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Special Issue "Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sports"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Miguel Ángel Gómez-Ruano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain
Interests: notational analysis in sport; sports performance in team and dual sports; contextual factors; sport analytics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Enrique Ortega Toro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Activity and Sports, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: performance analysis; physical education; rules modification; basketball

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The practice of physical activity (PA), physical education (PE), and sports have a direct impact on participants’ and athletes’ physical, social, psychological, or skill-related aspects. Therefore, the measurement, evaluation, and assessment of learning, performance, and training drills have to be scientific and empirical. In order to do so, the development of adequate protocols, and the use of valid and reliable procedures of measurement and evaluation are required to increase the applicability of PA, PE, and sports plans and training. Therefore, the current Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, “Measurement and Evaluation in Physical education, Physical Activity, and Sports”, provides an opportunity to submit high-quality research focused on multidisciplinary approaches to measurement and assessment in PA, PE, and sports. The Guest Editors are interested in the following: (i) the validation process of instruments and tools used to measure and evaluate in PA, PE, and sport (i.e., including the validation of the instrument and the process of reliability); (ii) the assessment of different protocols of measurement to test physical, psychological, or performance measures in PA, PE, and sport (i.e., comparisons between training routines, competition level, or different populations); and (iii) quantitative and qualitative research that increases the research knowledge of PA, PE, and sport using different instruments of assessment (questionnaires, observation sheets, interviews, scientific equipment, new technologies, etc.). The submission of other topics are welcome and can be discussed with the Guest Editors.

Prof. Miguel Ángel Gómez-Ruano
Dr. Enrique Ortega Toro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • evaluation
  • assessment
  • measurement
  • questionnaires
  • observational instruments
  • interview
  • survey
  • validity
  • reliability
  • new technologies

Published Papers (47 papers)

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Article
The Role of the Teacher in the Implementation of a School-Based Intervention on the Physical Activity Practice of Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197344 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Medium- or long-term intervention strategies for physical activity practice (PAP) need to be more effective in terms of their implementation by practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a teacher to implement the Team Pentathlon (TP) in order [...] Read more.
Medium- or long-term intervention strategies for physical activity practice (PAP) need to be more effective in terms of their implementation by practitioners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a teacher to implement the Team Pentathlon (TP) in order to improve the PAP in primary children. TP is a health education program made to improve PAP of children through individual and collective achievements. In this study, 203 children (age: 10–13 years) in grades 5 and 6 (intervention group (IG) N = 104, control group (CG) N = 99) were guided to increase their PAP during an eight-week period by five elementary school teachers (physical education or classroom) who had received four training sessions. Levels of PAP (self-reported) were compared between groups (IG/CG), sex, socioeconomic status of the schools and between teachers: baseline and during TP. Several teachers noted significant increases in PAP in the IG for both boys and girls (p ≤ 0.05 or p < 0.01), whereas others found only small improvements in PAP. One teacher even observed higher PAP in the CG. Training session records revealed that the teacher himself, how the TP is implemented, and proper resources were the three elements that explained the successful implementation of the TP program. The implementation of the TP significantly increased the PAP in primary children. Training sessions helped teachers to implement the TP program but personal engagement, motivation, respecting protocol, and an adequate environment are also necessary in improving the PAP of children. Full article
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Article
Statistical Parametric Mapping Reveals Subtle Gender Differences in Angular Movements in Table Tennis Topspin Backhand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 6996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196996 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Background: Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is an innovative method based on the analysis of time series (data series) and is equivalent to statistical methods for numerical (discrete) data series. This study aimed to analyze the patterns of movement in the topspin backhand stroke [...] Read more.
Background: Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is an innovative method based on the analysis of time series (data series) and is equivalent to statistical methods for numerical (discrete) data series. This study aimed to analyze the patterns of movement in the topspin backhand stroke in table tennis and to use SPM to compare these patterns between advanced female and male players. Methods: The research involved seven advanced male and six advanced female players. The kinematic parameters were measured using an inertial motion analysis system. The SPM was computed using the SPM1D Python package. Results: Our study made it possible to reproduce the pattern of movement in the joints during topspin backhand strokes in the studied athletes. During multiple comparisons, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) SPM test revealed many areas in the studied parameter series with statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: The study presents the movement patterns in the topspin backhand shot and describes the proximal-to-distal sequencing principle during this shot. The SPM study revealed differences between men and women in the contribution of thoracic rotation, external shoulder rotation, dorsal flexion, and supination in the wrist during the hitting phase. These differences may result from the anatomical gender differences or variations in other functionalities of individual body segments between the study groups. Another possible source for these discrepancies may reside in tactical requirements, especially the need for a more vigorous attack in men. The gender differences presented in this study can help in the individualization of the training process in table tennis. Full article
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Article
High-Performance Handball Player’s Time-Motion Analysis by Playing Positions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186768 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the on-court demands of handball players during the European Handball Federation Champions League Final Four (VELUX EHF FINAL4) 2019 to define time–motion characteristics (played time; covered distances) both in offense and defense. Furthermore; we aimed [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the on-court demands of handball players during the European Handball Federation Champions League Final Four (VELUX EHF FINAL4) 2019 to define time–motion characteristics (played time; covered distances) both in offense and defense. Furthermore; we aimed to define position-specific demands and differences among them. Forty players from three teams were analyzed during the tournament using a local positioning system (LPS) for the first time in top handball. Players covered similar distances both in offense (1388.28 ± 2627.08 m), and in defense (1305.47 ± 5059.64 m) and remained on court for a similar average time (15.69 ± 8.02 min and 15.40 ± 8.94 min respectively). When locomotion activities were normalized according to the time they spent on court; significant differences were found for defense compared to offense in walking (+20%; p < 0.000; Cohen’s effect size (ES) = 1.01) and jogging (−29.6%; p = 0.000; ES = 0.90), as well as a tendency for high-intensity running (+ 25.2%; p = 0.077; ES = 0.31). Per playing position; center and left back (CB = 94.86 ± 10.98 m·min−1; LB = 96.55 ± 24.65 m·min−1) showed the highest running pace in offense and mid-left; front center defender and outside right for the defense (ML = 90.38 ± 30.16 m·min−1; FCD = 87.04 ± 14.94 m·min−1; OR = 89.64 ± 34.93 m·min−1). In conclusion; profile differences existed among players’ position activity; both in offense and defense; which should be taken into account when designing specific physical training programs Full article
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Article
Social Cognitive Orientations, Social Support, and Physical Activity among at-Risk Urban Children: Insights from a Structural Equation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6745; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186745 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of cognitive orientations associated with social cognitive theory (SCT) and exercise enjoyment on physical activity (PA) of urban at-risk children, accounting for mediating effects associated with various sources of social support. We use 2016–2017 survey data from 725 [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of cognitive orientations associated with social cognitive theory (SCT) and exercise enjoyment on physical activity (PA) of urban at-risk children, accounting for mediating effects associated with various sources of social support. We use 2016–2017 survey data from 725 school-age children in an urban school district in Akron, Ohio in the United States (US) to inform a structural equation model, which assesses direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and exercise enjoyment on children’s PA, using mediating variables that measure social support that children report receiving from parents, Physical Education (PE) teachers, and peers. We find that self-efficacy and exercise enjoyment have notable direct and indirect effects on the children’s PA. We also find that the support children receive from PE teachers and peers appears to have greater effects on PA than does the children’s reported social support from parents. These findings suggest that children’s social cognitive orientations may influence both sources of perceived social support and the extent to which children engage in PA. While these findings have potential implications for intervention strategies to increase PA among at-risk children, further research is appropriate to improve our understanding of the determinants of PA among at-risk urban children. Full article
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Article
The Measurement of Goal Orientation in Sport: Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186641 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
The main aim of the study is a comprehensive assessment of psychometric properties of the Polish version of Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) in sport. Apart from standard psychometric evaluation, the paper presents an analysis of item reliability through the use of Item [...] Read more.
