lei and Xiao Ma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042305 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 971
Abstract
Oats (Avena sativa) are an important cereal crop and cool-season forage worldwide. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a protein ubiquitously expressed in response to heat stress in almost all plants. To date, the HSP90 gene family has not been comprehensively [...] Read more.
Oats (Avena sativa) are an important cereal crop and cool-season forage worldwide. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a protein ubiquitously expressed in response to heat stress in almost all plants. To date, the HSP90 gene family has not been comprehensively reported in oats. Herein, we have identified twenty HSP90 genes in oats and elucidated their evolutionary pathways and responses to five abiotic stresses. The gene structure and motif analyses demonstrated consistency across the phylogenetic tree branches, and the groups exhibited relative structural conservation. Additionally, we identified ten pairs of segmentally duplicated genes in oats. Interspecies synteny analysis and orthologous gene identification indicated that oats share a significant number of orthologous genes with their ancestral species; this implies that the expansion of the oat HSP90 gene family may have occurred through oat polyploidization and large fragment duplication. The analysis of cis-acting elements revealed their influential role in the expression pattern of HSP90 genes under abiotic stresses. Analysis of oat gene expression under high-temperature, salt, cadmium (Cd), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and abscisic acid (ABA) stresses demonstrated that most AsHSP90 genes were significantly up-regulated by heat stress, particularly AsHSP90-7, AsHSP90-8, and AsHSP90-9. This study offers new insights into the amplification and evolutionary processes of the AsHSP90 protein, as well as its potential role in response to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, it lays the groundwork for understanding oat adaptation to abiotic stress, contributing to research and applications in plant breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2294 KiB  
Article
Impact of Heavy Metals on Cold Acclimation of Salix viminalis Roots
by Valentin Ambroise, Sylvain Legay, Marijke Jozefczak, Céline C. Leclercq, Sebastien Planchon, Jean-Francois Hausman, Jenny Renaut, Ann Cuypers and Kjell Sergeant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(3), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25031545 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
In nature, plants are exposed to a range of climatic conditions. Those negatively impacting plant growth and survival are called abiotic stresses. Although abiotic stresses have been extensively studied separately, little is known about their interactions. Here, we investigate the impact of long-term [...] Read more.
In nature, plants are exposed to a range of climatic conditions. Those negatively impacting plant growth and survival are called abiotic stresses. Although abiotic stresses have been extensively studied separately, little is known about their interactions. Here, we investigate the impact of long-term mild metal exposure on the cold acclimation of Salix viminalis roots using physiological, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches. We found that, while metal exposure significantly affected plant morphology and physiology, it did not impede cold acclimation. Cold acclimation alone increased glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity. It also resulted in the increase in transcripts and proteins belonging to the heat-shock proteins and related to the energy metabolism. Exposure to metals decreased antioxidant capacity but increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. It also resulted in the overexpression of transcripts and proteins related to metal homeostasis, protein folding, and the antioxidant machinery. The simultaneous exposure to both stressors resulted in effects that were not the simple addition of the effects of both stressors taken separately. At the antioxidant level, the response to both stressors was like the response to metals alone. While this should have led to a reduction of frost tolerance, this was not observed. The impact of the simultaneous exposure to metals and cold acclimation on the transcriptome was unique, while at the proteomic level the cold acclimation component seemed to be dominant. Some genes and proteins displayed positive interaction patterns. These genes and proteins were related to the mitigation and reparation of oxidative damage, sugar catabolism, and the production of lignans, trehalose, and raffinose. Interestingly, none of these genes and proteins belonged to the traditional ROS homeostasis system. These results highlight the importance of the under-studied role of lignans and the ROS damage repair and removal system in plants simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2373 KiB  
Communication
Do Cuticular Gaps Make It Possible to Study the Composition of the Cell Walls in the Glands of Drosophyllum lusitanicum?
by Bartosz J. Płachno, Małgorzata Kapusta, Piotr Stolarczyk and Piotr Świątek
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25021320 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Carnivorous plants can survive in poor habitats because they have the ability to attract, capture, and digest prey and absorb animal nutrients using modified organs that are equipped with glands. These glands have terminal cells with permeable cuticles. Cuticular discontinuities allow both secretion [...] Read more.
