Special Issue "New Trends in Research on Training, Performance, Conditioning, Coaching, Evaluation and Health in Basketball"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sergio J. Ibáñez
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Spain
Interests: basketball; team sports; performance analysis in sport; analysis of coach behaviour; performance indicators for different sports; teachers, teaching and coaching; teacher and coach education; analysis of referees and officials
Dr. Javier García-Rubio
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Spain
Interests: basketball; team sports; performance analysis in sport; critical incidents and perturbations; performance indicators for different sports; tactical patterns of play
Dr. Miguel Ángel Gómez-Ruano
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain
Interests: notational analysis in sport; sports performance in team and dual sports; contextual factors; sport analytics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Basketball is one of the most practiced sports worldwide, and it has a great impact on the media. This social importance does not escape researchers, who analyze basketball from different approaches (technical, psychological, physiological, physical, etc.). Scientific contributions from different research fields are improving the training of young players, optimizing training processes and increasing player performance. The Iberian/International Basketball Congress is an event in which the latest research results on this sport are presented in a transversal way. Therefore, it is necessary to disseminate this research in quality scientific publications, to increase knowledge about this sport.

The objective of this Special Issue is to attract papers that present new trends in research in training, performance, conditioning, coaching, evaluation, and health in basketball, to keep the state of the art updated. We encourage the submission of descriptive, experimental, and cross-sectional studies aimed at the study of basketball, which analyze the physical condition, performance, health, coaching, and training of players. Studies that analyze coaches and referees are also necessary. Review articles that describe the current state of the art on relevant topics are also welcome.

Dr. Sergio J. Ibáñez
Dr. Javier García-Rubio
Dr. Miguel Ángel Gómez-Ruano
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Basketball
  • Training
  • Performance
  • Conditioning
  • Coaching
  • Evaluation
  • Health

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Muscular Strength Spurts in Adolescent Male Basketball Players: The INEX Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020776 (registering DOI) - 18 Jan 2021
Abstract
Although successful performance in basketball requires high levels of muscular strength during adolescence, its development is confounded by the effects of normal growth. We examine the timing, intensity and sequence of muscular strength according to biological age (years from peak height velocity (PHV)) [...] Read more.
Although successful performance in basketball requires high levels of muscular strength during adolescence, its development is confounded by the effects of normal growth. We examine the timing, intensity and sequence of muscular strength according to biological age (years from peak height velocity (PHV)) and hypothesize that young basketball players attain their peak muscular strength spurts around PHV. A total of 160 adolescent male basketballers, aged 11–15 years, were followed bi-annually over 3 consecutive years. The years from attainment of PHV and peak weight velocity (PWV) were estimated and five muscular strength measures (sit-ups, handgrip, seated medicine ball throw, squat jump and countermovement jump) were aligned to years from PHV in 3-month intervals. Strength velocities were estimated using a non-smooth mathematical model. The mean ages at-PHV and at-PWV were 13.90 ± 1.40 years and 13.90 ± 1.79 years, respectively. Maximal velocity in sit-ups was attained 6 months prior to attainment of PHV (intensity = 10.69 repetitions·year−1), whereas maximal velocity in squat jump occurred 6 months after-PHV (intensity = 3.93 cm·year−1). Handgrip strength, seated medicine ball throw and countermovement jump maximal velocity peaked at-PHV (intensity = 8.47 kgf·year−1, intensity = 0.75 m·year−1, intensity = 5.59 cm·year−1, respectively). In general, maximal velocity spurts did not differ in their timing, with the velocities reaching a peak concurrent with PHV and PWV or within 6 months of its attainment. Basketball coaches, as well as strength and conditioning trainers, should consider individual differences in strength development and be aware of rapid periods of growth in stature when planning and designing muscular strength training regimes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Fatigue on Some Kinematic Parameters of Basketball Passing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020700 - 15 Jan 2021
Abstract
Kinematic analysis is an objective method for examining basketball technique. However, there are just a few studies featuring a kinematic analysis of passing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the kinematic parameters and accuracy of passing changed when players were [...] Read more.