The main aim of the study is a comprehensive assessment of psychometric properties of the Polish version of Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) in sport. Apart from standard psychometric evaluation, the paper presents an analysis of item reliability through the use of Item Response Theory, as well as the analysis of relationships between sport type, level of participation, gender and goal orientation level. The study covered 412 people aged M = 23.46 (SD = 5.40). The Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS-28) were used. High reliability of POSQ ego subscale (α = 0.89, ω = 0.89) and POSQ task subscale (α = 0.90, ω = 0.91) were noted. The test-retest correlations at the two-week interval were ICC = 0.91 for ego subscale, and ICC = 0.71 for task subscale, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a relatively good fit of the two-factor model to the data (CFI = 0.94). Relationships between the goal orientation measured by the POSQ questionnaire and motivational traits measured by TEOSQ and SMS-28 were obtained. It was also shown that high-performance athletes had higher scores on the ego factor than recreational athletes. Moreover, men had higher scores on the ego factor than women. The Perception of Success Questionnaire (Polish version) is characterized by satisfactory psychometric properties and can be used for scientific research and diagnosis. Full article
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Article
Psychometric Properties of the Interpersonal Styles Questionnaire for Physical Education in a Mexican Sample
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186636 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
During physical education classes, one of the contextual factors that can influence motivation is the teacher’s interpersonal style. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties, structure, and factorial invariance across gender of the physical education teachers’ Interpersonal Styles Questionnaire [...] Read more.
During physical education classes, one of the contextual factors that can influence motivation is the teacher’s interpersonal style. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties, structure, and factorial invariance across gender of the physical education teachers’ Interpersonal Styles Questionnaire of Sonora, Mexico. The participants were 500 students (50.8% boys, 49.2% girls) aged between 9 and 13 years old (mean age (Mage) = 10.72; standard deviation (SD) = 0.74) from different elementary schools of Sonora, Mexico. In terms of measuring the teacher’s interpersonal styles, the short version of the Learning Climate Questionnaire was used to measure autonomy support, whereas the Teacher Controllingness Scale was used to measure controlling style. The results support the structure and factorial invariance across gender groups of the Mexican version of the Interpersonal Styles Questionnaire for Physical Education (Cuestionario de Estilos Interpersonales en la Educación Física (CEI-EF, by its initials in Spanish)). In conclusion, the CEI-EF is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to assess the teachers’ interpersonal styles and draw comparisons between groups of boys and girls. Full article
Article
Design and Validity of a Choice-Modeling Questionnaire to Analyze the Feasibility of Implementing Physical Activity on Prescription at Primary Health-Care Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186627 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Worldwide health policies are trying to implement physical activity on prescription (PAP) at healthcare settings. However, there is not a proper methodology to analyze PHC organizational staff factors. This study aims to validate two questionnaires to assess the self-perception of nurses and general [...] Read more.
Worldwide health policies are trying to implement physical activity on prescription (PAP) at healthcare settings. However, there is not a proper methodology to analyze PHC organizational staff factors. This study aims to validate two questionnaires to assess the self-perception of nurses and general practitioners to implement PAP at primary healthcare (PHC) settings. The designed choice-modeling Google-form questionnaire was sent to 11 expert nurses and 11 expert sports medicine physicians. Experts evaluated each question on a 1–5 points Likert-type scale according to their expertise. Aiken’s V coefficient values ≥0.75 were used to validate separately each question using the Visual Basic-6.0 software. A total of 10 sports medicine physicians and 10 nurses with 28.4 ± 5.1 y and 16.3 ± 11.8 y of PAP experience, respectively, validated the questionnaire. One expert in each group was not considered for offering 3 ± SD answers in ≥2 questions respect to the mean of the rest of experts. Final Aiken’s V coefficient values were 0.89 (0.77–1.00) for the nurses’ questionnaire and 0.84 (0.77–0.95) for the physicians’ one. The questionnaires designed to assess the PAP self-perception of PHC nurses and physicians were validated. This methodology could be used to analyze PHC organizational staff factors in order to achieve an efficient PAP implementation in other PHC contexts. Full article
Article
Ability to Predict Side-Out Performance by the Setter’s Action Range with First Tempo Availability in Top European Male and Female Teams
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176326 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The aims of this study were to compare the Setter’s action range with availability of first tempo (SARA) between male and female volleyball; and to determine the relationship between several spatial and offensive variables and their influence in the success of the side-out [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to compare the Setter’s action range with availability of first tempo (SARA) between male and female volleyball; and to determine the relationship between several spatial and offensive variables and their influence in the success of the side-out in male and female volleyball. A total of 1302 side-outs (639 male, 663 female) were registered (2019 European Championship). The ranking, reception efficacy, position and trajectory of the setter between reception and set, first tempo availability, side-out result, rotation, and attack lane were analyzed through Recursive Partitioning for classification, regression and survival tree models and classification and regression trees algorithms. Our results present female teams with more reduced SARAs than male teams, meaning female setters tend to play closer to the net. The correlation between the ranking and the distance from the average position of the setter to the ideal setting zone was not significant. A movement of the setter of 30° or less and more than 1 m in distance might improve the performance of the side-out. Depending on the spatial usage of the setter, some rotations might be more successful than others. When assessing performance, the teams should consider the ability to play quick attacks when their reception is not as precise as they would expect. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Height on Drop Jumps in Relation to Somatic Parameters and Landing Kinetics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165886 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of drop height and selected somatic parameters on the landing kinetics of rebound jumps in force and power production, performed by male and female student athletes. Twenty female and forty male students with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of drop height and selected somatic parameters on the landing kinetics of rebound jumps in force and power production, performed by male and female student athletes. Twenty female and forty male students with a sports background participated in the experiment (mean and standard deviation (± SD): age 20.28 ± 1.31 years, height 166.78 ± 5.29 cm, mass 62.23 ± 7.21 kg and 21.18 ± 1.29, 182.18 ± 6.43, 78.65 ± 7.09). Each participant performed three maximal jumps on two independent and synchronized force platforms (Bilateral Tensiometric Platform S2P) at each of the two assigned drop-jump heights (20-, and 40-, cm for female and 30-, and 60-, cm for the male special platform). Significant between-sex differences were observed in all variables of selected somatics, with men outperforming women. Statistically significant differences were noted in four parameters, between men and women, in both DJs from 20/40 and 30/60 cm. The height of the jump was 6 cm and 4 cm higher for men. A slightly higher statistical significance (p = 0.011) was demonstrated by the relative strength (% BW) generated by the left limb in both men and women. Only women showed a significant relationship between body mass, body height, and five parameters, dropping off of a 20 cm box. In men, only the left leg—relative maximal F (p =−0.45)—showed a relationship with body mass. There were no relationships between the above-mentioned dependencies in both groups, in jumps from a higher height: 40 cm and 60 cm. From a practical application, the DJ with lower 20/30 cm or higher 40/60 cm (women/men) respectively emphasizes either the force or power output via an increase in the velocity component of the rebound action or increased height of the DJ jump. Full article
Article
The Regional Differences in Game-Play Styles Considering Playing Position in the FIBA Female Continental Basketball Competitions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165827 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify regional differences based on playing position in terms of the technical performances among FIBA Female Continental Basketball Championships by controlling the influence of situational variables including the game outcome, game type, teams and opponent quality. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify regional differences based on playing position in terms of the technical performances among FIBA Female Continental Basketball Championships by controlling the influence of situational variables including the game outcome, game type, teams and opponent quality. The samples comprised of 9208 performance records from 471 games in the America, Africa, Asia and Europe Championships during 2013–2017 and were collected and analyzed by generalized mixed linear modeling. Our study highlighted that, although positional differences were clear among different continental championships, it is worth noting that African guards, forwards, and centers made more turnovers (TOV) compared with the corresponding positional players from other continental championships. In addition, European guards presented the lowest number of steals (STL) compared with African (ES = 0.28), Asian (ES = 0.21), and American guards (ES = 0.24). The results provide coaches to have a better understanding of game-play styles among FIBA Female Continental Basketball Competitions, which could optimize the development of female basketball and the selection and recruitment of female players at the international level. Full article
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Article
Relative and Absolute Reliability of a Motor Assessment System Using KINECT® Camera
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165807 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
(1) Background: Virtual reality is currently useful in different clinical specialties as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In this study, we analyzed the relative and absolute reliability of the motor evaluation with the Kinect camera, a markerless motion system. (2) Methods: Observational study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Virtual reality is currently useful in different clinical specialties as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In this study, we analyzed the relative and absolute reliability of the motor evaluation with the Kinect camera, a markerless motion system. (2) Methods: Observational study in healthy people, whose inclusion criteria were: healthy people, age 18 to 40 years old without pathologies or injuries in osteoarticular structures or ligamentous muscle and pharmacological treatment with influence on motor skills. Fifty-two subjects were evaluated. (3) Results: The results of the relative reliability were favorable in variables such as the amplitude of passage of the right leg (ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) = 0.95 ± 0.03), the step width of the left leg (ICC = 0.92 ± 0.04) or balance of the left leg (ICC = 0.90 ± 0.05). Moderate values were found for other variables. The absolute reliability, measured by the coefficient of variation, was favorable in most of the variables. (4) Conclusions: The results reflect a favorable intraclass correlation in the evaluation of the variation and asymmetry of movements of the upper limbs, the balance of both legs, the side step width and the evaluation of the sitting and standing positions. The reliability of the evaluation of the variation of movements and the asymmetry of the lower limbs must be further improved. Full article
Article
Developing a Japanese Version of the Baron Depression Screener for Athletes among Male Professional Rugby Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155533 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
The Baron Depression Screener for Athletes (BDSA) is a brief, valid, and reliable athlete- specific assessment tool developed in the US to assess depressive symptoms in elite athletes. We examined the applicability and reliability of a Japanese version of the BDSA (BDSA-J) in [...] Read more.