Carnivorous plants can survive in poor habitats because they have the ability to attract, capture, and digest prey and absorb animal nutrients using modified organs that are equipped with glands. These glands have terminal cells with permeable cuticles. Cuticular discontinuities allow both secretion and endocytosis. In Drosophyllum lusitanicum, these emergences have glandular cells with cuticular discontinuities in the form of cuticular gaps. In this study, we determined whether these specific cuticular discontinuities were permeable enough to antibodies to show the occurrence of the cell wall polymers in the glands. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to show the structure of the cuticle. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the localization of the carbohydrate epitopes that are associated with the major cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins. We showed that Drosophyllum leaf epidermal cells have a continuous and well-developed cuticle, which helps the plant inhibit water loss and live in a dry environment. The cuticular gaps only partially allow us to study the composition of cell walls in the glands of Drosophyllum. We recoded arabinogalactan proteins, some homogalacturonans, and hemicelluloses. However, antibody penetration was only limited to the cell wall surface. The localization of the wall components in the cell wall ingrowths was missing. The use of enzymatic digestion improves the labeling of hemicelluloses in Drosophyllum glands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2926 KiB  
Article
Inferring the Regulatory Network of miRNAs on Terpene Trilactone Biosynthesis Affected by Environmental Conditions
by Ying Guo, Yongli Qi, Yangfan Feng, Yuting Yang, Liangjiao Xue, Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Guibin Wang and Fangfang Fu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 17002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242317002 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
As a medicinal tree species, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) and terpene trilactones (TTLs) extracted from its leaves are the main pharmacologic activity constituents and important economic indicators of its value. The accumulation of TTLs is known to be affected by environmental stress, [...] Read more.
As a medicinal tree species, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) and terpene trilactones (TTLs) extracted from its leaves are the main pharmacologic activity constituents and important economic indicators of its value. The accumulation of TTLs is known to be affected by environmental stress, while the regulatory mechanism of environmental response mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) at the post-transcriptional levels remains unclear. Here, we focused on grafted ginkgo grown in northwestern, southwestern, and eastern-central China and integrally analyzed RNA-seq and small RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing data as well as metabolomics data from leaf samples of ginkgo clones grown in natural environments. The content of bilobalide was highest among detected TTLs, and there was more than a twofold variation in the accumulation of bilobalide between growth conditions. Meanwhile, transcriptome analysis found significant differences in the expression of 19 TTL-related genes among ginkgo leaves from different environments. Small RNA sequencing and analysis showed that 62 of the 521 miRNAs identified were differentially expressed among different samples, especially the expression of miRN50, miR169h/i, and miR169e was susceptible to environmental changes. Further, we found that transcription factors (ERF, MYB, C3H, HD-ZIP, HSF, and NAC) and miRNAs (miR319e/f, miRN2, miRN54, miR157, miR185, and miRN188) could activate or inhibit the expression of TTL-related genes to participate in the regulation of terpene trilactones biosynthesis in ginkgo leaves by weighted gene co-regulatory network analysis. Our findings provide new insights into the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of TTL biosynthesis but also lay the foundation for ginkgo leaves’ medicinal value improvement under global change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3533 KiB  
Article
Changes in Polar Lipid Composition in Balsam Fir during Seasonal Cold Acclimation and Relationship to Needle Abscission
by Mason T. MacDonald, Rajasekaran R. Lada, Gaye E. MacDonald, Claude D. Caldwell and Chibuike C. Udenigwe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(21), 15702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242115702 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Needle abscission in balsam fir has been linked to both cold acclimation and changes in lipid composition. The overall objective of this research is to uncover lipid changes in balsam fir during cold acclimation and link those changes with postharvest abscission. Branches were [...] Read more.
Needle abscission in balsam fir has been linked to both cold acclimation and changes in lipid composition. The overall objective of this research is to uncover lipid changes in balsam fir during cold acclimation and link those changes with postharvest abscission. Branches were collected monthly from September to December and were assessed for cold tolerance via membrane leakage and chlorophyll fluorescence changes at −5, −15, −25, −35, and −45 °C. Lipids were extracted and analyzed using mass spectrometry while postharvest needle abscission was determined gravimetrically. Cold tolerance and needle retention each significantly (p < 0.001) improved throughout autumn in balsam fir. There were concurrent increases in DGDG, PC, PG, PE, and PA throughout autumn as well as a decrease in MGDG. Those same lipids were strongly related to cold tolerance, though MGDG had the strongest relationship (R2 = 55.0% and 42.7% from membrane injury and chlorophyll fluorescence, respectively). There was a similar, albeit weaker, relationship between MGDG:DGDG and needle retention (R2 = 24.3%). Generally, a decrease in MGDG:DGDG ratio resulted in better cold tolerance and higher needle retention in balsam fir, possibly due to increased membrane stability. This study confirms the degree of cold acclimation in Nova Scotian balsam fir and presents practical significance to industry by identifying the timing of peak needle retention. It is suggested that MGDG:DGDG might be a beneficial tool for screening balsam fir genotypes with higher needle retention characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
The Root-Colonizing Endophyte Piriformospora indica Supports Nitrogen-Starved Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings with Nitrogen Metabolites
by Sandra S. Scholz, Emanuel Barth, Gilles Clément, Anne Marmagne, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Takatoshi Kiba, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa, Stephan Pollmann, Anne Krapp and Ralf Oelmüller
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(20), 15372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242015372 - 19 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the root and shoot growth of its host plants. We show that the growth promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves is abolished when the seedlings are grown on media with nitrogen (N) limitation. The fungus neither stimulated [...] Read more.