Kinematic analysis is an objective method for examining basketball technique. However, there are just a few studies featuring a kinematic analysis of passing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the kinematic parameters and accuracy of passing changed when players were under the influence of fatigue. Eleven Croatian basketball players who are members of the youth national program (age: 18.36 ± 0.67 years; height: 192.32 ± 9.98 cm; weight: 83.35 ± 11.19 kg; body fat: 15.00 ± 4.40%, arm span: 194.34 ± 10.39 cm) participated in fatigue and non-fatigue repetitive tests. A Xsens suit was used to analyze the kinematic parameters of push passing; a radar gun was used to determine ball speed; heart rate and blood lactate were used to identify fatigue and non-fatigue state. There was a significant difference in angular velocities of shoulder (p = 0.01), elbow (p = 0.04), and wrist (p = 0.01), accuracy (p = 0.01), ball speed (p = 0.00), pelvis position (p = 0.00), and velocity of the pelvis in X-axis (p = 0.00) between fatigue and non-fatigue state. Fatigue influences some kinematic parameters and accuracy of passing. The findings of this study suggest that coaches conduct as many drills as possible in situational conditions that are similar to the conditions during the basketball game itself. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strength and Speed Profiles Based on Age and Sex Differences in Young Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020643 - 13 Jan 2021
Abstract
Team sports are in continuous evolution, and physical performance is acquiring greater importance in the game. The assessment of physical fitness is the most reliable method for knowing if the athlete’s physical fitness is appropriate. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to [...] Read more.
Team sports are in continuous evolution, and physical performance is acquiring greater importance in the game. The assessment of physical fitness is the most reliable method for knowing if the athlete’s physical fitness is appropriate. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to identify profiles of physical-physiological demands with different specific tests of physical fitness related to the maximum strength of the lower body and speed. Moreover, some differences based on the sex and age of the players were identified. One hundred and forty-nine basketball players were analyzed (men n = 103 vs. women n = 46, weight: 74.74 ± 11.65 kg vs. 56.89 ± 3.71 kg, height: 184.66 ± 11.67 vs. 164 ± 4 and BMI: 21.7 ± 0.83 vs. 21.6 ± 0.90). The players performed an Abalakov test, a multi-jump test, and a repeat sprint ability test. Each player was equipped with a WIMU PRO device, and photoelectric cells were used. A MANOVA was performed to discover the differences between ages, and a t-test was used regarding sex. The results showed significant differences based on age and sex in variables related to time and Player Load/min (p < 0.001). The variables related to steps (contact, step, flight) also showed significant differences as a function of age (p < 0.001) and sex (p < 0.05). The multi-jump test showed differences based on age (p < 0.05 except in between jumps), but not on sex. These results confirm the importance of working together on lower body strength and speed skills. In addition, the planning of the work on these abilities must be individualized and according to the characteristics of the athlete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Performance, Intrinsic Motivation and Adherence in Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249441 - 16 Dec 2020
Abstract
Sports performance depends on a complex interaction of variables, such as psychological, physical, technical and tactical abilities. The purpose of the three studies described in this article was to validate an instrument to measure perceived performance in athletes (studies 1 and 2), and [...] Read more.