The Baron Depression Screener for Athletes (BDSA) is a brief, valid, and reliable athlete- specific assessment tool developed in the US to assess depressive symptoms in elite athletes. We examined the applicability and reliability of a Japanese version of the BDSA (BDSA-J) in a Japanese context, and further examined the construct validity of the BDSA-J. Web-based anonymous self-report data of 235 currently competing Japanese professional male rugby players (25–29 years = 123 [52.3%]) was analyzed. A two-stage process was conducted to validate the factor structure of the BDSA-J using exploratory factor analysis in a randomly partitioned calibration sample, and confirmatory factor analysis in a separate validation sample. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated to examine convergent validity with the Kessler-6. We identified a one-factor structure for BDSA-J. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this one-factor model, revealing good model fit indices. The standardized path coefficients for each of the items were β = 0.52 to 0.79 (p < 0.001). A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.71 was obtained for the BDSA-J. BDSA-J showed significant positive correlations with the Kessler-6. The BDSA-J is an appropriate and psychometrically robust measure for identifying depressive symptoms in Japanese male rugby players. Full article
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Article
Balance Tests in Pre-Adolescent Children: Retest Reliability, Construct Validity, and Relative Ability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155474 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
Balance is an essential prerequisite for the normal physical development of a child. It consists of the ability to maintain the body’s centre of mass over its base of support, which is enabled by automatic postural adjustments, and maintain posture and stability in [...] Read more.
Balance is an essential prerequisite for the normal physical development of a child. It consists of the ability to maintain the body’s centre of mass over its base of support, which is enabled by automatic postural adjustments, and maintain posture and stability in various conditions and activities. The present study aimed to determine the measurement characteristics (reliability and concurrent validity) and the relative ability of balance tests and different motor tests in healthy 11-year-olds. We also evaluated the impact of vision on balance ability. Our results showed high interrater reliability (from 0.810 to 0.910) and confirmed the construct validity of the included balance tests. Girls performed significantly better than boys in laboratory tandem stance in following balance components: total sway path with eyes open (BSEO) (t = 2.68, p = 0.01, effect size (ES) = 0.81), total body sway with eyes closed of centre of pressure (CoP) displacement in the a-p direction (BSEC) (t = 1.86, p = 0.07, ES = 0.57), mean velocity of CoP displacements (VEO) (t = 2.67, p = 0.01, ES = 0.83), mean amplitude of CoP displacements in the a-p direction (AapEO) (t = 3.38. p = 0.00, ES = 1.01) and in mean amplitude of CoP displacements in the m-l direction (AmlEO) (t = 3.68, p = 0.00, ES = 1.19). With eyes closed, girls performed significantly better (t = 2.28, p = 0.03, ES = 0.70) than boys did in the mean amplitude of COP displacements in the a-p direction (AapEO) and significantly better (t = 2.37, p = 0.03, ES = 0.71) in the mean amplitude of COP displacements in the m-l direction (AmlEC). Insignificant correlations between different balance tests, except for a correlation between the flamingo test and one-leg stance on a low beam (r = 0.558, p < 0.01), show that each test assesses different aspects of balance ability; therefore, balance cannot be assessed with a single test. Full article
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Article
The Role of Sports Practice in Young Adolescent Development of Moral Competence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155324 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
The study examined the moral competence levels in adolescents participating in individual/team sports compared with those not undertaking sports at all. In total, 827 students aged 15–17 years old (45.4% boys, 54.6% girls) from randomly selected secondary schools in the Wielkopolska region in [...] Read more.
The study examined the moral competence levels in adolescents participating in individual/team sports compared with those not undertaking sports at all. In total, 827 students aged 15–17 years old (45.4% boys, 54.6% girls) from randomly selected secondary schools in the Wielkopolska region in Poland participated in the study. The moral competences were assessed using the Lind’s Moral Competence Test. The students also answered questions concerning their statues of involvement in sport (not involved; amateur; professional), years of involvement, and the type of sport they partook in (individual/team). The results highlight that the moral competence level in most of the examined adolescents (71.6% girls, 76.8% boys) was low. Those who presented a high moral competence level were 10.4% in girls, 8% in boys. There was no interaction between modes of involvement in sport and moral competence when comparing adolescents. The moral competence levels were not correlated with years of training in either mode of involvement or with type of sports. Therefore, we assume that, at this age, the type of sport and the level of engagement do not differentiate moral competence level and that there must be more factors contributing to this. This opens new directions for further research on the role of external factors stimulating the socio-moral growth of youth. Full article
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Article
Gender Differences in Sports News Coverage on Twitter
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145199 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Gender stereotypes influence boys’ and girls’ self-perception, with the differential treatment received by sports figures in the media being one of the main factors in the perpetuation of stereotypes about sports. The objective of this research is to analyze if the new communication [...] Read more.
Gender stereotypes influence boys’ and girls’ self-perception, with the differential treatment received by sports figures in the media being one of the main factors in the perpetuation of stereotypes about sports. The objective of this research is to analyze if the new communication channels, such as Twitter, maintain gender stereotypes when reporting sports news. For this purpose, the four most followed media in Spain were analyzed: (@ElPais_Deportes, @ABC_Deportes, @Marca and @MundoDeportivo) over a period of five months, from March to June 2016. Our sample was composed of 6544 tweets, with 96.19% about sportsmen compared to 3.81% that portrayed women. The sport with the most media coverage was football (72.11%), for men as well as for women, followed by basketball (6.63%). It is clear that despite the growing international triumphs of Spanish women athletes in recent years, the latter continue to be underrepresented in the media. Female athletes receive more media coverage according to the sport which they engage in (“gender-appropriate” sports), with the exception of football, and not in accordance with their accomplishments. Twitter remains at the service of traditional media replicating the same gender biases and even augmenting them. Full article
Article
A Developmental Model for Predicting Sport Participation among Female Korean College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145010 - 12 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Although participating in regular physical activity has many benefits, female Korean college students tend to have much lower participation rates than their male counterparts. An effective means of increasing physical activity among female college students is sport participation. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Although participating in regular physical activity has many benefits, female Korean college students tend to have much lower participation rates than their male counterparts. An effective means of increasing physical activity among female college students is sport participation. The purpose of this study is to incorporate three types of psychological needs from self-determination theory as precursor background variables into the theory of planned behavior to predict sport participation among female Korean college students. Our dataset consisted of 494 female undergraduate students attending Kyung Hee University in South Korea. Using structural equation modeling, the direct and indirect effects of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and psychological needs satisfaction such as competency, relatedness, and autonomy were examined. Although attitude towards and perceived behavioral control over sport participation were significantly associated with intention in all three models, subjective norm was not significantly associated with intention in any model. Satisfaction of the psychological needs for competency, relatedness, and autonomy had positive indirect effects on sport participation. This study underscores the importance of addressing the satisfaction of these three basic psychological needs when designing future sport promotion interventions for female college students. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Motor Intervention Program on the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Preschoolers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134891 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the influence of a structured movement activity program on the motor development of children aged three to five years attending preschool. Participants were 136 preschool students with normative development at three to four years old who lived in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the influence of a structured movement activity program on the motor development of children aged three to five years attending preschool. Participants were 136 preschool students with normative development at three to four years old who lived in the Region of Murcia (Spain). The McCarthy Children’s Psychomotricity and Aptitude Scales (MSCA) battery of psychomotor tests was used to evaluate the motor development profiles of preschoolers before and after the intervention. The sample was divided into two groups: an intervention group (28 students) and a comparison group (108 students). A structured 24 week physical education program was used in the intervention group. An experiential program based on free play was used in the comparison group during the same period. Preschoolers in both groups got a significant improvement in the contrast of pre-intervention with post-intervention in limb coordination. Statistically significant differences in the post-intervention measurements between the comparison group and the intervention group on arm and leg coordination were observed, whereby the intervention group presented higher arm coordination values (F1,134 = 14,389, p = 0.000, η2 = 0.097) and higher leg coordination values (F1,134 = 19,281, p = 0.000, η2 = 0.126) than the comparison group. It was pointed out that structured physical activity education is better educational methodology than free play to achieve adequate motor development in preschool children. Full article
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Article
External and Total Hip Rotation Ranges of Motion Predispose to Low Back Pain in Elite Spanish Inline Hockey Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134858 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is a common ailment in competitive athletes. Although the association between limited range of motion (ROM) and prevalence of LBP has been widely investigated in other sports, there is no research about this topic in inline hockey (IH). The [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common ailment in competitive athletes. Although the association between limited range of motion (ROM) and prevalence of LBP has been widely investigated in other sports, there is no research about this topic in inline hockey (IH). The main purposes of this study in IH players were (1) to analyze the association between hip ROM and LBP and (2) to establish a diagnostic cutoff for ROM of high risk of LBP. Twenty elite IH players from the two Spanish National Teams (male and female) were assessed for passive maximum hip ROMs; the movement evaluated were the hip external [HER] and internal [HIR] rotation, hip flexion with flexed [HF-KF] and extended [HF-KE] knee, hip adduction with flexed hip [HAD-HF], hip abduction with neutral [HAB] and flexed [HAB-HF] hip, and hip extension [HE]. LBP was retrospectively monitored for the last 12 months before the date of ROM assessment by using a questionnaire. The data were analyzed via a binary logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves. The 70% of players had developed LBP during the retrospective study period. Significant differences between LBP group and asymptomatic group for HER (p = 0.013, d [Cohen’s effect size] = 1.17) and hip total rotation [HTR] (p = 0.032, d [Cohen’s effect size] = 1.05) were observed. The cutoff points with the greatest discriminatory capacity were 56.5° for HER and 93° for HTR ROMs. Full article
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Article
Courage in Competition: Adaptation of the Sports Courage Scale for American English and Validation of the Factor Structure with Student-Athletes at Clemson University
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134834 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
While courage is widely attributed to athletic pursuits, it has received little scientific attention from both researchers and applied practitioners. A reliable measurement is required to examine courage in sports and competitive activities. Therefore, this research aimed to adapt the original Turkish Sports [...] Read more.