The root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the root and shoot growth of its host plants. We show that the growth promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves is abolished when the seedlings are grown on media with nitrogen (N) limitation. The fungus neither stimulated the total N content nor did it promote 15NO3 uptake from agar plates to the leaves of the host under N-sufficient or N-limiting conditions. However, when the roots were co-cultivated with 15N-labelled P. indica, more labels were detected in the leaves of N-starved host plants but not in plants supplied with sufficient N. Amino acid and primary metabolite profiles, as well as the expression analyses of N metabolite transporter genes suggest that the fungus alleviates the adaptation of its host from the N limitation condition. P. indica alters the expression of transporter genes, which participate in the relocation of NO3, NH4+ and N metabolites from the roots to the leaves under N limitation. We propose that P. indica participates in the plant’s metabolomic adaptation against N limitation by delivering reduced N metabolites to the host, thus alleviating metabolic N starvation responses and reprogramming the expression of N metabolism-related genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2193 KiB  
Article
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Affect Early Seedlings’ Growth and Polar Metabolite Profiles of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
by Karolina Stałanowska, Joanna Szablińska-Piernik, Adam Okorski and Lesław B. Lahuta
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(19), 14992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241914992 - 8 Oct 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The growing interest in the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in agriculture creates a risk of soil contamination with ZnO NPs, which can lead to phytotoxic effects on germinating seeds and seedlings. In the present study, the susceptibility of germinating seeds/seedlings [...] Read more.
The growing interest in the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in agriculture creates a risk of soil contamination with ZnO NPs, which can lead to phytotoxic effects on germinating seeds and seedlings. In the present study, the susceptibility of germinating seeds/seedlings of pea and wheat to ZnO NPs of various sizes (≤50 and ≤100 nm) applied at concentrations in the range of 100–1000 mg/L was compared. Changes in metabolic profiles in seedlings were analyzed by GC and GC-MS methods. The size-dependent harmful effect of ZnO NPs on the seedling’s growth was revealed. The more toxic ZnO NPs (50 nm) at the lowest concentration (100 mg/L) caused a 2-fold decrease in the length of the wheat roots. In peas, the root elongation was slowed down by 20–30% only at 1000 mg/L ZnO NPs. The metabolic response to ZnO NPs, common for all tested cultivars of pea and wheat, was a significant increase in sucrose (in roots and shoots) and GABA (in roots). In pea seedlings, an increased content of metabolites involved in the aspartate–glutamate pathway and the TCA cycle (citrate, malate) was found, while in wheat, the content of total amino acids (in all tissues) and malate (in roots) decreased. Moreover, a decrease in products of starch hydrolysis (maltose and glucose) in wheat endosperm indicates the disturbances in starch mobilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5961 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of GmSPS Gene Family in Soybean and Expression Analysis in Response to Cold Stress
by Jiafang Shen, Yiran Xu, Songli Yuan, Fuxiao Jin, Yi Huang, Haifeng Chen, Zhihui Shan, Zhonglu Yang, Shuilian Chen, Xinan Zhou and Chanjuan Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(16), 12878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241612878 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Sucrose metabolism plays a critical role in development, stress response, and yield formation of plants. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway. To date, genome-wide survey and comprehensive analysis of the SPS gene family in soybean [...] Read more.
Sucrose metabolism plays a critical role in development, stress response, and yield formation of plants. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway. To date, genome-wide survey and comprehensive analysis of the SPS gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have yet to be performed. In this study, seven genes encoding SPS were identified in soybean genome. The structural characteristics, phylogenetics, tissue expression patterns, and cold stress response of these GmSPSs were investigated. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of SPS proteins in soybean, Medicago truncatula, Medicago sativa, Lotus japonicus, Arabidopsis, and rice revealed four families. GmSPSs were clustered into three families from A to C, and have undergone five segmental duplication events under purifying selection. All GmSPS genes had various expression patterns in different tissues, and family A members GmSPS13/17 were highly expressed in nodules. Remarkably, all GmSPS promoters contain multiple low-temperature-responsive elements such as potential binding sites of inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1), the central regulator in cold response. qRT-PCR proved that these GmSPS genes, especially GmSPS8/18, were induced by cold treatment in soybean leaves, and the expression pattern of GmICE1 under cold treatment was similar to that of GmSPS8/18. Further transient expression analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that GmSPS8 and GmSPS18 transcriptions were directly activated by GmICE1. Taken together, our findings may aid in future efforts to clarify the potential roles of GmSPS genes in response to cold stress in soybean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1739 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Oxidation Rate of Reduced Ferredoxin in Arabidopsis thaliana Independent of Photosynthetic Linear Electron Flow: Plausible Activity of Ferredoxin-Dependent Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem I
by Miho Ohnishi, Shu Maekawa, Shinya Wada, Kentaro Ifuku and Chikahiro Miyake
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512145 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
The activity of ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent cyclic electron flow (Fd-CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) was determined in intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The oxidation rate of Fd reduced by PSI (vFd) and photosynthetic linear electron flow activity are simultaneously measured under actinic light [...] Read more.