Sports performance depends on a complex interaction of variables, such as psychological, physical, technical and tactical abilities. The purpose of the three studies described in this article was to validate an instrument to measure perceived performance in athletes (studies 1 and 2), and to analyze the predictive power of perceived performance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation on the intention to be physically active (which was used as a predictor of adherence to sport) (study 3). In study 1, the Perceived Performance in Sports Questionnaire was validated in the Spanish sports context, analyzing its factorial structure, reliability, and temporal stability with 146 soccer players. The objective of study 2 was to check the factorial structure of the questionnaire with an objective performance measure (points scored and time played). The sample was 180 young basketball players. The objective of study 3 was to analyze the predictive power of basic psychological needs in exercise, intrinsic motivation, and perceived performance on the intention to be physically active in 339 athletes of fifteen different sports. The results show the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, and positive correlations with the points scored. Finally, the analysis of the structural equation model showed that the satisfaction of the need for competence predicted perceived performance and intrinsic motivation predicted perceived performance and intention to remain physically active. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Want to Impact Physical, Technical, and Tactical Performance during Basketball Small-Sided Games in Youth Athletes? Try Differential Learning Beforehand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249279 - 11 Dec 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of small-sided games, based on differential learning, on the physical, technical, and positioning performance of young basketball players. Eight basketball players under 13 (U13) participated in this study. A total of eight sessions involving half-court [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of small-sided games, based on differential learning, on the physical, technical, and positioning performance of young basketball players. Eight basketball players under 13 (U13) participated in this study. A total of eight sessions involving half-court small-sided games (4 sets × 3 min + 1 min of passive recovery) under randomly different numerical relations were performed. Before each trial, players were verbally instructed to perform the drill in one of the conditions, in random order. Pre- and post-tests were performed in the 4v4 half-court format, in each session. External load and positional data were collected via a WIMU PRO local positioning system. Individual heart rate monitoring was used to assess the internal load. Game videos also collected notational data. The results revealed that, after the intervention, the players significantly decreased the total distance covered, the peak acceleration, average speed, training impulse, and the spatial exploration index; conversely, the results confirmed an increase in the number of dribbles. Small-sided games under randomly different numerical relations imposed acute effects in distinct variables during 4v4 half-court games. However, further studies are warranted, including longer interventions and parallel-group designs, to confirm if the training-induced effects of this method are significantly better compared to other approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Athletic Career and Retirement Depending on the Type of Sport: A Comparison between Individual and Team Sports
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249265 - 11 Dec 2020
Abstract
The type of sport practiced may shape the athletic career, considered as the period in which an athlete is dedicated to obtaining their maximum performance in one or more sports. The aim of this study was to compare athletic careers and retirement in [...] Read more.
The type of sport practiced may shape the athletic career, considered as the period in which an athlete is dedicated to obtaining their maximum performance in one or more sports. The aim of this study was to compare athletic careers and retirement in individual and team sports. Four hundred and ten former elite athletes (38.5 ± 7.6 years) answered an ad hoc questionnaire; 61.5% were men and 38.5% women; 45.1% were from individual sports, while 54.9% were from team sports. It emerged that the age of maximum sports performance and the retirement age occurred significantly later in team sports than in individual sports (U = 15,042 and U = 12,624.5, respectively p < 0.001). Team sports athletes combined their athletic career with work to a greater extent than those from individual sports (χ2 (3, N = 408) = 14.2; p = 0.003; Cv = 0.187). Individual sports athletes trained more hours per week (30.0 ± 11.7 h) than those involved in team sports (19.2 ± 10.7 h; U = 9682; p < 0.001). These athletes (team sports) were in a better economic and working situation at retirement transition (χ2 (3, N = 406) = 23.9; p < 0.001; Cv = 0.242). Individual sports athletes perform physical activity more frequently than team sports athletes (U = 16,267.5; p = 0.045), while team sports athletes participate more actively in veteran competitions (χ2 (1, N = 390) = 3.9; p = 0.047; Cv = 0.104) and more frequently attend events as spectators (χ2 (1, N = 390) = 8.4; p = 0.004; Cv = 0.151). dual career support providers should be aware that team sports athletes enjoy a longer athletic career, and they are in a better position to face the retirement transition than individual sports athletes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Well-Being Measure on Young Basketball Players: The NFAPW Scale
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217987 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
Basketball is a sport in which, beyond the physical and technical skills, the psychological aspects are a decisive factor and could negatively affect the well-being of the player. The present study analyzes how 11 items belonging to two stakeholders (coach and player) could [...] Read more.
Basketball is a sport in which, beyond the physical and technical skills, the psychological aspects are a decisive factor and could negatively affect the well-being of the player. The present study analyzes how 11 items belonging to two stakeholders (coach and player) could negatively affect the well-being of the athlete. A sample of elite young basketball players (n = 121) consisting of 55 males and 66 females, ranging in age from 16 to 23 (M = 20.12 ± 1.71), completed the Negative Factors Affecting Players’ Well-being (NFAPW) Questionnaire. This questionnaire was designed ad hoc and demonstrated good psychometric properties that confirmed that it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure how those factors negatively affect their well-being. The results showed that females have a greater perception of the factors that negatively affect their well-being, especially those related to the actions of the coach. However, no differences were found regarding the experience. Although this research provides an initial tool for measuring the well-being of the player during competition, future studies are encouraged to provide guidance to the coaches and players in dealing with the psychological variables in a better way. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Citius, Altius, Fortius; Is It Enough to Achieve Success in Basketball?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207355 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
The NBA Draft Combine includes a series of standardized measurements and drills that provide NBA teams with an opportunity to evaluate players. The purpose of this research was to identify the Combine tests that explain draft position and future performance in the NBA [...] Read more.