While courage is widely attributed to athletic pursuits, it has received little scientific attention from both researchers and applied practitioners. A reliable measurement is required to examine courage in sports and competitive activities. Therefore, this research aimed to adapt the original Turkish Sports Courage Scale-31 into American English (SCS-AE). The SCS-31 measure was translated from Turkish into the American English language by the Brislin forward and backward translation technique and language validity. Then, the translated SCS-AE was administered to 548 American university college students (Mean age = 19.02, SD = 1.21). All participants played a sport (e.g., football, soccer, basketball, gymnastics). Based on confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), 31 items of SCS-AE were reduced to 24 items with four factors (i.e., assertiveness, determination, mastery, and venturesome). The fit indices were satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.97, SRMR = 0.06, NFI = 0.96 and NNFI = 0.97). The internal consistency measured by Cronbach alpha, ranging from 0.73 to 0.78, were considered acceptable. The convergent validity and discriminant validity of SCS-AE were also achieved. Our findings indicate strong support for research using the four-factor model of the SCS-AE and adequate support for the five-factor model with sufficient caution regarding the internal consistency of the self-sacrifice factor. While cultural differences in courage perception might exist between these countries, the findings showed more similarities than differences in courage. Results indicated that the SCS-AE is usable for research purposes in the suggested format. Future directions are discussed using the SCS-31 and SCS-AE for research. Full article
Article
Design and Validation of the Instrument for the Measurement of Learning and Performance in Football
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134629 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
The assessment of tactical-technical knowledge of football is essential to develop optimal and integral teaching processes for students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate an instrument so that teachers, coaches, and researchers can observe and codify both the [...] Read more.
The assessment of tactical-technical knowledge of football is essential to develop optimal and integral teaching processes for students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate an instrument so that teachers, coaches, and researchers can observe and codify both the tactical behaviors and technical skills performed by the students in the game of football. The design and validation of the instrument were carried out in four phases: a) review of the literature and previous instruments; b) design of the Instrument for the Measurement of Learning and Performance in Football (IMLPFoot). It assesses all the offensive and defensive play actions, with and without the ball, as well as their three components (decision-making, technical execution, and final result); c) sample selection of experts (N = 12); and d) quantitative (Likert-type scale from 1 to 10) and qualitative assessment of degree the pertinence, unambiguity, and importance of each of the 33 items included in the IMLPFoot. Aiken’s V coefficient was used to determine content validity. Likewise, internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s α coefficient. The results showed demanding levels of validity (V ≥ 0.77), internal consistency (α = 0.983), inter-rater, and intra-rater reliability. Therefore, it is a valid and reliable instrument that makes possible a complete assessment of football in physical education classes and/or in the sports context (out-of-school football). Full article
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Article
Lower-Limb Flexibility Profile Analysis in Youth Competitive Inline Hockey Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124338 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
During puberty, the growth of the bones is faster than that of the muscles, which may result in muscular tightness. Muscular tightness and asymmetry have been associated with an increase in injury incidence. The assessment of a joint range of motion (ROM) could [...] Read more.
During puberty, the growth of the bones is faster than that of the muscles, which may result in muscular tightness. Muscular tightness and asymmetry have been associated with an increase in injury incidence. The assessment of a joint range of motion (ROM) could help to identify athletes classified as high injury risk. The objectives of the present study were to describe the lower-extremity flexibility profile (LEFP) of youth competitive inline hockey players using the ROM-SPORT battery (I) and to identify muscular tightness and asymmetry (II). Seventy-four young players were examined for maximum passive ankle, knee, and hip ROMs. Muscle asymmetry or tightness was classified according to cutoff scores previously described. The LEFP of the 74 players was 10.8° for hip extension, 26° for hip adduction, 33.6° for ankle dorsiflexion, 38.6° for ankle dorsiflexion with knee flexed, 36.7° for hip abduction, 46° for hip internal rotation, 60.6° for hip external rotation, 65.1° for hip abduction with the hip flexed, 66.3° for hip flexion with the knee extended, 119.7° for knee flexion, and 133.7° for hip flexion. The individual analysis of the flexibility values identified tightness in all players for one or more movement, except for hip abduction. A low prevalence of asymmetries was observed (range: 5.4% to 17.6% of players) depending on the ROM. Full article
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Article
Does Emotion Regulation Predict Gains in Exercise-Induced Fitness? A Prospective Mixed-Effects Study with Elite Helicopter Pilots
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114174 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Emotion regulation (ER) is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, only recently has ER been examined in relation to physical activity and its effects on fitness. In the present study, 26 elite helicopter pilots, serving in the [...] Read more.