The activity of ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent cyclic electron flow (Fd-CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) was determined in intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The oxidation rate of Fd reduced by PSI (vFd) and photosynthetic linear electron flow activity are simultaneously measured under actinic light illumination. The vFd showed a curved response to the photosynthetic linear electron flow activity. In the lower range of photosynthetic linear flow activity with plastoquinone (PQ) in a highly reduced state, vFd clearly showed a linear relationship with photosynthetic linear electron flow activity. On the other hand, vFd increased sharply when photosynthetic linear electron flow activity became saturated with oxidized PQ as the net CO2 assimilation rate increased. That is, under higher photosynthesis conditions, we observed excess vFd resulting in electron flow over photosynthetic linear electron flow. The situation in which excess vFd was observed was consistent with the previous Fd-CEF model. Thus, excess vFd could be attributed to the in vivo activity of Fd-CEF. Furthermore, the excess vFd was also observed in NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-deficient mutants localized in the thylakoid membrane. The physiological significance of the excessive vFd was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3762 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis of Diurnal and Nocturnal-Warmed Plants, the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Cold Deacclimation Response in Deschampsia antarctica
by Dariel López, Giovanni Larama, Patricia L. Sáez and León A. Bravo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 11211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241311211 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Warming in the Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest on earth, and is predicted to become more asymmetric in the near future. Warming has already favored the growth and reproduction of Antarctic plant species, leading to a decrease in their freezing tolerance [...] Read more.
Warming in the Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest on earth, and is predicted to become more asymmetric in the near future. Warming has already favored the growth and reproduction of Antarctic plant species, leading to a decrease in their freezing tolerance (deacclimation). Evidence regarding the effects of diurnal and nocturnal warming on freezing tolerance-related gene expression in D. antarctica is negligible. We hypothesized that freezing tolerance-related gene (such as CBF-regulon) expression is reduced mainly by nocturnal warming rather than diurnal temperature changes in D. antarctica. The present work aimed to determine the effects of diurnal and nocturnal warming on cold deacclimation and its associated gene expression in D. antarctica, under laboratory conditions. Fully cold-acclimated plants (8 °C/0 °C), with 16h/8h thermoperiod and photoperiod duration, were assigned to four treatments for 14 days: one control (8 °C/0 °C) and three with different warming conditions (diurnal (14 °C/0 °C), nocturnal (8 °C/6 °C), and diurnal-nocturnal (14 °C/6 °C). RNA-seq was performed and differential gene expression was analyzed. Nocturnal warming significantly down-regulated the CBF transcription factors expression and associated cold stress response genes and up-regulated photosynthetic and growth promotion genes. Consequently, nocturnal warming has a greater effect than diurnal warming on the cold deacclimation process in D. antarctica. The eco-physiological implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2882 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic, Physiological, and Metabolomic Response of an Alpine Plant, Rhododendron delavayi, to Waterlogging Stress and Post-Waterlogging Recovery
by Xi-Min Zhang, Sheng-Guang Duan, Ying Xia, Jie-Ting Li, Lun-Xian Liu, Ming Tang, Jing Tang, Wei Sun and Yin Yi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310509 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Climate change has resulted in frequent heavy and prolonged rainfall events that exacerbate waterlogging stress, leading to the death of certain alpine Rhododendron trees. To shed light on the physiological and molecular mechanisms behind waterlogging stress in woody Rhododendron trees, we conducted a [...] Read more.