The NBA Draft Combine includes a series of standardized measurements and drills that provide NBA teams with an opportunity to evaluate players. The purpose of this research was to identify the Combine tests that explain draft position and future performance in the NBA rookie season. Variables were selected from the previous categories of anthropometric measurements and strength and agility tests. A regression analysis was carried out. Combine variables, anthropometric and agility/strength variables were analyzed to explore their effect on draft position. Moreover, correlation analyses were performed to identify relationships among: (i) Combine anthropometric and strength and agility measures and game performance through game related statistics; and (ii) the draft position and game performance using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results show that the Combine test does not predict draft position, with the exception of hand width and height in frontcourt players, and standard vertical jump and running vertical jump. Future performance indicators were explained by several Combine tests in all players. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Sprint Velocity and Peak Moment at Shoulder and Elbow in Elite Wheelchair Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196989 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Specific wheelchair basketball (WB) skills on the court have been poorly analyzed in relation to improving players’ performance according to their functional class. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between maximum velocity (Vmax) and peak moment (PM) in the [...] Read more.
Specific wheelchair basketball (WB) skills on the court have been poorly analyzed in relation to improving players’ performance according to their functional class. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between maximum velocity (Vmax) and peak moment (PM) in the shoulder and elbow joints in specific WB skills and to compare performance between the main two groups by functional class. Twelve male WB players, divided in categories A (functional classes 1.0–2.5) and B (class 3.0–4.5), performed a sprint test battery composed by four tests (with and without ball) and isokinetic tests. A significant relationship between PM of the internal and external shoulder rotation and the flexion and extension elbow with Vmax (p < 0.05) was found. During a 5 m backward sprint test, category B was faster in the last three meters than category A (p < 0.05) and also for the rest of the test but p = NS. Category B showed higher PM than category A for internal shoulder rotation (ISR) at 60 °/s and at 180 °/s on the dominant side (DS) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ISR on the DS was found different for both groups and showed significant relationship with Vmax in all of the tests performed. Moreover, at higher speeds the elbow flexion and extension in DS were correlated with Vmax in all the actions with ball (passing, bouncing, and braking) reflected the importance of these joints movements in acquiring speed when performing sport specific WB skills. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decisive Factors for a Greater Performance in the Change of Direction and Its Angulation in Male Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186598 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
A study was made to initially evaluate whether the age category directly could influence anthropometric measurements, functional movement tests, linear sprint (30 m) and strength. Moreover, and as the main purpose, this study aimed to examine the relationship between the time execution and [...] Read more.
A study was made to initially evaluate whether the age category directly could influence anthropometric measurements, functional movement tests, linear sprint (30 m) and strength. Moreover, and as the main purpose, this study aimed to examine the relationship between the time execution and angles in different changes of direction (COD) test with the analyzed sport performance variables. A total sample of 23 basketball players (age: 17.5 ± 2.42 years; height: 184.6 ± 6.68 cm; body weight: 78.09 ± 11.9 kg). Between-groups’ comparison explored the differences between basketball categories (Junior, n = 12; Senior, n = 11). The COD variables were divided by the time execution into low responders (LR) and high responders (HR) to establish comparisons between groups related to COD time execution. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to establish correlations between different CODs and sport performance variables. The results showed a greater influence of age category upon COD performance, especially when the cutting angle was sharper (7.05% [Confidence limits (CL) 90%: 2.33; 11.99]; Quantitative chances (QC) 0/2/98), in which athletes need greater application of strength. Moreover, the sharper the angle or the larger the number of cuts made, the greater the relationship with the vertical force–velocity profile (−42.39 [CL 90%: −57.37; −22.16]; QC 100/0/0%). Thus, the usefulness of the f–v profile to implement training programs that optimize the f–v imbalance and the improvement of the COD performance in basketball players is suggested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Relationship between Match Outcome and Match Performances during the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup: A Quantile Regression Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165722 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The FIBA Basketball World Cup is one of the most prominent sporting competitions for men’s basketball, with coaches interested in key performance indicators (KPIs) that give a better understanding of basketball competitions. The aims of the study were to (1) examine the relationship [...] Read more.
