Special Issue "Oral Health of Children, Adolescents, Young Adults and Special Needs Population"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Wei-Jen Chang
Website
Guest Editor
School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan
Interests: dental implant; periodontics; bio-engineering and biomaterials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to invite you to submit a contribution to a Special Issue on Oral Health of Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

When it comes to understanding the prevalence of oral disease and investigation from children to young adults, oral health is a crucial aspect, as it shows the sign of deficiencies, inflammation, and infection. Problems arising from oral health have significant adverse consequences on children’s and young adults’ health and overall well-being, including an increased risk of future caries, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and missed school days.

This Special Issue is open to any subject related to oral health for young people and children, which could improve the current oral health literacy and policies. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities. For detailed information on the journal, you can refer to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Prof. Dr. Wei-Jen Chang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Early childhood caries (ECC)
  • DMFT index
  • Dental care
  • Dental education
  • Caries prevention
  • Fluoride varnish
  • Oral health literacy
  • Regular oral examination
  • Periodontal disease
  • Nutrition

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hyaluronic Acid-Based Medical Device for Treatment of Alveolar Osteitis—Clinical Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193698 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Alveolar Osteitis (AO) is a complication following the extraction of a tooth. AO manifests through localized pain in, and around, the extraction site, where the post-operative blood clot has been disintegrated. The aim of this single cohort study was to evaluate the outcome [...] Read more.
Alveolar Osteitis (AO) is a complication following the extraction of a tooth. AO manifests through localized pain in, and around, the extraction site, where the post-operative blood clot has been disintegrated. The aim of this single cohort study was to evaluate the outcome of a treatment of AO, using a pharmacological device composed of hyaluronic acid and octenidine dihydrochloride. The tested device is a sponge-like material, composed solely of a fully dissoluble medicaments (hyaluronic acid, calcium chloride, and octenidine dihydrochloride). It was designed to serve as a non-toxic, slow-dissolving antiseptic, that adheres to mucosa and obturates the wound. This study includes 58 subjects who were diagnosed with AO. The tested device was administered once daily until local pain subsided to < 20 mm of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The treatment was considered effective when the pain subsided to < 20 mm VAS in < 8 days of treatment; as per comparative studies. Our findings provide a statistically significant success rate of 96.0% (95.0% confidence interval of 75.75% to 97.8%) after pharmacological device administrations. No adverse medical effects were detected. Acquired data confirmed that lyophilized hyaluronic acid, combined with octenidine, is effective for the treatment of AO. The results are clinically important as AO is a common complication after third molar extractions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal and Child Nutrition and Oral Health in Urban Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142579 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The global nutrition transition has contributed to child obesity and dental caries in developing countries, including Vietnam. Few studies have described the nutrition and oral health of mothers and children. This a descriptive study of the nutrition and oral health characteristics of a [...] Read more.
The global nutrition transition has contributed to child obesity and dental caries in developing countries, including Vietnam. Few studies have described the nutrition and oral health of mothers and children. This a descriptive study of the nutrition and oral health characteristics of a convenience sample of 571 children aged 2 to 5 years and their mothers from 5 urban preschools in Central and South Vietnam. The mothers completed a written survey, and the children received dental exams and weight/height measurements. High rates of bottle-feeding and the consumption of sweets were reported. One in 4 children were overweight/obese. Dental caries increased in prevalence and severity by age—at 5 years, 86.7% of children had tooth decay in an average of 8.5 teeth, and 70.9% experienced mouth pain. Most mothers and children suffered from untreated dental disease. Public health programs should focus on nutrition and oral health promotion, as well as dental treatment from pregnancy and birth onward. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Analysis of Dental Treatment under General Anaesthesia in Medically Compromised and Healthy Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142528 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
Dental care under general anaesthesia (GA) is an option when normal treatment cannot be accomplished due to un-cooperation and systemic or cognitive/intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyse the dental treatment under GA in medically compromised and healthy [...] Read more.
Dental care under general anaesthesia (GA) is an option when normal treatment cannot be accomplished due to un-cooperation and systemic or cognitive/intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyse the dental treatment under GA in medically compromised and healthy children. The data were collected from the medical records of children who received their dental treatment under GA. The data regarding patient age, sex, general health, and type of treatment were analysed. This clinical trial included 229 study subjects (138 males, 91 females) with an average age of 8.34 (SD 3.78). Counts and relative counts were used for description of qualitative data. The association between the variables was analysed using contingency tables. The significance of the findings was tested by the chi-square test. Most of the children were older pre-school 63 (27.51%) and young school children 102 (44.54%). Medical disability (systemic or intellectual) was diagnosed in 142 children (62.01%); the remaining 87 (37.99%) were healthy children. Dental treatment of primary teeth was more commonly performed in healthy children (65.52%) compared to medically compromised children (58.45%) (p = 0.287). The total number of medically compromised children and the total number of healthy children were both considered to be 100% for the purpose of the following calculations. In terms of permanent dentition, medically compromised children required more extractions and fillings (38.03%, 57.04%) compared to healthy children (14.94%, 17.24%, respectively). The results of this study revealed that dental treatment under GA was more commonly performed in medically compromised children in permanent teeth only in comparison to healthy children. Based on these findings, both health professionals and state authorities should focus more on preventive care in medically compromised children in order to improve their oral health. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Qualitative Study of Child Nutrition and Oral Health in El Salvador
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142508 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The nutrition transition from traditional diets to processed snacks and sugary beverages has contributed to a higher burden of child malnutrition, obesity, and tooth decay. While child health interventions typically promote nutritious eating, they rarely promote oral health. Mothers’ motivations for child nutrition [...] Read more.
The nutrition transition from traditional diets to processed snacks and sugary beverages has contributed to a higher burden of child malnutrition, obesity, and tooth decay. While child health interventions typically promote nutritious eating, they rarely promote oral health. Mothers’ motivations for child nutrition and oral health practices need to be better understood. A convenience sample of 102 mothers in eight rural Salvadoran communities participated in focus groups addressing child nutrition and oral health. Focus groups were transcribed and coded using qualitative content analysis. Primary themes included generational changes in health environments; health knowledge, attitudes, and practices; and access and barriers to health services. Mothers noted general improvements in awareness of oral hygiene but poorer child oral health, which they attributed to widespread sales of unhealthy snacks and beverages near schools. Distance and cost limited families’ access to dental services. Knowledge gaps included the belief that oral iron supplements cause tooth decay, uncertainty regarding when to start tooth brushing, and until when parents should help children brush. Maternal-child health programs should emphasize the adverse health consequences of feeding young children processed snacks and sugary drinks, and promote dental care access and regulations to ensure health-promoting environments surrounding schools. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Early Childhood Oral Health and Nutrition in Urban and Rural Nepal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142456 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Globalization and urbanization in Nepal have driven a nutritional transition from an agricultural-based diet to an ultra-processed, sugary diet. This study assessed the nutrition and oral health of 836 children age 6 months to 6 years and their families in rural and urban [...] Read more.
Globalization and urbanization in Nepal have driven a nutritional transition from an agricultural-based diet to an ultra-processed, sugary diet. This study assessed the nutrition and oral health of 836 children age 6 months to 6 years and their families in rural and urban Nepal. Mothers were interviewed about maternal–child oral health and nutrition, and children received dental exams and height and weight measurements. Analyses utilized SPSS statistical software. Most families lived within a 5-minute walk to a store selling ultra-processed snacks and sugary drinks. While most mothers knew sweets caused tooth decay, half of the children were given sweets daily, and 58.2% of children had dental caries. Caries began in the first 2 years and increased in prevalence and severity to age 6, when 74.3% had caries and 20% experienced mouth pain. Despite greater health knowledge and resources among urban mothers, urban children’s increased access to junk food and frequency of consumption was associated with higher prevalence and severity of caries compared to rural children. Severe caries was associated with malnutrition, especially in rural children. Preventive strategies are needed in early childhood to incorporate nutrition and oral health education and dental care into maternal–child health services, and develop policies to prohibit the sale of junk food around schools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Dutch Children Diagnosed with Oligodontia. A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132371 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is need to get insight into condition-specific oral health-related quality of life in Dutch children with oligodontia. Between October 2014 and March 2017, 11–17-year-old oligodontia patients were approached to join a study assessing the impact of oligodontia on condition-specific oral health-related quality [...] Read more.