Emotion regulation (ER) is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, only recently has ER been examined in relation to physical activity and its effects on fitness. In the present study, 26 elite helicopter pilots, serving in the Spanish Air Force, were physically trained for 6 months, and their level of fitness (maximum oxygen consumption and time to exhaustion in a treadmill-running test) was assessed before and after that period. Additionally, two indices of emotion regulation (general adaptiveness of ER strategies, as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and negative urgency, as measured by the UPPS-P questionnaire) measured at baseline were used as prospective predictors of fitness improvement. After controlling for individual features, baseline fitness, and type of training, better emotion regulation strategies (more cognitive reappraisal plus less expressive suppression) predicted larger fitness gains (p = 0.028). Incidental emotion regulation, as measured by the negative urgency index, failed to predict pre–post-fitness changes (p = 0.734). These results suggest that fostering emotion regulation skills may improve the effectiveness of fitness training programs. Full article
Article
Can Fitness Education Programs Satisfy Fitness Professionals’ Competencies? Integrating Traditional and Revised Importance-Performance Analysis and Three-Factor Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4011; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114011 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to assess whether fitness education programs could meet the needs or competencies of fitness professionals such as personal trainers and group fitness instructors. A mixed method was adopted to address the objectives of the study. In the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to assess whether fitness education programs could meet the needs or competencies of fitness professionals such as personal trainers and group fitness instructors. A mixed method was adopted to address the objectives of the study. In the first step, a semi-structured interview was conducted with five fitness experts to identify the five dimensions of professional competencies. In the second step, an online survey and paper questionnaires were utilized to collect data from 324 eligible subjects. Traditional importance-performance analysis, revised importance-performance analysis, and the three-factor theory were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicate that “professional skill,” “career development,” and “public relations” are the three most critical professional competencies. “Nutrition” and “coping with stress” should be strengthened and improved in fitness education programs. “Administrative management” is the least important professional competency. Multi-competencies development and lifelong learning are the factors for a successful fitness trainer. Full article
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Article
Using the Integrated Kano–RIPA Model to Explore Teaching Quality of Physical Education Programs in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113954 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to apply the Kano model and revised importance–performance analysis (RIPA) to explore the teaching quality of physical education programs at Taiwanese universities. Random sampling was used to select universities from the north, south, central, and east areas [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to apply the Kano model and revised importance–performance analysis (RIPA) to explore the teaching quality of physical education programs at Taiwanese universities. Random sampling was used to select universities from the north, south, central, and east areas of Taiwan. The questionnaire developed by the researcher included 20 items within four subscales. A total of 970 students participated in this study. A combination of the Kano model and RIPA was used for analysis. The results indicate that the item “physical education teachers have cordial attitudes toward instructions” fell into the “keep up the good work” designation of RIPA and the fourth quadrant of the Kano model. A patient and cordial attitude towards students can, therefore, be considered an important quality factor for physical education programs. Teacher–student relationships should, therefore, form a priority for physical education teachers looking to increase student satisfaction and optimize their programs. Full article
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Article
Comparison of the Physical Demands of Friendly Matches and Different Types On-Field Integrated Training Sessions in Professional Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082904 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among physical demands of two friendly matches (FMs) and three task training sessions (TS1,2,3) combining in a different way: a Small-Sided Game (SSG), Mini-Goals (MG), a ball Circuit Training (CT) and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among physical demands of two friendly matches (FMs) and three task training sessions (TS1,2,3) combining in a different way: a Small-Sided Game (SSG), Mini-Goals (MG), a ball Circuit Training (CT) and a Large-Sided Game (LSG): SSG+MG+LSG (TS1), SSG+CT+LSG (TS2) and MG+CT+LSG (TS3). The TS and match demands in running intensities were monitored in fourteen professional soccer players (age = 23.2 ± 2.7 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, body mass = 73.2 ± 6.9 kg, mean and SD, respectively) using 10-Hz global positioning system devices, and players’ perception of exertion was recorded after each session or match using a visual analogue scale. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction coupled with magnitude-based inferences were used. A principal component (PC) analysis was conducted on all variables to account for covariance. Three PCs were retained, explaining 76% of the variance: Component 1 explained 46.9% with the associated variables: Total Distance (TD) and distance covered in ranges of speed from >2.2 to <5 m/s, Player Load and Work Rest Ratio; component 2 explained 19.7% and was composed of TD at > 5 m/s and maximal running speed (MRS); and component 3 explained 9.5% and was represented by TD < 2.2 m/s, decelerations and accelerations. The ANOVA results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among TS vs. FM in TD3, TD4, TD5, and TD > 5, TD, deceleration rate, acceleration rate, maximal running speed, exertion index, work rest ratio, and self-reported exertion. Therefore, the training routines did not replicate the main set of high intensity efforts experienced in competitive conditions. Additionally, PC analysis could be applied in order to select the most representative training and competitive conditions. Full article
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Article
Differences in the Bodyweight, Hydration Levels, Lean Mass, and Fat Mass in Spanish Junior Elite Judokas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082853 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Combat sports have a great interest in society and among professional sports. They are an important group of sports in the Olympic Games, but the strategies carried out by athletes to reduce body weight for weighing day, is famously known, suffering the adverse [...] Read more.
Combat sports have a great interest in society and among professional sports. They are an important group of sports in the Olympic Games, but the strategies carried out by athletes to reduce body weight for weighing day, is famously known, suffering the adverse physical and psychological effects of rapid weight loss. This could compromise not only the performance, but the health and development of young athletes. A total of 22 elite male judokas (18.05 ± 1.05 years old) were evaluated during four different competitions in one season; the variables of body weight, water levels, and lean and fat mass were measured by bioimpedance (BIA), (Tanita BC545N) during one season. Using the linear mixed model test, we found significant differences in bodyweight variable during the competitions 3–4. The water level variable showed significant differences in all competitions, except for 2–4. Body mass index was significantly different in all competitions, being higher in the later competitions, except between competitions 1–2 and 2–3. Judokas participate in weight loss methods for their weigh-in days. Furthermore, the age at which the athletes reduced their water levels are worrisome. These results could be used to create healthy programs, especially in elite judokas, in order to carry out strategies before, during, and after competitions with weight loss and controlled water levels increasing future performance and health. Full article
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Article
Psychometric Properties of the Decisional Balance Scale: A Confirmatory Study on Malaysian University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2748; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082748 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Decisional balance (DB) is the perceived positive aspects (advantages) and negative aspects (disadvantages) that are associated with behavioural change. Behavioural change is dependent on an individual’s thoughts after considering the advantages of engaging in exercise. When the benefits exceed the barriers, people are [...] Read more.
Decisional balance (DB) is the perceived positive aspects (advantages) and negative aspects (disadvantages) that are associated with behavioural change. Behavioural change is dependent on an individual’s thoughts after considering the advantages of engaging in exercise. When the benefits exceed the barriers, people are more likely to make changes after cognitively evaluating the functional aspects. The purpose of the present study is to determine the validity and reliability of the DB scale among Malaysian university students using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A cross-sectional study was carried out among students who took part in the co-curricular program. By using the purposive sampling method, students were recruited and given written informed consent forms after acknowledging they understood the purpose of the study. The DB scale, which consists of two factors, namely, advantages and disadvantages, was used as the instrument in the study. The advantages referred to the benefits of participating in exercise, whereas the disadvantages referred to the barriers to exercise. The 10-item, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to participating students. Data were analysed using Mplus 8 for the CFA. A total of 562 students (females = 444, males = 118) with a mean age of 19.81 years (SD = 1.22) participated in the study. Most of the students were engaged in regular physical activity for at least three exercise sessions (mean = 2.62) per week, and the average duration per session was 43 minutes. The hypothesised measurement model of DB did not fit the data well; thus, the measurement model was re-specified. The final measurement model fit the data well (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.960, Tucker–Lewis index (TLI) = 0.943, standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.055, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) (90% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.061 (0.047, 0.074), RMSEA p-value = 0.096). The composite reliability values of 0.757 for the advantages and 0.792 for the disadvantages were acceptable. The 10-item DB scale with two factors displayed a good model fit for the data with good scale reliability. This could be beneficial for Malaysian undergraduate students in making decisions before engaging in physical activity. The benefits of, and barriers to, exercise could be an important component that affects their decision making. Full article
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Article
Sitting Posture, Sagittal Spinal Curvatures and Back Pain in 8 to 12-Year-Old Children from the Region of Murcia (Spain): ISQUIOS Programme
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072578 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
To explore sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic disposition of schoolchildren in a slump sitting position is needed in order to establish preventive educational postural programs. The purposes of this study were to describe sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic tilt (LSA) in a slump [...] Read more.