The FIBA Basketball World Cup is one of the most prominent sporting competitions for men’s basketball, with coaches interested in key performance indicators (KPIs) that give a better understanding of basketball competitions. The aims of the study were to (1) examine the relationship between match KPIs and outcome in elite men’s basketball; and (2) identify the most suitable analysis (multiple linear regression (MLR) vs. quantile regression (QR)) to model this relationship during the men’s basketball tournament. A total of 184 performance records from 92 games were selected and analyzed via MLR and QR, using 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th quantiles. Several offensive (Paint Score, Mid-Range Score, Three-Point Score, Offensive Rebounds and Turnovers) and defensive (Defensive Rebounds, Steals and Personal Fouls) KPIs were associated with match outcome. The QR model identified additional KPIs that influenced match outcome than the MLR model, with these being Mid-Range Score at the 10th quantile and Offensive Rebounds at the 90th quantile. In terms of contextual variables, the quality of opponent had no impact on match outcome across the entire range of quantiles. Our results highlight QR modelling as a potentially superior tool for performance analysts and coaches to design and monitor technical–tactical plans during match-play. Our study has identified the KPIs contributing to match success at the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup with QR modelling assisting with a more detailed performance analysis, to support coaches with the optimization of training and match-play styles. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Game Related Statistics Discriminate National and Foreign Players According to Playing Position and Team Ability in the Women’s Basketball EuroLeague
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155507 - 30 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in game-related statistics between national and foreign female basketball players in the Women’s EuroLeague, according to playing positions and team ability. The official box-scores of 112 games from the 2016–2017 season of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in game-related statistics between national and foreign female basketball players in the Women’s EuroLeague, according to playing positions and team ability. The official box-scores of 112 games from the 2016–2017 season of the Women’s EuroLeague (FIBA) were examined. Players were categorised based upon country of nationality versus competition (i.e., foreign or national), playing positions (i.e., Guards, Forwards, Centers), and team ability (i.e., four groups using a cluster of k-means analysis according to the winning percentage of each team during the competition). A structural coefficient (SC) above |0.30| was used to identify the variables that best differentiated the national and foreign players. Results showed that foreign players had a better performance according to team ability and playing position for most of the performance indicators, with higher values for minutes played, percentage of successful 2-point field-goals, percentage of successful free-throws, and percentage of assists. Moreover, foreign players performed better in variables associated with offensive situations, while national players were prevailing with indicators associated with defensive actions. These results have highlighted the unique contributions of foreign and national players, based upon playing position and team ability, to team success in the Euroleague. This information will assist the recruitment process of national and foreign athletes for coaches to develop successful elite female basketball teams. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Talent Development Pathway for Elite Basketball Players in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145110 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
A large portion of previous sport talent development research has been conducted using Western countries study subjects such as Canadian, Swedish, Spanish, British, or American athletes. However, the factors that affect oriental culture athletes remain an unexplored field. The aims of this investigation [...] Read more.
A large portion of previous sport talent development research has been conducted using Western countries study subjects such as Canadian, Swedish, Spanish, British, or American athletes. However, the factors that affect oriental culture athletes remain an unexplored field. The aims of this investigation were to consolidate the exploration of the pilot study that studied the key factors for Chinese elite basketball players’ careers and understand what facts have helped them to achieve the highest sportive level through qualitative research. The pathway to excellence of 11 Chinese elite basketball players were analyzed through a semi-structured interview with different categories such as social context, sport context, tactical factors, or anthropometric factors. Results showed that cultural factors, family tradition, academic studies, coaches, mental strength, training structuration, and international competitions had a great effect and influence in the talent development of Chinese basketball players. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Deliberate Practice, Functional Performance and Psychological Characteristics in Young Basketball Players: A Bayesian Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114078 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Early sport specialization has increased its popularity mostly based on the deliberate practice theory premises. In this study, we examined the influence of the age of onset of deliberate basketball practice on body size, functional performance (countermovement jump, line drill and yo-yo [...] Read more.