There is need to get insight into condition-specific oral health-related quality of life in Dutch children with oligodontia. Between October 2014 and March 2017, 11–17-year-old oligodontia patients were approached to join a study assessing the impact of oligodontia on condition-specific oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL). The patients received a condition-specific OHrQoL questionnaire prior to the start of orthodontic treatment. Non-oligodontia children in the same age group, but also requiring orthodontic treatment, were approached to serve as a control. The Fisher’s Exact Test was used for comparison purposes with the control group because of the small group sizes. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed for gender, age, number of congenitally missing teeth, tooth agenesis in the aesthetic region, orthodontic classification and microdontia via independent t-tests. p-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Twenty-eight oligodontia patients and 23 controls agreed to participate. The oligodontia patients’ scores were comparable to the controls except for the items about dental appearance and treatment complexity. The impact of oligodontia on OHrQoL in youngsters is limited and mainly concerns dental appearance and the complexity of the treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Enzyme Dentifrices on Oral Health in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122243 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Plaque accumulation and white spot lesions are common adverse effects of fixed orthodontic appliance use. This study compared the effects between enzyme-containing and conventional dentifrices on orthodontic patients. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 42 orthodontic patients (25 women and 17 men: 22.7 [...] Read more.
Plaque accumulation and white spot lesions are common adverse effects of fixed orthodontic appliance use. This study compared the effects between enzyme-containing and conventional dentifrices on orthodontic patients. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 42 orthodontic patients (25 women and 17 men: 22.7 ± 4.2 years) from Taipei Medical University Hospital between 2017 and 2018. The patients were randomly divided into three groups and assigned to dentifrice use during the first 3 months of the orthodontic treatment: group 1 used dentifrices containing enzymes including amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase, group 2 used dentifrices containing 1450 ppm fluoride, and group 3 used natural dentifrices containing no chemical agent. White spot lesion index (WSL), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and visible plaque index (VPI) were recorded and analyzed. WSL, GBI, and VPI values exhibited no significant difference among the three groups. WSL increased significantly in group 3, GBI decreased significantly in all groups, and VPI decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2. No significant difference was observed between the use of enzyme-containing and conventional dentifrices after fixed orthodontic appliance placement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Orthognathic Surgery Treatment Need in a Turkish Adult Population: A Retrospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111881 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Objectives: Limited information exists on orthognathic procedures and respective dentofacial deformities in Turkey. This retrospective study assessed the orthognathic surgery procedures in two universities, using the Index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN), and compared the IOFTN grades according to gender as well [...] Read more.