To explore sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic disposition of schoolchildren in a slump sitting position is needed in order to establish preventive educational postural programs. The purposes of this study were to describe sagittal spinal alignment and pelvic tilt (LSA) in a slump sitting position and to explore the association of sagittal spine and pelvic tilt with back pain (BP) among 8–12-year-old children. It was a cross-sectional study. Sagittal spinal curvatures, BP and pelvic tilt were assessed in 582 students from 14 elementary schools. It was found that 53.44% of children had slight thoracic hyperkyphosis and that 48.80% presented moderate lumbar hyperkyphosis and 38.66% presented slight lumbar hyperkyphosis. Those who did not suffer from BP in any part of the back had a higher lumbar kyphosis (24.64 ± 7.84) or a greater LSA (107.27 ± 5.38) than children who had some type of BP in the previous year or week (lumbar kyphosis: 23.08 ± 8.06; LSA: 105.52 ± 6.00), although with no clinically relevant differences. In fact, neither sufferers nor those who did not have BP presented normal mean values for lumbar kyphosis or LSA according to normality references. This study demonstrates the need to assess sagittal morphotype in childhood since schoolchildren remain incorrectly seated for many hours and it greatly affects their spinal curvatures. Full article
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Article
Comparison between Two Different Device Models 18 Hz GPS Used for Time–Motion Analyses in Ecological Testing of Football
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061912 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity of two different GPS device models used for time–motion analyses in ecological testing of football. Methods: Ten healthy male players from a Spanish university football team participated in this study. The team [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity of two different GPS device models used for time–motion analyses in ecological testing of football. Methods: Ten healthy male players from a Spanish university football team participated in this study. The team sport simulation circuit (TSCC) used was based on previous research examining the validity and interunit reliability of different GPS systems. Participants were required to complete eight laps of the TSSC, resulting in a total distance of 1320 m. The GPS units used for the current study were the 18 Hz StatsSport Apex Pro and 18 Hz RealTrack WIMU Pro. Participants were required to wear either of the two GPS units during the test. To establish the construct validity of GPS as a measure of Vmax, timing lights were used as a gold standard. Results: The results clearly suggest that it is not possible to use the same 18 Hz GPS model or interchange it. The measurement can be considered precise when the noise is at least equal to or lower than the smallest worthwhile change. In this case, all standard deviation in measurement error was higher than the smallest worthwhile change. This is due to an inconsistency in the data processing of each trademark. Conclusions: It is important to prevent a club using different GPS trademarks at the same time, since it is not possible to compare in any case any type of result obtained between different trademarks. Full article
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Article
An Observational Tool to Assess Activity Limitation in Ambulatory People with Cerebral Palsy When Performing Motor Skills
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061896 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Ratios of physical activity and sports participation in people with cerebral palsy (CP) are still low compared with people without a disability. For an adequate and useful practice, physical activity professionals should understand how different types of CP profiles constrain the performance of [...] Read more.
Ratios of physical activity and sports participation in people with cerebral palsy (CP) are still low compared with people without a disability. For an adequate and useful practice, physical activity professionals should understand how different types of CP profiles constrain the performance of motor skills that are required during sports practice. This study aims to develop an observation-based assessment tool to evaluate activity limitations in individuals with a moderate level of CP when performing skills requiring jumping, sprinting, change of direction, coordination, and balance. Nineteen observers with different backgrounds from five world regions were recruited for this study, with accredited experience classifying/observing para-athletes with CP. All observers watched videos of 20 international para-athletes with different CP profiles (bilateral spasticity, athetosis/ataxia, unilateral spasticity; all Gross Motor Function Classification System level I) performing 16 motor tasks, and their observations were recorded throughout an ad-hoc data collection instrument. A total of 6080 units of qualitative information were recorded for data analysis. An observation-based tool with qualitative descriptors is derived from data analyses, describing how coordination and balance affected mainly in those with dyskinesia/ataxia, range of movement in those with diplegia, and asymmetries in those with hemiplegia. This tool would help sports practitioners and physical educators to better understand how different CP profiles constrain the performance of motor skills. Full article
Article
Small-Sided Games as a Methodological Resource for Team Sports Teaching: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061884 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
New models for teaching sports have arisen in the last years, characterised by the use of more contextualised situations, modified games, tactical awareness, transference of technical–tactical learning and different teaching progression, among other aspects. In this regard, small-sided games must be highlighted, due [...] Read more.
New models for teaching sports have arisen in the last years, characterised by the use of more contextualised situations, modified games, tactical awareness, transference of technical–tactical learning and different teaching progression, among other aspects. In this regard, small-sided games must be highlighted, due to their ability to integrate physical fitness, technique and tactical behaviour stimuli in similar conditions to the real game. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to analyse and describe the methodological possibilities that SSGs can provide regarding the teaching of technical–tactical aspects in team sports at young ages. The guidelines of the PRISMA declaration were followed with the purpose of conducting a systematic search. The search was performed in the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and SportDiscus. From the 451 identified in an early phase, plus the 20 found in the references of other studies, only 47 met the inclusion criteria and were selected. The results yielded scientific evidence that justifies the use of small-sided games as a methodological resource for sports teaching at young ages. Among the main reasons, it can be highlighted that a reduction in the number of players and in the size of the pitch area increases the total ball contact per player and, therefore, the number of technical actions. Moreover, the intentional modification of certain rules helps to develop some sport training fundamentals. Full article
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Article
The German Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction in Physical Education Scale: Adaption and Multilevel Validation in a Sample of Sixth-Grade Girls
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051554 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
(1) Background: Self-determination theory (SDT) claims that need supportive behavior is related to the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs: autonomy, relatedness and competence. The student–teacher relationship is of special interest to understand mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in physical education (PE). [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Self-determination theory (SDT) claims that need supportive behavior is related to the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs: autonomy, relatedness and competence. The student–teacher relationship is of special interest to understand mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in physical education (PE). (2) Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 481 girls answered a German version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction (BPNS) in PE Scale. Contrary to previous studies, the psychometric properties of this scale were examined by multilevel confirmatory factor analysis. (3) Results: A model with three latent factors on both levels showed acceptable fit and all items showed significant factor loadings. Although one item was excluded due to psychometric reasons, the scale showed good internal consistencies; α = 0.85 at the individual level and α = 0.84 at the class level. Subscales’ internal consistency at the individual levels was good, while at class level, the scores differed from poor to good. Small significant correlations of BPNS with moderate to vigorous physical activity support criterion validity. (4) Conclusion: The 11-item scale is a valid measurement tool to assess BPNS in PE and further application in the school setting would broaden the insights into the psychological impacts of SDT in PE. Full article
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Article
Psychometric Analysis and Effectiveness of the Psychological Readiness of Injured Athlete to Return to Sport (PRIA-RS) Questionnaire on Injured Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051536 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
The decision-making process about when an athlete may safely return to training and competition after an injury is a difficult decision. Safe return to training and competition is characterised by physical and psychological readiness to return to the sport. The objectives of this [...] Read more.
The decision-making process about when an athlete may safely return to training and competition after an injury is a difficult decision. Safe return to training and competition is characterised by physical and psychological readiness to return to the sport. The objectives of this study are (1) to assess the measurement properties of the Psychological Readiness of Injured Athlete to Return to Sport questionnaire (PRIA-RS), and (2) to analyse the effectiveness which the PRIA-RS questionnaire possesses when applied during four consecutive seasons on professional soccer players. One hundred and nine male soccer players from the Albacete Soccer Club (Spain) were involved during four consecutive seasons for the current study: 2012–2013, 2013–2014, 2014–2015 and 2015–2016. Psychometric analysis (validity, reliability, internal consistency and effectiveness) and external psychometric analysis (evaluating measures of patient-reported outcomes (EMPRO)) were confirmed and supported. The main results of the study reveal that the psychometric properties of this questionnaire are optimum for their application in a professional sports context. Full article
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Article
Comparing the External Loads Encountered during Competition between Elite, Junior Male and Female Basketball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041456 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to compare external loads (EL) between elite, junior, male and female basketball players. Male (n = 25) and female players (n = 48) were monitored during 11 competitive matches (3 matches per team). EL was measured [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to compare external loads (EL) between elite, junior, male and female basketball players. Male (n = 25) and female players (n = 48) were monitored during 11 competitive matches (3 matches per team). EL was measured using local positioning system and microsensor technology to determine total, high-intensity (14–21 km·h−1), and sprint (>21 km·h−1) distance (m) covered, total (n) and relative (n·min−1) accelerations and decelerations, ratio of accelerations:decelerations, and total (arbitrary units [AU]) and relative (AU·min−1) player load. EL was compared between sexes overall and according to each playing position (guards, forwards, and centers). Males covered larger (p < 0.05) high-intensity and sprint distances, and completed more (p < 0.05) decelerations than females; while female players experienced a greater (p < 0.05) ratio of accelerations:decelerations. Greater decelerations (p < 0.05) were observed for males in the guard position compared to females, while more (p < 0.05) accelerations·min−1 were apparent for females in the forward position compared to males. The current findings indicate differences in EL, particularly the high-intensity and acceleratory demands, exist between elite, junior, male and female basketball players during competition and are affected by playing position. These outcomes can be used in developing sex- and position-specific training plans, and in turn improving the physical preparedness of junior basketball players for competition demands at the elite level. Full article
Article
Pedagogical Function of Referees in Youth Sport: Assessment of the Quality of Referee–Player Interactions in Youth Soccer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030905 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
We assume that all institutions and individuals involved in the organization of sport for children and young people should utilize the educational potential of sport. We assessed the quality of referee interactions with children during sports competitions in soccer. Based on the developmental [...] Read more.