Background: Early sport specialization has increased its popularity mostly based on the deliberate practice theory premises. In this study, we examined the influence of the age of onset of deliberate basketball practice on body size, functional performance (countermovement jump, line drill and yo-yo intermittent recovery level 1), motivation for achievement and competitiveness, motivation for deliberate practice and sources of enjoyment among young Brazilian basketball players. In addition, we adjusted for the influence of gender, age group, maturity status and state basketball federation on the outcomes. Methods: The sample included 120 female and 201 male adolescent basketball players aged 14.0 (1.7) years, on average. We grouped players by the age of onset of deliberate basketball practice as related to biologic maturation milestones (pre-puberty deliberate practice onset, mid-puberty deliberate practice onset and late-puberty deliberate practice onset). Results: There was no substantial variation among contrasting players by the onset of deliberate practice in all of the outcomes. Adjusting for gender, male players with late-puberty deliberate practice onset had better functional performance than players with pre- and mid-puberty onset of practice. Females players with late-puberty deliberate practice onset had slightly worst functional performance than players with pre- and mid-puberty onset of practice. Conclusions: Early deliberate basketball practice does not appear to provide an advantage for the development of physiological functions. Likewise, enjoyment, motivation for deliberate practice and motivation for achievement and competition do not appear to be negatively influenced by early deliberate basketball practice. The debate about the relationship between time spent in deliberate practice and performance development in young athletes will need to emphasize the coaching pedagogical quality and the training environment and account for informal practice and deliberate play. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Red Arch-Support Insoles on Subjective Comfort and Movement Biomechanics in Various Landing Heights
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072476 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Red is perceived as a “winning color”, which may influence actual and perceived performances in sports, but little effort has been done to assess the added value on colored foot insoles in basketball movements. This study examined if colored foot insole would influence [...] Read more.
Red is perceived as a “winning color”, which may influence actual and perceived performances in sports, but little effort has been done to assess the added value on colored foot insoles in basketball movements. This study examined if colored foot insole would influence perceived comfort and lower extremity biomechanics during drop landing. Nineteen male basketball players performed drop landing trials with different insoles (red arch-support, white arch-support, and white-flat) and landing heights (0.45 and 0.61 m). Two-way (Insole x Height) ANOVAs with repeated measures were performed on each of the knee and ankle angles and moments variables. Wearing red arch-support insoles induced better perception of forefoot and rearfoot cushioning and overall comfort but smaller plantarflexion moment than the white-flat insoles (p < 0.05). Increased landing height was related to higher ground reaction loading, sagittal flexion angles, range of motion, and joint moments but smaller ankle eversion (p < 0.05). Findings indicate that foot insoles might have influenced comfort perception and joint kinetics, but not joint kinematics. The use of red color in foot insoles could potentially maximize the effectiveness of foot insoles in a way that alters comfort perception and motor control during landing, with implications for risk of injury. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peak Match Demands in Young Basketball Players: Approach and Applications
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072256 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study is to describe the peak match demands and compare them with average demands in basketball players, from an external load point of view, using different time windows. Another objective is to determine whether there are differences between [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study is to describe the peak match demands and compare them with average demands in basketball players, from an external load point of view, using different time windows. Another objective is to determine whether there are differences between positions and to provide an approach for practical applications. Methods: During this observational study, each player wore a micro technology device. We collected data from 12 male basketball players (mean ± SD: age 17.56 ± 0.67 years, height 196.17 ± 6.71 cm, body mass 90.83 ± 11.16 kg) during eight games. We analyzed intervals for different time windows using rolling averages (ROLL) to determine the peak match demands for Player Load. A separate one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify statistically significant differences between playing positions across different intense periods. Results: Separate one-way ANOVAs revealed statistically significant differences between 1 min, 5 min, 10 min, and full game periods for Player Load, F (3,168) = 231.80, ηp2 = 0.76, large, p < 0.001. It is worth noting that guards produced a statistically significantly higher Player Load in 5 min (p < 0.01, ηp2 = −0.69, moderate), 10 min (p < 0.001, ηp2 = −0.90, moderate), and full game (p < 0.001, ηp2 = −0.96, moderate) periods than forwards. Conclusions: The main finding is that there are significant differences between the most intense moments of a game and the average demands. This means that understanding game demands using averages drastically underestimates the peak demands of the game. This approach helps coaches and fitness coaches to prepare athletes for the most demanding periods of the game and present potential practical applications that could be implemented during training and rehabilitation sessions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
External Workload Can Be Anticipated During 5 vs. 5 Games-Based Drills in Basketball Players: An Exploratory Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062103 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study determined whether external workload could be anticipated during 5 vs. 5 games-based drills in basketball. Thirteen semi-professional, male basketball players were monitored during 5 vs. 5 training drills across the season. External workload was determined using PlayerLoad™ (AU∙min−1). The [...] Read more.
