Special Issue "Catchments Hydrology and Sediment Dynamics: Concepts, Measuring and Modelling"

A special issue of Hydrology (ISSN 2306-5338).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Alessio Radice

Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Milan, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: river hydraulics and hydro-morphology; bed-load sediment transport; scour processes; river morphology; sediment yield from mountain catchments; flood risk

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The societal demand for safety from natural/hydrogeological hazards is progressively increasing, as a result of a changing regime of peak events and a general weakness of the built environment. The hydrographic catchments is a suitable framework for analysis, but the basin evolution results from the spatial and temporal composition of a variety of processes taking place at highly variable scales. Therefore, models to be run at the scale of a river catchments require physically-based parameterization that can be only obtained from studies of processes at a local scale, as well as of the interconnections between these processes. Moreover, we are not talking just about water, because sediment is a major player of which the importance is also acknowledged by European Directives.

The study of water and sediment motion in hydrographic basins thus requires multiscale modelling approaches towards reliable predictions, deep phenomenological investigations, and advanced measurement methods.

This Special Issue will join contributions that address the common topic of catchments hydrology and sediment transport from a variety of approached, including field and laboratory experiments, as well as local and distributed numerical modelling. We welcome different kinds of manuscripts, including research papers and technical notes. As a further ‘bridge across scales’, both reviews and vision papers from experienced scholars and research contributions from early-stage researchers are desired.

Dr. Alessio Radice
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Catchments hydrology
  • Sediment production and transport
  • Process chain
  • Hydro-sedimentologic connectivity
  • Lumped and distributed numerical models

