Advances in River Monitoring

A special issue of Hydrology (ISSN 2306-5338).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2023) | Viewed by 9921

Special Issue Editors

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II", Napoli, Italy
Interests: stochastic processes; hydrological modelling; model calibration; flood risk; geomorphology; ecohydrology; UAS monitoring
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II", Napoli, Italy
Interests: water engineering; water resources engineering; hydraulics; hydrological modeling; water quality; hydraulic engineering; flood modelling; river engineering; hydrology
Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile
Interests: hydrological modelling; UASs; image velocimetry; stochastic processes; bridge scour

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite huge advances made by technology, river monitoring is still a challenge for hydrologists and environmental agencies. This issue is becoming even more critical in the present century alongside the increasing number of extreme events that many countries are experiencing. Therefore, we clearly need new methodologies and tools to advance the current knowledge on available water resources and to monitor extreme events. In this context, emerging innovative solutions may overcome some of the existing limitations of traditional monitoring techniques.

The aim of the present Special Issue is to promote the identification of the most innovative new solutions for river monitoring that can be used to increase our knowledge on water availability and control extreme events. In particular, contributions should aim to address the following topics:

  • The use of remote-sensing approaches for hydrological, hydraulic and morphological monitoring;
  • Innovative methodologies for measuring/modelling/estimating stream flow;
  • New methods or technologies to cope with data-scarce environments;
  • Use of camera systems for river monitoring;
  • Inter-comparison of innovative and classical models and approaches;
  • Monitoring of water quality and quantity;
  • Biomonitoring and bioindicators used for river ecosystems.

Dr. Salvatore Manfreda
Dr. Domenico Miglino
Dr. Alonso Pizarro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Hydrology is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • river monitoring
  • velocimetry
  • morphology
  • remote sensing
  • UAS
  • image processing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 466 KiB  
Communication
Ratingcurve: A Python Package for Fitting Streamflow Rating Curves
Hydrology 2024, 11(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11020014 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Streamflow is one of the most important variables in hydrology, but it is difficult to measure continuously. As a result, nearly all streamflow time series are estimated from rating curves that define a mathematical relationship between streamflow and some easy-to-measure proxy like water [...] Read more.
Streamflow is one of the most important variables in hydrology, but it is difficult to measure continuously. As a result, nearly all streamflow time series are estimated from rating curves that define a mathematical relationship between streamflow and some easy-to-measure proxy like water surface elevation (stage). Despite the existence of automated methods, most rating curves are still fit manually, which can be time-consuming and subjective. Although several automated methods exist, they vary greatly in performance because of the non-convex nature of the problem. In this work, we develop a parameterization of the segmented power law that works reliably with minimal data, which could serve operationally or as a benchmark for evaluating other methods. The model, along with test data and tutorials, is available as an open-source Python package called ratingcurve. The implementation uses a modern probabilistic machine-learning framework, which is relatively easy to modify so that others can improve upon it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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15 pages, 3154 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic Modeling for Flow and Velocity Estimation from an Arduino Ultrasonic Sensor
Hydrology 2024, 11(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11020012 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 972
Abstract
Flow is a crucial variable in water resources, although its determination is challenging. Rating curves are standard but have conceptual limitations, leading to significantly high uncertainties. Hydrodynamic models offer a more precise alternative, but they necessitate continuous measurements of velocities, which are complex [...] Read more.
Flow is a crucial variable in water resources, although its determination is challenging. Rating curves are standard but have conceptual limitations, leading to significantly high uncertainties. Hydrodynamic models offer a more precise alternative, but they necessitate continuous measurements of velocities, which are complex and expensive to obtain. Thus, this article aimed to validate a hydrodynamic model that estimates flows and velocities in transient conditions based on water levels measured using a low-cost ultrasonic sensor. The results indicated that these estimates can be reliable if (1) hydrodynamic models are used to represent the flow, (2) the channel bed slope is well represented in the geometric data, and (3) Manning’s coefficients are accurately estimated during calibration. The calculated flow and velocity showed a maximum variation of 40% for the same water level compared to estimates using the rating curve. The model exhibited higher sensitivity in terms of the flow when varying the channel bed slope, highlighting the importance of topographic surveys for the estimates. The validity of the implemented model was assessed with experimental data, indicating precision and reliability for practical applications in natural channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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19 pages, 5416 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Isotopic Tracers for Precise and Environmentally Clean Stream Discharge Measurements
Hydrology 2024, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11010001 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Accurate discharge measurement is mandatory for any hydrological study. While the “velocity” measurement method is adapted to laminar flows, the “dilution” method is more appropriate for turbulent streams. As most low-gradient streams worldwide are neither laminar nor turbulent, a methodological gap appears. In [...] Read more.
Accurate discharge measurement is mandatory for any hydrological study. While the “velocity” measurement method is adapted to laminar flows, the “dilution” method is more appropriate for turbulent streams. As most low-gradient streams worldwide are neither laminar nor turbulent, a methodological gap appears. In this study, we demonstrate that the application of the “dilution” method to a low-gradient small stream gives very satisfactory results in addition to revealing surface/subsurface processes. A variety of chemical and isotopic tracers were injected into the stream (anions, fluorescent dyes, and chloride and hydrogen isotopes). We report the first use of 37Cl for stream discharge measurement and show that 37Cl and 2H can be reliably used as quantitative tracers. Discharge uncertainty calculations show that deuterium is the most accurate tracer method used. We also compare the differences in the tailing part of the restitution curves of tracers and investigate the role of transient surface and hyporheic zones in solute transport in light of a simple transport modelling approach. We conclude that isotopic tracers can be used as “environmentally friendly” tracers for discrete stream discharge measurements and that the application of multi-tracers tests in rivers opens the path to a better understanding of surface–subsurface interaction processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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12 pages, 3351 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Scour at Bridge Piers in Rivers with Supercritical Flows
Hydrology 2023, 10(7), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10070147 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Bridges crossing rivers wider than 50 m are typically supported by piers. In a mobile riverbed, scour occurs around bridge piers, and it is the main cause of bridge collapses worldwide, especially during floods. While bridge pier scour has been extensively studied, there [...] Read more.
Bridges crossing rivers wider than 50 m are typically supported by piers. In a mobile riverbed, scour occurs around bridge piers, and it is the main cause of bridge collapses worldwide, especially during floods. While bridge pier scour has been extensively studied, there is still a lack of measuring systems for scour monitoring in the field. In this paper, we present existing devices for scour measurement and analyze their comparative advantages and disadvantages. A study case with a scoured bridge pier in supercritical flow is presented. Results show that supercritical flow patterns previously reported at the laboratory scale also occur in the field. The measured scour supports the hypothesis that supercritical flows, even when having high flow speeds, do not produce higher scour than subcritical flows. A possible explanation linked with the sediment sizes of rivers with supercritical flows is discussed. Further, field measurements of scour around bridge piers are needed to enhance our understanding of this complex and nearly unexplored situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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17 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
Developing a Modified Online Water Quality Index: A Case Study for Brazilian Reservoirs
Hydrology 2023, 10(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10060115 - 23 May 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Online approaches for monitoring water quality can be an alternative aid to rapid decision-making in watershed management, especially reservoirs, given their vulnerability to the process of eutrophication. In this study, a modified water quality index (WQI) was developed using parameters that are easily [...] Read more.
Online approaches for monitoring water quality can be an alternative aid to rapid decision-making in watershed management, especially reservoirs, given their vulnerability to the process of eutrophication. In this study, a modified water quality index (WQI) was developed using parameters that are easily measured with sensors, which would allow for the online monitoring of reservoirs. The modified WQI was based on WQICETESB and we used regression models to obtain values for the parameters: total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total solids (TS). Water quality data from reservoirs from 2003 to 2020 were used, which were provided by the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (CETESB), Brazil. The adjusted modified WQI employing weight redistribution (WQIRWAdj or WQISOL) presented the most promising results, with a Pearson correlation of 0.92 and a success rate of 72.6% and 97.0% for the CETESB and simplified classifications, respectively. WQISOL, which was proposed in the present study, exhibited a satisfactory performance, allowing the water quality of reservoirs to be monitored remotely and in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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22 pages, 4991 KiB  
Article
Structuralization of Complicated Lotic Habitats Using Sentinel-2 Imagery and Weighted Focal Statistic Convolution
Hydrology 2022, 9(11), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology9110195 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Deriving the proper structure of lotic habitats, namely the structuralization of lotic habitats, is crucial to monitoring and modeling water quality on a large scale. How to structuralize complicated lotic habitats for practical use remains challenging. This study novelly integrates remote sensing, geographic [...] Read more.
Deriving the proper structure of lotic habitats, namely the structuralization of lotic habitats, is crucial to monitoring and modeling water quality on a large scale. How to structuralize complicated lotic habitats for practical use remains challenging. This study novelly integrates remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), and computer vision techniques to structuralize complicated lotic habitats. A method based on Sentinel-2 imagery and weighted focal statistic convolution (WFSC) is developed to structuralize the complicated lotic habitats into discrete river links. First, aquatic habitat image objects are delineated from Sentinel-2 imagery using geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA). These lotic habitat image objects are then separated from lentic habitat image objects using a hydrologically derived river network as a reference. Second, the binary image of the lotic habitat image objects is converted to a fuzzy magnitude surface using WFSC. The ridgelines on the magnitude surface are traced as the centerlines of river links. Finally, the centerlines of river links are used to split the complicated lotic habitats into discrete river links. Essential planar geometric attributes are then numerically derived from each river link. The proposed method was successfully applied to the braided river network in the Mobile River Basin in the U.S. The results indicate that the proposed method can properly structuralize lotic habitats with high spatial accuracy and correct topological consistency. The proposed method can also derive essential attributes that are difficult to obtain from conventional methods on a large scale. With sufficient measurements, a striking width–abundance pattern has been observed in our study area, indicating a promising logarithmic law in lotic habitat abundance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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20 pages, 5856 KiB  
Technical Note
Establishing and Operating (Pilot Phase) a Telemetric Streamflow Monitoring Network in Greece
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010019 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
This paper describes HYDRONET, a telemetry-based prototype of a streamflow monitoring network in the Greek territory, where such data are sparse. HYDRONET provides free and near-real-time online access to data. Instead of commercially available stations, in-house-designed and -built telemetric stations were installed, [...] Read more.
This paper describes HYDRONET, a telemetry-based prototype of a streamflow monitoring network in the Greek territory, where such data are sparse. HYDRONET provides free and near-real-time online access to data. Instead of commercially available stations, in-house-designed and -built telemetric stations were installed, which reduced the equipment cost by approximately 50%. The labour of hydrometric campaigns was reduced by applying a new maximum-entropy method to estimate the discharge from surface velocity observations. Here, we describe these novelty elements succinctly. The potential of HYDRONET to provide civil protection services is exemplified by a flood warning demonstrator for Kalamata’s City Centre. The network’s operation, including the hydraulic criteria for monitoring site selection, the characteristics of the telemetric equipment, the operational monitoring and hydrometric procedures, and the specifics of data transmission, quality control, and storage are described in detail, along with experiences with problems encountered during this pilot phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in River Monitoring)
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