Objectives: Limited information exists on orthognathic procedures and respective dentofacial deformities in Turkey. This retrospective study assessed the orthognathic surgery procedures in two universities, using the Index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN), and compared the IOFTN grades according to gender as well as sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships. Material and Methods: Records of 200 consecutive patients (120 females, 80 males, mean age = 23.4 (SD: 5.4) years) who received orthognathic treatment (2014–2018) were analyzed. Sagittal (ANB angle) and vertical skeletal type (GoGnSN angle), osteotomies, and IOFTN scores were recorded. Results: Class III, II, and I malocclusions formed 69%, 17.5%, and 13.5% of the samples, respectively. Class III skeletal relationships (69%) and high-angle cases (64%) were the most prevalent (p < 0.05). IOFTN scores were unevenly distributed among genders (p < 0.05) and the prevalent scores were 5.3 (40.5%), 4.3 (15.5%), 5.4 (13%), and 5.2 (7.5%), with 94% scoring 4 or 5 (great and very great functional need). Bimaxillary osteotomies were the most prevalent (55%), followed by LeFort I (32%), and 26% had genioplasty. Conclusion: IOFTN is a reliable tool to identify patients in need of orthognathic surgery. Class III malocclusions and Class III sagittal skeletal relationships were more common in this sample. Comparatively, a higher number of patients had genioplasty as a part of their treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Surgical Risk on Patients with Coagulopathies: Guidelines on Hemophiliac Patients for Oro-Maxillofacial Surgery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081386 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 30
Abstract
Background: Haemophilia is a disease of genetic origin, which causes a defect in blood coagulation. Under normal conditions, in the case of leakage from the blood vessels, the blood forms a clot that reduces or blocks the bleeding. This process involves the activation [...] Read more.
Background: Haemophilia is a disease of genetic origin, which causes a defect in blood coagulation. Under normal conditions, in the case of leakage from the blood vessels, the blood forms a clot that reduces or blocks the bleeding. This process involves the activation of several plasma proteins in a cascade-like species. Two of these proteins, produced in the liver, factor VIII and factor IX, are deficient or present a functional defect in people with haemophilia. Because of this deficit, the haemophiliacs easily suffer external and internal bleeding. Surgical treatment of these patients is to be observed, and often their treatment is delayed due to unclear guidelines and risks in treating these patients. The aim is to provide clear guidelines in the case of surgical treatment of these patients. Methods: In this study, we have considered all the guidelines that refer to the gold-maxillofacial surgery, focusing on the literature of the last 10 years. Results: Surely, this collection of guidelines will favor the choice of the clinician towards safer and predictable protocols. This study does not want to create a guideline but evaluates the literature of the last 10 years, and highlights the latest for the treatment of these patients., with the aim of informing the pathology and at the same time making the surgical maneuvers safer. Conclusions: Despite the research of literature has produced few results, it was nevertheless possible to draw up a guideline thanks to additional information extrapolated from textbooks and other scientific articles. According to the guidelines, it is possible to proceed to the treatment of these patients, if with appropriate therapy in a safe and risk-free manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduction of Dental Caries Among Children and Adolescents From a 15-Year Community Water Fluoridation Program in a Township Area, Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071306 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Since 2000, a community water fluoridation program (CWFP) has been implemented in Hapcheon for over 15 years. We aimed to evaluate the caries-reducing effect on permanent teeth after this implementation. In 2015, evaluation surveys were conducted by our study group, 498 subjects aged [...] Read more.
Since 2000, a community water fluoridation program (CWFP) has been implemented in Hapcheon for over 15 years. We aimed to evaluate the caries-reducing effect on permanent teeth after this implementation. In 2015, evaluation surveys were conducted by our study group, 498 subjects aged 8, 10, 12, and 15 years. As the control, 952 similarly aged subjects were selected from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2015 KNHANES). Data of a prospective cohort of 671 8-,10- and 12-year-olds, collected when CWFP started, were used for the evaluation. Caries-reducing effects were estimated by decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) scores between CWFP and control groups, pre- and post-program. Confounders including the mean number of sealant teeth and gender were adjusted for. The mean adjusted DMFT scores of 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds in Hapcheon were significantly lower compared to KNHANES DMFT scores; in addition, those of 8-, 10- and 12-year-olds after the 15-year CWFP were significantly lower than in 2000. The caries-reducing effect among 12-year-olds was 37.6% compared to those recorded in KNHANES, and 67.4% compared to those in 2000. In conclusion, the caries-reducing effect was so high that health policy makers should consider CWFP as a priority policy for caries-reducing in Korean children and adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Periodontal Disease and Subsequent Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050771 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Xerostomia (dry mouth) is the cardinal symptom of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), which is an autoimmune disease involving the exocrine glands and other organs. Xerostomia may predispose patients to periodontal disease (PD) and an association between SS and PD has been reported. This association [...] Read more.