Climate change has resulted in frequent heavy and prolonged rainfall events that exacerbate waterlogging stress, leading to the death of certain alpine Rhododendron trees. To shed light on the physiological and molecular mechanisms behind waterlogging stress in woody Rhododendron trees, we conducted a study of Rhododendron delavayi, a well-known alpine flower species. Specifically, we investigated the physiological and molecular changes that occurred in leaves of R. delavayi subjected to 30 days of waterlogging stress (WS30d), as well as subsequent post-waterlogging recovery period of 10 days (WS30d-R10d). Our findings reveal that waterlogging stress causes a significant reduction in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in the WS30d leaves, by 91.2%, 95.3%, 93.3%, and 8.4%, respectively, when compared to the control leaves. Furthermore, the chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll content in the WS30d leaves decreased by 13.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Both WS30d and WS30d-R10d leaves exhibited excessive H2O2 accumulation, with a corresponding decrease in lignin content in the WS30d-R10d leaves. At the molecular level, purine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, photosynthesis, and photosynthesis-antenna protein pathways were found to be primarily involved in WS30d leaves, whereas phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, and cutin, suberin, and wax biosynthesis pathways were significantly enriched in WS30d-R10d leaves. Additionally, both WS30d and WS30d-R10d leaves displayed a build-up of sugars. Overall, our integrated transcriptomic, physiological, and metabolomic analysis demonstrated that R. delavayi is susceptible to waterlogging stress, which causes irreversible detrimental effects on both its physiological and molecular aspects, hence compromising the tree’s ability to fully recover, even under normal growth conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2136 KiB  
Article
MsSPL9 Modulates Nodulation under Nitrate Sufficiency Condition in Medicago sativa
by Vida Nasrollahi, Gamalat Allam, Susanne E. Kohalmi and Abdelali Hannoufa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119615 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Nodulation in Leguminous spp. is induced by common environmental cues, such as low nitrogen availability conditions, in the presence of the specific Rhizobium spp. in the rhizosphere. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is an important nitrogen-fixing forage crop that is widely cultivated around the world [...] Read more.
Nodulation in Leguminous spp. is induced by common environmental cues, such as low nitrogen availability conditions, in the presence of the specific Rhizobium spp. in the rhizosphere. Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is an important nitrogen-fixing forage crop that is widely cultivated around the world and relied upon as a staple source of forage in livestock feed. Although alfalfa’s relationship with these bacteria is one of the most efficient between rhizobia and legume plants, breeding for nitrogen-related traits in this crop has received little attention. In this report, we investigate the role of Squamosa-Promoter Binding Protein-Like 9 (SPL9), a target of miR156, in nodulation in alfalfa. Transgenic alfalfa plants with SPL9-silenced (SPL9-RNAi) and overexpressed (35S::SPL9) were compared to wild-type (WT) alfalfa for phenotypic changes in nodulation in the presence and absence of nitrogen. Phenotypic analyses showed that silencing of MsSPL9 in alfalfa caused an increase in the number of nodules. Moreover, the characterization of phenotypic and molecular parameters revealed that MsSPL9 regulates nodulation under a high concentration of nitrate (10 mM KNO3) by regulating the transcription levels of the nitrate-responsive genes Nitrate Reductase1 (NR1), NR2, Nitrate transporter 2.5 (NRT2.5), and a shoot-controlled autoregulation of nodulation (AON) gene, Super numeric nodules (SUNN). While MsSPL9–overexpressing transgenic plants have dramatically increased transcript levels of SUNN, NR1, NR2, and NRT2.5, reducing MsSPL9 caused downregulation of these genes and displayed a nitrogen-starved phenotype, as downregulation of the MsSPL9 transcript levels caused a nitrate-tolerant nodulation phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that MsSPL9 regulates nodulation in alfalfa in response to nitrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4079 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Dendrocalamus farinosus CCoAOMT Gene Family and the Role of DfCCoAOMT14 Involved in Lignin Synthesis
by Lixian Wei, Xin Zhao, Xiaoyan Gu, Jiahui Peng, Wenjuan Song, Bin Deng, Ying Cao and Shanglian Hu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108965 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
As the main component of plant cell walls, lignin can not only provide mechanical strength and physical defense for plants, but can also be an important indicator affecting the properties and quality of wood and bamboo. Dendrocalamus farinosus is an important economic bamboo [...] Read more.