We assume that all institutions and individuals involved in the organization of sport for children and young people should utilize the educational potential of sport. We assessed the quality of referee interactions with children during sports competitions in soccer. Based on the developmental theory and research suggesting that interactions between kids and adults are the primary mechanism of their development and learning, we focused on the quality of the referee–player interactions in terms of (1) emotional support, (2) game organization, and (3) instructional support. Twenty-five soccer referees who refereed matches for children aged 9–12 years were recruited. The Referee Educational Function Assessment Scoring System (REFASS) was used to assess the quality of the referee–player interactions. This tool was developed based on Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Upper Elementary. Regarding the REFASS dimensions, the mean scores for positive climate, Sensitivity, behavior management, content understanding and quality of feedback were in the medium range, while productivity and negative climate in the high range. In the case of the positive climate variable, the lowest mean ratings were recorded compared to other assessed dimensions. The assessments of the quality of referee–player interactions obtained for particular dimensions translated into the ratings for the specified domains. The highest ratings were given to game organization (6.0 ± 0.8; Me = 6.0), whereas the emotional support and instructional support were in the medium range (4.6 ± 1.5; Me = 4.5, and 5.2 ± 1.8; Me = 6.0, respectively). Referees are usually not aware of their pedagogical function and the complexity of their respective responsibilities. They are commonly considered to be ordinary technicians and evaluators of performance in competition. Based on the results, a postulate was formulated that referees should consciously perform a pedagogical function in the youth sport. Therefore, it is necessary to train them in educational methods and techniques appropriate to the age and needs of the child. The referees will then be prepared to take actions to prevent negative behavior of players on the field and to encourage prosocial behavior. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Technical Performance of Football Players in the UEFA Champions League
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020604 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the technical match performance of top-class football players in a long-term perspective. Technical performance profiles of players according to five playing positions (central defender, full back, wide midfielder, central midfielder, forward) and five situational variables (competition stage, match [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the technical match performance of top-class football players in a long-term perspective. Technical performance profiles of players according to five playing positions (central defender, full back, wide midfielder, central midfielder, forward) and five situational variables (competition stage, match location, quality of team, quality of opponent, match outcome) were established. Technical match data of players in the UEFA Champions League from season 2009–2010 to 2016–2017 were analyzed. The true effects of positional and situational variables on players’ technical performance were evaluated by the non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Results showed that the effect of competition stage on player’s performance was negligible. Quality of team, quality of opponent and match outcome revealed the strongest effects on player’s performance (ES: −0.42 ± 0.10–0.59 ± 0.10) while the effect of match location was relatively lower (ES: −0.32 ± 0.10–0.23 ± 0.07). The number of variables that showed statistical differences under five competing contexts for wide midfielders and forwards were higher than those of central defenders, full backs, and central midfielders. Differences of players’ match performance could mainly be identified in variables related to goal scoring, passing, and organizing, these findings may provide important insights for coaches and analysts during the match preparation and training session. Full article
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Article
Validity and Reliability of the WIMUTM Inertial Device for the Assessment of Joint Angulations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010193 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Range of motion measurement is fundamental in the physical examination and functional evaluation of different joints. WIMUTM is an inertial device that allows the analysis of joint motion easily in real time. This study had a two-fold goal: (i) to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Range of motion measurement is fundamental in the physical examination and functional evaluation of different joints. WIMUTM is an inertial device that allows the analysis of joint motion easily in real time. This study had a two-fold goal: (i) to evaluate the validity of WIMUTM on the measurement of different angle positions, compared with a standard goniometer and 2D video-based motion analysis software; and (ii) to evaluate the use of WIMUTM in the assessment of angulations in a joint, specifically assessing the validity and reliability of WIMUTM on the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion, compared to a standard goniometer and Kinovea. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson´s correlation coefficient (r) were performed to calculate the concurrent validity, and Bland-Altman plots were performed to analyze agreement between measures. For the analysis of reliability, both relative and absolute indices were used. The results showed excellent validity and reliability of WIMUTM in the assessment of angle positions and ankle dorsiflexion. The current findings conclude that WIMUTM is a valid and reliable instrument to measure angle and joint motions. In short, WIMUTM provides a new clinical and sportive method of angle measurement. Full article
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Article
Interaction Effects of Disruptive Behaviour and Motivation Profiles with Teacher Competence and School Satisfaction in Secondary School Physical Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010114 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The objectives of this work were two-fold: Firstly, to identify the profiles of disruptive behaviours and motivation in secondary school physical education students using cluster analysis; and secondly, to analyse the interaction of the profiles with school satisfaction and perceived teaching competence. A [...] Read more.
The objectives of this work were two-fold: Firstly, to identify the profiles of disruptive behaviours and motivation in secondary school physical education students using cluster analysis; and secondly, to analyse the interaction of the profiles with school satisfaction and perceived teaching competence. A group of 758 secondary school students (54.2% female) between the ages of 13 and 18 (M = 15.22, DT = 1.27) participated in the study by responding to the following scales: The Disruptive Behaviours in Physical Education Questionnaire, The School Satisfaction Scale, The Sport Motivation Scale adapted to Physical Education, and the Evaluation of Teaching Competencies Scale in Physical Education. The cluster analysis established two distinct profiles: High levels of disruptive behaviours and low levels of disruptive behaviours. The results showed that the students with the high disruptive behaviours profile were mostly boys, having low levels of intrinsic motivation and high levels of amotivation and misbehaviour in the classroom. In contrast, those students with the low disruptive behaviours profile were mostly girls, having the highest levels of intrinsic motivation and the lowest levels in all the disruptive behaviours. It was shown that students exhibiting the worse classroom behaviours were more bored in school, while those students with better behaviour perceived greater teaching competence. Full article
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Article
Accelerometry-Based External Load Indicators in Sport: Too Many Options, Same Practical Outcome?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245101 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
With the development of new microsensor technology to assess load in sports, some indicators of external load through accelerometry-based data have been created by sport technology companies. Thus, the study aim was to analyze the agreement between different accelerometry-based external load indicators (ABELIs) [...] Read more.
With the development of new microsensor technology to assess load in sports, some indicators of external load through accelerometry-based data have been created by sport technology companies. Thus, the study aim was to analyze the agreement between different accelerometry-based external load indicators (ABELIs) available in sport science. A U-16 male soccer team was assessed during three official matches, divided by periods, to obtain 3-D accelerometry data (x, y and z axes). An average of 1,420,000 data points was analyzed per axis per player. The ABELIs were calculated using this information, and the agreement between them was explored. The following ABELIs were considered after a literature review: AcelT, Player LoadRT, PlayerLoadTM, Impulse Load, Player LoadRE and Total Load. In order to compare ABELIs, two analyses were performed using: (1) absolute data; and (2) normalized and centered data (Z-scores). In absolute and centered data, very large to nearly perfect correlations (1st period: r > 0.803, p > 0.01; 2nd period: r > 0.919; p > 0.01) were found. Instead, very large differences were found in absolute values (bias = −579,226.6 to 285,931.1; t = −224.66 to 213.91, p < 0.01), and no differences in scaled and centered values (bias = 0; t = 1; p = 1). In conclusion, considering the different output (magnitude and units) among ABELIs, the standardization of a universal index to calculate accelerometer load is needed in order to make possible between-study comparison. Full article
Article
Identification and Preference of Game Styles in LaLiga Associated with Match Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245090 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
The objective was to model the teams’ styles of play (SoPs) in elite football and relate them to the match result. For this, the twenty Spanish first division teams in the 2016–2017 season were analysed, using nine interaction performance indicators (IRi). A principal [...] Read more.
The objective was to model the teams’ styles of play (SoPs) in elite football and relate them to the match result. For this, the twenty Spanish first division teams in the 2016–2017 season were analysed, using nine interaction performance indicators (IRi). A principal component (PC) analysis was applied. From two PCs four SoPs were established: deep or high-pressure defending, and elaborate or direct attack. The SoPs were distributed according to average performance obtained throughout the championship. The connection between the preferred SoP and the final result was estimated. Teams with elaborate offensive styles and teams defensively minded got better results. In addition, most of the teams showed variability in their SoP. The applications of the study are (1) the IRi have served to identify SoP and can be used as a reference to optimize team performance; (2) teams should have a varied SoP repertoire, as well as being prepared to deal with different SoPs; (3) particular player profiles should be connected with the desired SoP when creating the squad and (4) clubs should develop a varied range of SoPs at their academies. Full article
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Article
Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Studies of Muslim Females’ Perceptions of Physical Activity Barriers and Facilitators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245040 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Muslim women’s perceptions of cultural, religious, and secular determinants of physical activity have been studied for many years, with information typically acquired through focus groups or interviews. Multiple reviews synthesizing the research have been published, however, individual studies have not been scrutinized for [...] Read more.