Xerostomia (dry mouth) is the cardinal symptom of Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), which is an autoimmune disease involving the exocrine glands and other organs. Xerostomia may predispose patients to periodontal disease (PD) and an association between SS and PD has been reported. This association may be bidirectional; therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the risk of SS in patients with PD using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. A total of 135,190 patients were enrolled in our analysis. In all, 27,041 patients with PD were matched by gender, age, insured region, urbanization and income, with cases and controls in a 1:4 ratio. Both groups were followed and the risks of SS were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Finally, 3292 (2.4%) patients had newly diagnosed SS. Patients with PD had a significantly higher risk of subsequent SS (903 (3.3%) vs. 2389 (2.2%), adjusted hazard 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.36–1.59). In conclusion, patients with PD had an approximately 50% increased risk of subsequent SS. Physicians should be aware of the symptoms and signs of SS in patients with PD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Awareness of Clenching and Underweight are Risk Factors for Onset of Crowding in Young Adults: A Prospective 3-Year Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050690 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bruxism is a parafunctional activity that can seriously affect quality of life. Although bruxism induces many problems in the oral and maxillofacial area, whether it contributes to the onset of malocclusion remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate [...] Read more.
Bruxism is a parafunctional activity that can seriously affect quality of life. Although bruxism induces many problems in the oral and maxillofacial area, whether it contributes to the onset of malocclusion remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the onset of malocclusion and awareness of clenching during the daytime in young adults. Among 1,092 Okayama University students who underwent normal occlusion at baseline, we analysed 238 who had undergone a dental examination and had complete data after 3 years (2013–2016). We also performed subgroup analysis to focus on the association between awake bruxism and the onset of crowding (n = 216). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses. The incidences of malocclusion and crowding were 53.8% and 44.5%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression, awareness of clenching was a risk factor for crowding (OR: 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–12.17). Moreover, underweight (body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2) was related to the onset of malocclusion (OR: 2.34; 95%CI: 1.11–4.92) and crowding (OR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.25–5.76). These results suggest that awareness of clenching during the daytime and underweight are risk factors for the onset of crowding in young adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cross-Sectional Study of Endogenous Antioxidants and Patterns of Dental Visits of Periodontitis Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020180 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, wherein endogenous antioxidants help to balance the inflammatory status. Oral health behaviors are related to the periodontal disease status. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between oral health behaviors and endogenous antioxidants in periodontitis [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, wherein endogenous antioxidants help to balance the inflammatory status. Oral health behaviors are related to the periodontal disease status. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between oral health behaviors and endogenous antioxidants in periodontitis patients. In total, 225 subjects diagnosed with periodontitis were enrolled in the study. Information obtained from the initial interview included socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and oral health-related behaviors. The clinical periodontal parameters evaluated included bleeding on probing (BOP), the plaque index (PI), and probing depth (PD). Stimulated saliva was collected before periodontal therapy to determine five endogenous antioxidants (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), manganese SOD (MnSOD), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2), and catalase (CAT)). When these five factors were adjusted for in patients whose last previous dental visit was >1 year, the patients’ PI, BOP, and PD showed significant decreases because of an elevation in the Cu/Zn SOD level. Associations of endogenous antioxidants with levels of clinical periodontal parameters were much higher in subjects whose last previous dental visit was >1 year, compared to subjects whose last previous dental visit was <1 year. This study provides a better understanding of dental visit patterns and the salivary endogenous antioxidants that may underlie the symptomatic development of preclinical periodontitis. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Oral-Health Promotion in Dental Caries Prevention among Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152668 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of oral-health promotion programs (OHPPs) aiming to improve children’s knowledge of favorable oral health behavior to lower decayed/-missing/-filled teeth (DMFT) while reducing the financial cost on health institutions. An electronic [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of oral-health promotion programs (OHPPs) aiming to improve children’s knowledge of favorable oral health behavior to lower decayed/-missing/-filled teeth (DMFT) while reducing the financial cost on health institutions. An electronic search was performed in seven databases. Studies were restricted to human interventions published in English. The search study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and the risk of bias was assessed based on the Drummonds Checklist. A total of 1072 references were found. Among these, 19 full texts were included. Most studies had a strong quality. The overall pooled impact of OHPPs estimates children suffering from DMFT/S to have 81% lower odds of participating in OHPP (95% CI 61–90%, I2: 98.3%, p = 0). Furthermore, the program was shown to be effective at lowering the cost in 97 out of 100 OHPPs (95% CI 89–99%, I2: 99%, p = 0). Three subgroups analyses (age groups, study countries, studies of the last five years) were performed to evaluate the influence modification on the pooled effect. A comprehensive analysis of the OHPPs confirmed a reduction effect on child DMFT, hence, lowering the financial burden of dental-care treatment on health institutions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices of South Asian Migrants: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111952 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Oral health is a burden among all populations and is linked with major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Migrants, in particular South Asians, have poor oral health which requires further understanding to better inform oral health interventions by targeting specific aspects of [...] Read more.
Oral health is a burden among all populations and is linked with major chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Migrants, in particular South Asians, have poor oral health which requires further understanding to better inform oral health interventions by targeting specific aspects of this heterogenous South Asian population. This review is undertaken to systematically synthesize the evidence of oral health understandings, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices, and behaviors of South Asian migrants residing in high-income countries. A comprehensive systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand-searching for peer-reviewed studies was conducted. All study designs were included, and quality assessment conducted. Of the 1614 records identified, 17 were included for synthesis and 12 were quantitative in design. These studies were primarily conducted in the UK, USA, Canada, and Europe. South Asian migrants had inadequate oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices—influenced by culture, social norms, and religiosity. In the absence of symptoms, preventive oral hygiene practices were limited. Barriers to access varied with country of origin; from lack of trust in dentists and treatment cost in studies with India as the country of origin, to religiosity, among poorer nations such as Bangladesh. Fewer studies focused on recent arrivals from Bhutan or the Maldives. Culturally and socially appropriate strategies must be developed to target oral health issues and a “one-size” fits all approach will be ineffective in addressing the needs of South Asian migrants. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Oculo-Facio-Cardio-Dental Syndrome: A Case Report about a Rare Pathological Condition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060928 - 14 Mar 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare pathological condition with an X-linked dominant trait that only occurs in females; no males are born with OFCD syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by congenital cataracts with secondary glaucoma ocular defects, ventricular and atrial septal [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare pathological condition with an X-linked dominant trait that only occurs in females; no males are born with OFCD syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by congenital cataracts with secondary glaucoma ocular defects, ventricular and atrial septal defects, or mitral valve prolapses. Facial traits are a long narrow face and a high nasal bridge with a bifid nasal tip. Dental anomalies include radiculomegaly, oligodontia, root dilacerations, malocclusion, and delayed eruption. (2) Methods: This clinical report describes a 26-year-old girl who suffers from OFCD syndrome and who was treated with a multidisciplinary approach. The treatment plan included orthodontic treatment, orthognathic surgery, namely LeFort I and a Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy, and occlusal rehabilitation with implants. (3) Discussion: Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment of orthodontic, orthognathic surgery and occlusal rehabilitation with implants make it possible to maintain tooth function and improve aesthetics with good prognoses for success. In this paper, we report a case of a female patient with OFCD syndrome, who was referred for orthodontic treatment and occlusal rehabilitation and treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Full article
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