As the main component of plant cell walls, lignin can not only provide mechanical strength and physical defense for plants, but can also be an important indicator affecting the properties and quality of wood and bamboo. Dendrocalamus farinosus is an important economic bamboo species for both shoots and timber in southwest China, with the advantages of fast growth, high yield and slender fiber. Caffeoyl-coenzyme A-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the lignin biosynthesis pathway, but little is known about it in D. farinosus. Here, a total of 17 DfCCoAOMT genes were identified based on the D. farinosus whole genome. DfCCoAOMT1/14/15/16 were homologs of AtCCoAOMT1. DfCCoAOMT6/9/14/15/16 were highly expressed in stems of D. farinosus; this is consistent with the trend of lignin accumulation during bamboo shoot elongation, especially DfCCoAOMT14. The analysis of promoter cis-acting elements suggested that DfCCoAOMTs might be important for photosynthesis, ABA/MeJA responses, drought stress and lignin synthesis. We then confirmed that the expression levels of DfCCoAOMT2/5/6/8/9/14/15 were regulated by ABA/MeJA signaling. In addition, overexpression of DfCCoAOMT14 in transgenic plants significantly increased the lignin content, xylem thickness and drought resistance of plants. Our findings revealed that DfCCoAOMT14 can be a candidate gene that is involved in the drought response and lignin synthesis pathway in plants, which could contribute to the genetic improvement of many important traits in D. farinosus and other species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5600 KiB  
Article
STAY-GREEN Accelerates Chlorophyll Degradation in Magnolia sinostellata under the Condition of Light Deficiency
by Mingjie Ren, Jingjing Ma, Danying Lu, Chao Wu, Senyu Zhu, Xiaojun Chen, Yufeng Wu and Yamei Shen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108510 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
Species of the Magnoliaceae family are valued for their ornamental qualities and are widely used in landscaping worldwide. However, many of these species are endangered in their natural environments, often due to being overshadowed by overstory canopies. The molecular mechanisms of Magnolia’s [...] Read more.
Species of the Magnoliaceae family are valued for their ornamental qualities and are widely used in landscaping worldwide. However, many of these species are endangered in their natural environments, often due to being overshadowed by overstory canopies. The molecular mechanisms of Magnolia’s sensitivity to shade have remained hitherto obscure. Our study sheds light on this conundrum by identifying critical genes involved in governing the plant’s response to a light deficiency (LD) environment. In response to LD stress, Magnolia sinostellata leaves were endowed with a drastic dwindling in chlorophyll content, which was concomitant to the downregulation of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and upregulation in the chlorophyll degradation pathway. The STAY-GREEN (MsSGR) gene was one of the most up-regulated genes, which was specifically localized in chloroplasts, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis and tobacco accelerated chlorophyll degradation. Sequence analysis of the MsSGR promoter revealed that it contains multiple phytohormone-responsive and light-responsive cis-acting elements and was activated by LD stress. A yeast two-hybrid analysis resulted in the identification of 24 proteins that putatively interact with MsSGR, among which eight were chloroplast-localized proteins that were significantly responsive to LD. Our findings demonstrate that light deficiency increases the expression of MsSGR, which in turn regulates chlorophyll degradation and interacts with multiple proteins to form a molecular cascade. Overall, our work has uncovered the mechanism by which MsSGR mediates chlorophyll degradation under LD stress conditions, providing insight into the molecular interactions network of MsSGR and contributing to a theoretical framework for understanding the endangerment of wild Magnoliaceae species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3559 KiB  
Article
Intra-Specific Variation in Desiccation Tolerance of Citrus sinensis ‘bingtangcheng’ (L.) Seeds under Different Environmental Conditions in China
by Hongying Chen, Anne M. Visscher, Qin Ai, Lan Yang, Hugh W. Pritchard and Weiqi Li
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087393 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Intra-specific variation in seed storage behaviour observed in several species has been related to different maternal environments. However, the particular environmental conditions and molecular processes involved in intra-specific variation of desiccation tolerance remain unclear. We chose Citrus sinensis ‘bingtangcheng’ for the present study [...] Read more.
Intra-specific variation in seed storage behaviour observed in several species has been related to different maternal environments. However, the particular environmental conditions and molecular processes involved in intra-specific variation of desiccation tolerance remain unclear. We chose Citrus sinensis ‘bingtangcheng’ for the present study due to its known variability in desiccation tolerance amongst seed lots. Six seed lots of mature fruits were harvested across China and systematically compared for drying sensitivity. Annual sunshine hours and average temperature from December to May showed positive correlations with the level of seed survival of dehydration. Transcriptional analysis indicated significant variation in gene expression between relatively desiccation-tolerant (DT) and -sensitive (DS) seed lots after harvest. The major genes involved in late seed maturation, such as heat shock proteins, showed higher expression in the DT seed lot. Following the imposition of drying, 80% of stress-responsive genes in the DS seed lot changed to the stable levels seen in the DT seed lot prior to and post-desiccation. However, the changes in expression of stress-responsive genes in DS seeds did not improve their tolerance to desiccation. Thus, higher desiccation tolerance of Citrus sinensis ‘bingtangcheng’ seeds is modulated by the maternal environment (e.g., higher annual sunshine hours and seasonal temperature) during seed development and involves stable expression levels of stress-responsive genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7439 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Nondestructive Evaluation of Wheat Chlorophyll under Drought Stress Using Hyperspectral Imaging
by Yucun Yang, Rui Nan, Tongxi Mi, Yingxin Song, Fanghui Shi, Xinran Liu, Yunqi Wang, Fengli Sun, Yajun Xi and Chao Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065825 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
Chlorophyll drives plant photosynthesis. Under stress conditions, leaf chlorophyll content changes dramatically, which could provide insight into plant photosynthesis and drought resistance. Compared to traditional methods of evaluating chlorophyll content, hyperspectral imaging is more efficient and accurate and benefits from being a nondestructive [...] Read more.