Muslim women’s perceptions of cultural, religious, and secular determinants of physical activity have been studied for many years, with information typically acquired through focus groups or interviews. Multiple reviews synthesizing the research have been published, however, individual studies have not been scrutinized for their quality/rigor. Therefore, I critically appraised the quality of the body of qualitative research studies that utilized focus groups to identify Muslim women’s perceptions of physical activity barriers and facilitators. I utilized 26 items from the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) to assess the quality of 56 papers published between 1987 and 2016. Using crosstabulations, I also examined associations between paper quality (low vs. high) and binary categorical variables for impact factor, maximum paper length allowed, publication year, and database the paper was indexed. Overall, papers averaged only 10.5 of 26 COREQ reporting criteria and only two out of 26 items were reported in more than 75% of the papers. Paper quality was not associated with impact factor and length. High quality papers were more likely published more recently (i.e., 2011 or later) and in journals indexed in the PubMed database compared to low quality papers. There is contention among qualitative researchers about standardizing reporting criteria, and while the trend in quality appears to be improving, journal reviewers and editors ought to hold authors to greater accountability in reporting. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Review
Assessment of the Range of Movement of the Lower Limb in Sport: Advantages of the ROM-SPORT I Battery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207606 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Range of movement (ROM) assessment is an important strategy to increase physical-technical performance and minimize the risk of sports-related injuries. Currently, there is no consensus regarding which ROM assessment method is the most appropriate. The main objective of this study was to perform [...] Read more.
Range of movement (ROM) assessment is an important strategy to increase physical-technical performance and minimize the risk of sports-related injuries. Currently, there is no consensus regarding which ROM assessment method is the most appropriate. The main objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the test batteries available for the assessment of lower limb ROM; additionally, we compare the ROM-SPORT I battery with those previously reported in the literature. The systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The identification of publications was made by using the databases SciELO, Medline, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science. Based on the inclusion criteria, sixteen publications were selected and analyzed. The ROM-SPORT I battery is the most valid of the analyzed methods. This battery evaluates the ROM of eleven lower limb movements. The inclinometer with a telescopic arm and a box is a simpler, more comfortable, and faster procedure than others. The Lumbosant support and use of two examiners are essential to avoid compensatory movements to obtain reliable measurements during ROM assessment. The ROM-SPORT I is a field-based battery of tests that may be used by sports professionals, clinics, and researchers in applied settings to accurately assess and monitor lower extremity ROM. Full article
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Review
Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaires for Adults across EU Countries: Systematic Review and Meta Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197161 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
This review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020138845) critically evaluates test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and criterion validity of different physical activity (PA) levels of three most commonly used international PA questionnaires (PAQs) in official language versions of European Union (EU): International Physical Activity [...] Read more.
This review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020138845) critically evaluates test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and criterion validity of different physical activity (PA) levels of three most commonly used international PA questionnaires (PAQs) in official language versions of European Union (EU): International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF), Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), and European Health Interview Survey-Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ). In total, 1749 abstracts were screened, 287 full-text articles were identified as relevant to the study objectives, and 20 studies were included. The studies’ results and quality were evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Questionnaires checklist. Results indicate that only ten EU countries validated official language versions of selected PAQs. A meta-analysis revealed that assessment of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) is the most relevant PA level outcome, since no publication bias in any of measurement properties was detected while test-retest reliability was moderately high (rw = 0.74), moderate for the criterion (rw = 0.41) and moderately-high for concurrent validity (rw = 0.72). Reporting of methods and results of the studies was poor, with an overall moderate risk of bias with a total score of 0.43. In conclusion, where only self-reporting of PA is feasible, assessment of MVPA with selected PAQs in EU adult populations is recommended. Full article
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Review
Evaluation of the Lower Limb Muscles’ Electromyographic Activity during the Leg Press Exercise and Its Variants: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134626 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the literature on muscle activation measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) of the muscles recruited when performing the leg press exercise and its variants. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the literature on muscle activation measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) of the muscles recruited when performing the leg press exercise and its variants. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to report this review. The search was carried out using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases. The articles selected met the following inclusion criteria: (a) a cross-sectional or longitudinal study design; (b) neuromuscular activation assessed during the leg press exercise, or its variants; (c) muscle activation data collected using sEMG; and (d) study samples comprising healthy and trained participants. The main findings indicate that the leg press exercise elicited the greatest sEMG activity from the quadriceps muscle complex, which was shown to be greater as the knee flexion angle increased. In conclusion, (1) the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis elicited the greatest muscle activation during the leg press exercise, followed closely by the rectus femoris; (2) the biceps femoris and the gastrocnemius medialis showed greater muscular activity as the knee reached full extension, whereas the vastus lateralis and medialis, the rectus femoris, and the tibialis anterior showed a decreasing muscular activity pattern as the knee reached full extension; (3) evidence on the influence of kinematics modifications over sEMG during leg press variants is still not compelling as very few studies match their findings. Full article
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Review
A Review of Players’ Characterization and Game Performance on Male Rink-Hockey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124259 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The aim of this study was to review the evolutionary tendencies of research regarding to the study of male Rink-Hockey players´ and game performance. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases according to PRISMA method. The initial [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to review the evolutionary tendencies of research regarding to the study of male Rink-Hockey players´ and game performance. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases according to PRISMA method. The initial search identified 815 titles, resulting in 19 articles being included within the review. Original papers (English language) contained relevant data regarding rink hockey players’ performance or morphological/physiological demands, anthropometry/body composition characteristics were eligible. Studies were classified into categories: (1) Physiological Demands, (2) Anthropometry and Body Composition, (3) Game Characterization/Patterns, (4) Injuries. Results indicated that Rink hockey requires high intensity effort which demands both short and long duration efforts requirements from players. Body composition analysis shows to be an important monitoring tool which complements the understanding of the athlete’s cardiac adaptation. Game patterns shows a combination of specific game momentums with different outcomes according to the game zone. The intense short-term movements, collision and contact between players, in addition to the weight and speed of the hard ball and the stick, can considerably increase the risk of moderate and severe injuries. Lack of literature in Rink-Hockey is remarkable, and research is mainly focused on children and adolescents’ players. Furthermore, the existing research with adult elite athletes was assessed with a small sample size. Full article
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Review
Prevalence of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior among Chinese Children and Adolescents: Variations, Gaps, and Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3066; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093066 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Physical-activity (PA) and sedentary-behavior (SB) assessment is of particular importance in the promotion of health in young people. However, there is no comprehensive overview of PA and SB from national surveys among Chinese children and adolescents. Following a literature search for Chinese national [...] Read more.
Physical-activity (PA) and sedentary-behavior (SB) assessment is of particular importance in the promotion of health in young people. However, there is no comprehensive overview of PA and SB from national surveys among Chinese children and adolescents. Following a literature search for Chinese national health surveys, 11 papers from six national surveys were found. Of the included studies, the majority applied self-reported questionnaires to estimate the prevalence of PA and SB. Owing to different definitions of the prevalence of PA and SB and various measures, a large variation in prevalence of PA and SB was observed. Such variations were attributable to methodological and practical issues. This study highlights the current gaps in estimating the national prevalence of PA and SB among Chinese children and adolescents, which should be addressed. To improve the quality of PA and SB surveillance, standardized measurement protocols to estimate the prevalence of PA and SB more accurately among Chinese children and adolescents are urgently required. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Brief Report
Restrictercise! Preferences Regarding Digital Home Training Programs during Confinements Associated with the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186515 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
Confinement measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have caused substantial reductions in global physical activity (PA) levels. In view of the manifold health benefits of PA, the development of interventions counteracting this trend is paramount. Our survey with 15,261 participants (38 ± 15 years, [...] Read more.
Confinement measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have caused substantial reductions in global physical activity (PA) levels. In view of the manifold health benefits of PA, the development of interventions counteracting this trend is paramount. Our survey with 15,261 participants (38 ± 15 years, 58.5% females) examined preferences towards digital home exercise programs in 14 countries affected by COVID-19. More than two-thirds of the sample (68.4%, n = 10,433) indicated being interested in home exercise, and most participants were willing to work out at least three times per week (89.3%, n = 9328). Binary logistic regression revealed that female sex, working part-time, younger age, and being registered in a gym were associated with willingness to exercise. Flexibility (71.1%, n = 7377), resistance (68.6%, n = 7116), and endurance training (62.4%, n = 6478) were the most preferred types of exercise. Our results may guide health providers in developing individually tailored PA interventions during the current and future pandemics. Full article
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