This study determined whether external workload could be anticipated during 5 vs. 5 games-based drills in basketball. Thirteen semi-professional, male basketball players were monitored during 5 vs. 5 training drills across the season. External workload was determined using PlayerLoad™ (AU∙min−1). The reference workload for each drill was calculated across all sessions, using bootstrapping. The bootstrap mean workload and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then calculated for session 1, sessions 1–2, and continued for remaining sessions (1–3, 1–4, etc.), and were compared with those of the reference workload. The minimum sessions to anticipate workload for each drill was identified when the first normative value fell within ±5% or ±10% of the reference workload 95% CI. The minimum sessions were then tested to determine the accuracy to which workload could be anticipated. Three to four sessions were needed to anticipate workload within ±5%, while 2–3 sessions were needed to anticipate workload within ±10%. External workload was anticipated in 0–55% of future sessions using an error range of ±5%, and in 58–89% of sessions using an error range of ±10%. External workload during 5 vs. 5 games-based drills can be anticipated in most sessions using normative values established during a short-term monitoring period with an error range of ±10%. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Impact of the Relative Age Effect on Competition Performance in Basketball: A Qualitative Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228596 - 19 Nov 2020
Abstract
Performance in basketball is multifactorial. One of the modifying factors is the “Relative Age Effect—RAE”. However, its impact depends on the sample characteristics and sport context. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the RAE on basketball competition performance [...] Read more.
Performance in basketball is multifactorial. One of the modifying factors is the “Relative Age Effect—RAE”. However, its impact depends on the sample characteristics and sport context. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the RAE on basketball competition performance by analysing peer-reviewed articles published until July 2020. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses systematic search guidelines, nine studies were identified in four databases: Sport Discus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Moreover, a study quality analysis using “Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology” guidelines was carried out. The results confirmed an impact of the RAE on competition performance in basketball (56% measurements) and a higher influence of the RAE on short-term collective performance (54% measurements). Statistical parameters were affected, especially in men and U14-U18 categories. No impact of the RAE reversal and no influence of the RAE on long-term collective performance were found. There was a higher impact of the RAE in men (71%), the U14-U18 categories (44%), and at the national level (40%) was identified. The RAE has a variable influence on basketball performance according to developmental constraints. Nevertheless, the findings should be considered based on the sport context due to the heterogeneity and variability of the identified results. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Training and Competition Load in Female Basketball: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082639 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The scientific literature on women’s basketball is still limited, mainly in performance parameters. The purpose of this study was to analyse the state of art on the internal and external loads supported by female basketball players during sports practice. The design of this [...] Read more.
The scientific literature on women’s basketball is still limited, mainly in performance parameters. The purpose of this study was to analyse the state of art on the internal and external loads supported by female basketball players during sports practice. The design of this research is theoretical. The most relevant databases were searched for pertinent published studies according to the following keywords: “basketball”, “female” or “woman”, “training” or “competition”, “load” or “demand”. Of the 644 studies initially identified, 26 were selected for a complete review. These investigations were characterised by having as an objective an individualization of training for this type of population. Of the selected studies, it was evaluated: (i) goal (training, competition or both); (ii) category (stages: U14, U16, U18 and senior; level: state, national or international); (iii) type of load (Internal, External or both); (iv) instruments used and (v) variables analysed. The most studied goal was competition, mainly in senior national level, carrying out an analysis of the external and internal load together. Depending on the instruments and the variables used, the subjective load analysis was recurrent and important in the publication of articles in this topic. The quality of the studies was good, but for a better description of women’s basketball, there is a need to jointly investigate sports training and competition, to study the training categories and to use micro technology that guarantees obtaining objective and reliable data. Full article
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