Special Issue "An Update of the Crop Management Practices Enhancing Yield and Quality in Citrus"

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Fruit Production Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 March 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tahir Khurshid
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Silver City Highway, Dareton 2717, Australia
Interests: rootstock/variety evaluation; plant growth regulators; crop management; flowering physiology; stress physiology; heat unit/chill unit mapping; climate change; citrus; persimmons

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Citrus and its close relatives are in the subfamily Aurantioideae of the very diverse family Rutaceae.  The citrus tribe of interest to us is Citreae, and the subtribe Citrinae contains the citrus fruit trees. The principal species of the genus Citrus include sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata), grapefruit (Citrus paradise), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), pumelo (Citrus grandis). Some of these species comprise many cultivated varieties (cultivars) which generally differ in fruit size, shape, seed content, quality and season of maturity more than they vary in cultural requirements.

Citrus is grown throughout the world in most areas where mean temperatures stay above 13 oC. In general, the commercial citrus-producing countries lie between 40- degree north and 40-degree south latitudes. Many factors influence the world distribution of citrus, including soil and climatic factors. However, it is the minimum temperature which inevitably determines where citrus can be profitably grown.

Citrus is a long-lived perennial evergreen tree which can economically produce fruit for up to 50 years, and sometimes longer. Rootstock’s selection is the key to the success of any fruit tree, in terms of compatibility with scion wood, tree growth and the diversion of water and nutrients uptake from the soil. Different rootstocks suit different soil types.  Most of the world citrus is grown in deep sand, loam soil, or clay-type soil conditions.  It is important that the soil is well drained and that a proper nutrition program is scheduled throughout the growing season. The scion varieties play an important role in determining the market based on consumer preference. Consumers normally prefer sweet, easy-to-peel and juicy mandarin, with strong skin colour. The different varieties of sweet oranges also suit different consumers, and it depends on the time to maturity of different varieties. Due to the constant selection of sweet orange and mandarin varieties, the citrus growing season can last up to 8 or more months in many countries in northern and southern hemispheres.  Crop management practices to grow good quality fruit with a large marketable size have been very important.  Large-sized fruit return better profits for the growers compared to the small-sized fruit. Some of the citrus varieties are heavy bearers, especially mandarins, and therefore, proper fruit thinning practices must be carried out to reduce the crop load and enhance fruit size.  This practice also prevents the trees moving into biennial bearing patterns. Other crop management practices, such as pruning, must also be carried out after harvest to remove weak branches, and to produce strong shoots, which, in turn, bear good quality, large flowers.  Tree pruning also maintains tree size, and it makes it easy for the fruit pickers to pick fruit without ladders. Dwarfing rootstocks can offer tree size control and trees can be planted at much higher densities.

Dr. Tahir Khurshid
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Horticulturae is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • rootstocks
  • dwarfing rootstocks
  • slat tolerance
  • varieties
  • crop phenology
  • fruit thinning
  • irrigation
  • citrus diseases
  • citrus fruit safety
  • climate change
  • oranges
  • mandarin

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Correlation of Soil Characteristics and Citrus Leaf Nutrients Contents in Current Scenario of Layyah District
Horticulturae 2022, 8(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010061 - 10 Jan 2022
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Soil with low fertility is a big problem for achieving citrus productivity. In this regard, the management of macro and micronutrients is essential. Macro and micronutrient deficiency decreased the yield and the quality of citrus fruit. It is the need of the hour [...] Read more.
Soil with low fertility is a big problem for achieving citrus productivity. In this regard, the management of macro and micronutrients is essential. Macro and micronutrient deficiency decreased the yield and the quality of citrus fruit. It is the need of the hour to classify the soil fertility status under changing climatic scenarios. The current soil fertility survey was conducted to examine the macro and micronutrient status in the citrus production area. In soil, three depths (0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm) were taken for sampling. For leaves, 4–6-months-old non-bearing twigs were sampled from 20 trees per orchard at breast height. Results showed that soil pH (7.1–8.4) was slightly alkaline, electrical conductivity (EC) was non-saline (<4 dSm−1), soil organic matter (SOM) was deficient (<0.86%), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was slight calcareous (<8%), at 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm depths. The majority of soil samples were low in nitrogen (N) contents at all depths, i.e., (<0.043) 0–15 (85%), 15–30 (97%), and 30–45 (100%) cm depths. Phosphorus (P) was medium (7–15 mg kg−1) at 0–15 cm (60%) but low (<7 mg kg−1) at 15–30 (63%) and 30–45 cm (82%) depths. Potassium (K) was medium (80–180 mg kg−1) at 0–15 (69%), 15–30 (69%), and 30–45 cm (10%) depths. Boron (B) and manganese (Mn) were medium, and Cu was high in 0.15 cm, but all were low at 15–30 and 30–45 cm depths. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were low at depths of 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm. Most citrus leaves were deficient in N (94%), Fe (76%), Zn (67%), and B (67%). In conclusion, soil fertilization is not sufficient for optimum citrus yield because of alkaline pH and slight calcareous soil conditions in this region. Foliar application of nutrients is suggested instead of only soil fertilization, for better nutrient management in citrus orchards. Full article
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