Chlorophyll drives plant photosynthesis. Under stress conditions, leaf chlorophyll content changes dramatically, which could provide insight into plant photosynthesis and drought resistance. Compared to traditional methods of evaluating chlorophyll content, hyperspectral imaging is more efficient and accurate and benefits from being a nondestructive technique. However, the relationships between chlorophyll content and hyperspectral characteristics of wheat leaves with wide genetic diversity and different treatments have rarely been reported. In this study, using 335 wheat varieties, we analyzed the hyperspectral characteristics of flag leaves and the relationships thereof with SPAD values at the grain-filling stage under control and drought stress. The hyperspectral information of wheat flag leaves significantly differed between control and drought stress conditions in the 550–700 nm region. Hyperspectral reflectance at 549 nm (r = −0.64) and the first derivative at 735 nm (r = 0.68) exhibited the strongest correlations with SPAD values. Hyperspectral reflectance at 536, 596, and 674 nm, and the first derivatives bands at 756 and 778 nm, were useful for estimating SPAD values. The combination of spectrum and image characteristics (L*, a*, and b*) can improve the estimation accuracy of SPAD values (optimal performance of RFR, relative error, 7.35%; root mean square error, 4.439; R2, 0.61). The models established in this study are efficient for evaluating chlorophyll content and provide insight into photosynthesis and drought resistance. This study can provide a reference for high-throughput phenotypic analysis and genetic breeding of wheat and other crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4048 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome and Low-Affinity Sodium Transport Analysis Reveals Salt Tolerance Variations between Two Poplar Trees
by Xuan Ma, Qiang Zhang, Yongbin Ou, Lijun Wang, Yongfeng Gao, Gutiérrez Rodríguez Lucas, Víctor Resco de Dios and Yinan Yao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(6), 5732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24065732 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
Salinity stress severely hampers plant growth and productivity. How to improve plants’ salt tolerance is an urgent issue. However, the molecular basis of plant resistance to salinity still remains unclear. In this study, we used two poplar species with different salt sensitivities to [...] Read more.
Salinity stress severely hampers plant growth and productivity. How to improve plants’ salt tolerance is an urgent issue. However, the molecular basis of plant resistance to salinity still remains unclear. In this study, we used two poplar species with different salt sensitivities to conduct RNA-sequencing and physiological and pharmacological analyses; the aim is to study the transcriptional profiles and ionic transport characteristics in the roots of the two Populus subjected to salt stress under hydroponic culture conditions. Our results show that numerous genes related to energy metabolism were highly expressed in Populus alba relative to Populus russkii, which activates vigorous metabolic processes and energy reserves for initiating a set of defense responses when suffering from salinity stress. Moreover, we found the capacity of Na+ transportation by the P. alba high-affinity K+ transporter1;2 (HKT1;2) was superior to that of P. russkii under salt stress, which enables P. alba to efficiently recycle xylem-loaded Na+ and to maintain shoot K+/Na+ homeostasis. Furthermore, the genes involved in the synthesis of ethylene and abscisic acid were up-regulated in P. alba but downregulated in P. russkii under salt stress. In P. alba, the gibberellin inactivation and auxin signaling genes with steady high transcriptions, several antioxidant enzymes activities (such as peroxidase [POD], ascorbate peroxidase [APX], and glutathione reductase [GR]), and glycine-betaine content were significantly increased under salt stress. These factors altogether confer P. alba a higher resistance to salinity, achieving a more efficient coordination between growth modulation and defense response. Our research provides significant evidence to improve the salt tolerance of crops or woody plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2400 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of microRNAs and Their Target Genes in Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Responding to Salt Stress
by Yong Chen, Wanling Yang, Rifang Gao, Yaling Chen, Yi Zhou, Jiankun Xie and Fantao Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24044069 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population, and its production is critical for global food security. Moreover, rice yield decreases when exposed to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, which is one of the [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population, and its production is critical for global food security. Moreover, rice yield decreases when exposed to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, which is one of the most detrimental factors for rice production. According to recent trends, as global temperatures continue to rise due to climate change, more rice fields may become saltier. Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff., DXWR) is a progenitor of cultivated rice and has a high tolerance to salt stress, making it useful for studying the regulatory mechanisms of salt stress tolerance. However, the regulatory mechanism of miRNA-mediated salt stress response in DXWR remains unclear. In this study, miRNA sequencing was performed to identify miRNAs and their putative target genes in response to salt stress in order to better understand the roles of miRNAs in DXWR salt stress tolerance. A total of 874 known and 476 novel miRNAs were identified, and the expression levels of 164 miRNAs were found to be significantly altered under salt stress. The stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) expression levels of randomly selected miRNAs were largely consistent with the miRNA sequencing results, suggesting that the sequencing results were reliable. The gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the predicted target genes of salt-responsive miRNAs were involved in diverse biological pathways of stress tolerance. This study contributes to our understanding of DXWR salt tolerance mechanisms regulated by miRNAs and may ultimately improve salt tolerance in cultivated rice breeding using genetic methods in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 2503 KiB  
Review
Defining Mechanisms of C3 to CAM Photosynthesis Transition toward Enhancing Crop Stress Resilience
by Bowen Tan and Sixue Chen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713072 - 22 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
Global climate change and population growth are persistently posing threats to natural resources (e.g., freshwater) and agricultural production. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) evolved from C3 photosynthesis as an adaptive form of photosynthesis in hot and arid regions. It features the nocturnal opening [...] Read more.
