Studies on Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses of Horticultural Plants

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Biotic and Abiotic Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 August 2024 | Viewed by 4714

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
Interests: signalling molecules (hydrogen gas, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide); plant hormones (abscisic acid and gibberellin); drought stress; adventitious roots; fruit ripening

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Guest Editor
College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Interests: Stress physiology of vegetables and regulation of fruit quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are continuously affected by a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Biotic and abiotic stress, such as increased periods of water shortage, the presence of heavy metals, higher temperatures, salinity, nutrient availability, increased CO2 concentrations and diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and herbivores, can affect most horticultural plants’ growth and development. Nowadays, many investigations have highlighted the positive aspects of gas signal molecules as well as plant hormones, such as hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, auxins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, cytokinins, ethylene, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, under biotic and abiotic stresses. The advent of genomic studies and gene discovery has also presented an excellent opportunity to improve the stress tolerance of horticultural plants. This Special Issue will consider the studies on biotic and abiotic stress responses of horticultural plants. Under stress, horticultural plants generate some appropriate regulatory mechanisms, including gas signal molecules, plant hormones, genomics, metabolomics, etc., which are welcome.

Dr. Changxia Li
Dr. Yue Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • plant hormones
  • gas signal molecules
  • plant growth and development

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Boosting Tomato Resilience in Tanzania: Grafting to Combat Bacterial Wilt and Abiotic Stress
by Shem Elias Msabila, Thibault Nordey, Zablon Ernest, Nickson Mlowe, Ravishankar Manickam, Srinivasan Ramasamy and Joël Huat
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040338 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The grafting technique has successfully mitigated crop losses from diseases and stress in vegetable production; however, vegetable grafting in Tanzania is very limited. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted in Tanzania’s mainland and islands compared the response of tomato determinate cv. ‘Tanya’ to production [...] Read more.
The grafting technique has successfully mitigated crop losses from diseases and stress in vegetable production; however, vegetable grafting in Tanzania is very limited. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted in Tanzania’s mainland and islands compared the response of tomato determinate cv. ‘Tanya’ to production challenges when ungrafted and grafted onto five tomato rootstocks (‘Hawaii 7796’, ‘Tengeru 1997’, ‘Tengeru 2010’, ‘R3034’, and ‘Shelter’), one eggplant variety (‘EG 203’), and one wild Solanum species (Solanum elaeagnifolium). The visual symptoms of bacterial wilt varied significantly with location and season, ranging from 8 to 100%, attributed to varying bacterial wilt pressures and strains of Ralstonia solanacearum isolated (Phylotype I sequevars 17, 18, and 31). ‘EG203’ and ