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The Effect of Exercise on Glucoregulatory Hormones: A Countermeasure to Human Aging: Insights from a Comprehensive Review of the Literature

1
Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences (QU-CAS), University of Qatar, Doha 2713, Qatar
2
Postgraduate School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
3
Active Ageing Research Group, Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Bowerham Road, Lancaster LA1 3JD, UK
4
Department of Psychology, eCampus University, 22060 Novedrate, Italy
5
Laboratory of Mobility, Aging and Exercise (MOVE), EA 6314 Poitiers, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally as first authors.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101709
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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PDF [364 KB, uploaded 15 May 2019]

Abstract

Hormones are secreted in a circadian rhythm, but also follow larger-scale timetables, such as monthly (hormones of the menstrual cycle), seasonal (i.e., winter, summer), and, ultimately, lifespan-related patterns. Several contexts modulate their secretion, such as genetics, lifestyle, environment, diet, and exercise. They play significant roles in human physiology, influencing growth of muscle, bone, and regulating metabolism. Exercise training alters hormone secretion, depending on the frequency, duration, intensity, and mode of training which has an impact on the magnitude of the secretion. However, there remains ambiguity over the effects of exercise training on certain hormones such as glucoregulatory hormones in aging adults. With advancing age, there are many alterations with the endocrine system, which may ultimately alter human physiology. Some recent studies have reported an anti-aging effect of exercise training on the endocrine system and especially cortisol, growth hormone and insulin. As such, this review examines the effects of endurance, interval, resistance and combined training on hormones (i.e., at rest and after) exercise in older individuals. We summarize the influence of age on glucoregulatory hormones, the influence of exercise training, and where possible, examine masters’ athletes’ endocrinological profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; insulin; cortisol; growth hormone; physical activity; advanced age and senescence glucose; insulin; cortisol; growth hormone; physical activity; advanced age and senescence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sellami, M.; Bragazzi, N.L.; Slimani, M.; Hayes, L.; Jabbour, G.; De Giorgio, A.; Dugué, B. The Effect of Exercise on Glucoregulatory Hormones: A Countermeasure to Human Aging: Insights from a Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1709.

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