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Measurement of Flash-Flood in a Wadi Area by LSPIV and STIV
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Flash floods in wadi systems discharge large volumes of water to either the sea or the desert areas after high-intensity rainfall events. Recently, wadi flash floods have frequently occurred in arid regions and caused damage to roads, houses, and properties. Therefore, monitoring and [...] Read more.
Flash floods in wadi systems discharge large volumes of water to either the sea or the desert areas after high-intensity rainfall events. Recently, wadi flash floods have frequently occurred in arid regions and caused damage to roads, houses, and properties. Therefore, monitoring and quantifying these events by accurately measuring wadi discharge has become important for the installation of mitigation structures and early warning systems. In this study, image-based methods were used to measure surface flow velocities during a wadi flash flood in 2018 to test the usefulness of large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) and space–time image velocimetry (STIV) techniques for the estimation of wadi discharge. The results, which indicated the positive performance of the image-based methods, strengthened our hypothesis that the application of LSPIV and STIV techniques is appropriate for the analysis of wadi flash flood velocities. STIV is suitable for unidirectional flow velocity and LSPIV is reliable and stable for two-dimensional measurement along the wadi channel, the direction of flow pattern which varies with time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Peak Discharge in a Poorly Gauged Catchment Based on a Specified Hyetograph Model and Geomorphological Parameters: Case Study for the 23–24 October 2008 Flood, KALAYA Basin, Tangier, Morocco
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
The determination of discharge from stage measurement is an essential procedure in surface hydrology. Due to limited data availability in terms of discharges and rainfalls, a number of non-flood water levels have been used for deriving a rating curve based on an indirect [...] Read more.
The determination of discharge from stage measurement is an essential procedure in surface hydrology. Due to limited data availability in terms of discharges and rainfalls, a number of non-flood water levels have been used for deriving a rating curve based on an indirect method with specific cross-sections, longitudinal slope of the river, and bed roughness at the KALAYA gage station. In addition, instantaneous rainfall recordings across the Meloussa gage station are available from 23 October 2008 storm event that have been collected in order to develop temporal distribution (hyetograph). Thereby, it provides the necessary input to generate a continuous rainfall-runoff time series, with the derived instantaneous discharge allowed us to calibrate the simulated stage-discharge hydrograph that covers the entire time of the storm event period from 23 to 24 October. An empirical equation was derived in order to provide the peak flow as a function of the given rainfall quantities, its standard deviation, and its standard deviation error. As a result, a very positive correlation between Runoff and Rainfall was observed with values of 0.999. Additional tests were performed to generate a peak discharge of approximately 486 m3/s, using the observed hyetograph and calibrating CN, Lagtime, and Initial abstraction. The results would improve the quality of the model since it allows for a more precise hyetograph to be simulated over a smaller area. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
On the Relationship between Experimental and Numerical Modelling of Gravel-Bed Channel Aggradation
Received: 23 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
This communication explores the use of numerical modelling to simulate the hydro-morphologic response of a laboratory flume subject to sediment overloading. The numerical model calibration was performed by introducing a multiplicative factor in the Meyer–Peter and Müller transport formula, in order to achieve [...] Read more.
This communication explores the use of numerical modelling to simulate the hydro-morphologic response of a laboratory flume subject to sediment overloading. The numerical model calibration was performed by introducing a multiplicative factor in the Meyer–Peter and Müller transport formula, in order to achieve a correspondence with the bed and water profiles recorded during a test carried out under a subcritical flow regime. The model was validated using a second subcritical test, and then run to simulate an experiment during which morphological changes made the water regime switch from subcritical to supercritical. The “relationship” between physical and numerical modelling was explored in terms of how the boundary conditions for the two approaches had to be set. Results showed that, even though the first two experiments were reproduced well, the third one could not be modeled adequately. This was explained considering that, after the switch of the flow regime, some of the boundary conditions posed into the numerical model turned out to be misplaced, while others were lacking. The numerical modelling of hydro-morphologic processes where the flow regime is trans-critical in time requires particular care in the position of the boundary conditions, accounting for the instant at which the water regime changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Sediment Flux and Budget for a Data Limited Rift Valley Lake in Ethiopia
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
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Abstract
Information on sediment concentration in rivers is important for the design and management of reservoirs. In this paper, river sediment flux and siltation rate of a rift valley lake basin (Lake Ziway, Ethiopia) was modeled using suspended sediment concentration (SSC) samples from four [...] Read more.
Information on sediment concentration in rivers is important for the design and management of reservoirs. In this paper, river sediment flux and siltation rate of a rift valley lake basin (Lake Ziway, Ethiopia) was modeled using suspended sediment concentration (SSC) samples from four rivers and lake outlet stations. Both linear and non-linear least squares log–log regression methods were used to develop the model. The best-fit model was tested and evaluated qualitatively by time-series plots, quantitatively by using watershed model evaluation statistics, and validated by calculating the prediction error. Sediment yield (SY) of ungauged rivers were assessed by developing and using a model that includes catchment area, slope, and rainfall, whereas bedload was estimated. As a result, the gross annual SY transported into the lake was 2.081 Mton/year. Annually, 0.178 Mton/year of sediment is deposited in floodplains with a sediment trapping rate of 20.6%, and 41,340 ton/year of sediment leaves the lake through the Bulbula River. The annual sediment deposition in the lake is 2.039 Mton/year with a mean sediment trapping efficiency of 98%. Based on the established sediment budget with average rainfall, the lake will lose its volume by 0.106% annually and the lifetime of Lake Ziway will be 947 years. The results show that the approach used can be replicated at other similar ungauged watersheds. As one of the most important sources of water for irrigation in the country, the results can be used for planning and implementing a lake basin management program targeting upstream soil erosion control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bank Retreat and Streambank Morphology of a Meandering River during Summer and Single Flood Events in Northern Norway
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, advanced methods for measuring riverbank migration have been used to understand the process of river planform evolution. However, the role of the so-called outer secondary cell in the hydraulic pattern in bank erosion remains unclear. For this purpose, a natural [...] Read more.
In recent years, advanced methods for measuring riverbank migration have been used to understand the process of river planform evolution. However, the role of the so-called outer secondary cell in the hydraulic pattern in bank erosion remains unclear. For this purpose, a natural river meander with high curvature bends and steep riverbanks was chosen to quantify bank migration by high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning of three patches along two river bends in four time intervals. The first two time intervals were seasonal, from spring to autumn, and with relatively few water level changes, whereas the third and fourth time intervals were short, just before and after single flood peak events. The yielded point clouds were filtered and digital elevation models (DEMs) were created. These DEMs were used to analyze bank retreat, riverbank morphology, and slope gradient changes in order to understand the role of the outer secondary cell in these processes. In addition, it is shown that storm events causing short peaks in river discharge are less important for river migration than longer-lasting medium discharge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anticipate Manning’s Coefficient in Meandering Compound Channels
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
Estimating Manning’s roughness coefficient (n) is one of the essential factors in predicting the discharge in a stream. Present research work is focused on prediction of Manning’s n in meandering compound channels by using the Group Method of Data Handling Neural [...] Read more.
Estimating Manning’s roughness coefficient ( n ) is one of the essential factors in predicting the discharge in a stream. Present research work is focused on prediction of Manning’s n in meandering compound channels by using the Group Method of Data Handling Neural Network (GMDH-NN) approach. The width ratio ( α ) , relative depth ( β ) , sinuosity ( s ) , Channel bed slope ( S o ) , and meander belt width ratio ( ω ) are specified as input parameters for the development of the model. The performance of GMDH-NN is evaluated with two different machine learning techniques, namely the support vector regression (SVR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) with various statistical measures. Results indicate that the proposed GMDH-NN model predicts the Manning’s n satisfactorily as compared to the MARS and SVR model. This GMDH-NN approach can be useful for practical implementation as the prediction of Manning’s coefficient and subsequently discharge through Manning’s equation in the compound meandering channels are found to be quite adequate. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Hydrologic Simulations with Areal-Averaging of Moving Rainfall
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
The goal of this investigation is to compare the hydrologic simulations caused by the areal-averaging of dynamic moving rainfall. Two types of synthetic rainfall are developed: spatially varied rainfall (SVR) is the typical input to a distributed model while temporally varied rainfall (TVR) [...] Read more.
The goal of this investigation is to compare the hydrologic simulations caused by the areal-averaging of dynamic moving rainfall. Two types of synthetic rainfall are developed: spatially varied rainfall (SVR) is the typical input to a distributed model while temporally varied rainfall (TVR) emulates SVR but is spread uniformly over the entire watershed as in the case of a lumped model. This study demonstrates a direct comparison of peak discharge and peak timing generated by synthetic moving storms over idealized rectangular basins and a real watershed. It is found that the difference between the hydrologic responses from SVR and TVR reflects the impact from the areal-averaging of rainfall; the areal-averaging of rainfall for the movement from upstream to downstream over a lumped model can result in underestimated and delayed peak values in comparison to those from a distributed model; the flood peaks from SVR and TVR are found similar when the storm moves from downstream to upstream. The findings of the study suggest that extra cautions are needed for practitioners when evaluating simulated results from distributed and lumped modeling approaches even using the same rainfall information. Full article
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