Global climate change and population growth are persistently posing threats to natural resources (e.g., freshwater) and agricultural production. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) evolved from C3 photosynthesis as an adaptive form of photosynthesis in hot and arid regions. It features the nocturnal opening of stomata for CO2 assimilation, diurnal closure of stomata for water conservation, and high water-use efficiency. To cope with global climate challenges, the CAM mechanism has attracted renewed attention. Facultative CAM is a specialized form of CAM that normally employs C3 or C4 photosynthesis but can shift to CAM under stress conditions. It not only serves as a model for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the CAM evolution, but also provides a plausible solution for creating stress-resilient crops with facultative CAM traits. This review mainly discusses the recent research effort in defining the C3 to CAM transition of facultative CAM plants, and highlights challenges and future directions in this important research area with great application potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 570 KiB  
Review
Abiotic Stress-Induced Leaf Senescence: Regulatory Mechanisms and Application
by Shuya Tan, Yueqi Sha, Liwei Sun and Zhonghai Li
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 11996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241511996 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Leaf senescence is a natural phenomenon that occurs during the aging process of plants and is influenced by various internal and external factors. These factors encompass plant hormones, as well as environmental pressures such as inadequate nutrients, drought, darkness, high salinity, and extreme [...] Read more.
Leaf senescence is a natural phenomenon that occurs during the aging process of plants and is influenced by various internal and external factors. These factors encompass plant hormones, as well as environmental pressures such as inadequate nutrients, drought, darkness, high salinity, and extreme temperatures. Abiotic stresses accelerate leaf senescence, resulting in reduced photosynthetic efficiency, yield, and quality. Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf senescence in response to abiotic stresses is imperative to enhance the resilience and productivity of crops in unfavorable environments. In recent years, substantial advancements have been made in the study of leaf senescence, particularly regarding the identification of pivotal genes and transcription factors involved in this process. Nevertheless, challenges remain, including the necessity for further exploration of the intricate regulatory network governing leaf senescence and the development of effective strategies for manipulating genes in crops. This manuscript provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms that trigger leaf senescence under abiotic stresses, along with strategies to enhance stress tolerance and improve crop yield and quality by delaying leaf senescence. Furthermore, this review also highlighted the challenges associated with leaf senescence research and proposes potential solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 3722 KiB  
Review
Roles of S-Adenosylmethionine and Its Derivatives in Salt Tolerance of Cotton
by Li Yang, Xingxing Wang, Fuyong Zhao, Xianliang Zhang, Wei Li, Junsen Huang, Xiaoyu Pei, Xiang Ren, Yangai Liu, Kunlun He, Fei Zhang, Xiongfeng Ma and Daigang Yang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119517 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Salinity is a major abiotic stress that restricts cotton growth and affects fiber yield and quality. Although studies on salt tolerance have achieved great progress in cotton since the completion of cotton genome sequencing, knowledge about how cotton copes with salt stress is [...] Read more.
Salinity is a major abiotic stress that restricts cotton growth and affects fiber yield and quality. Although studies on salt tolerance have achieved great progress in cotton since the completion of cotton genome sequencing, knowledge about how cotton copes with salt stress is still scant. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) plays important roles in many organelles with the help of the SAM transporter, and it is also a synthetic precursor for substances such as ethylene (ET), polyamines (PAs), betaine, and lignin, which often accumulate in plants in response to stresses. This review focused on the biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways of ET and PAs. The current progress of ET and PAs in regulating plant growth and development under salt stress has been summarized. Moreover, we verified the function of a cotton SAM transporter and suggested that it can regulate salt stress response in cotton. At last, an improved regulatory pathway of ET and PAs under salt stress in cotton is proposed for the breeding of salt-tolerant varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stresses in Plants: From Molecules to Environment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop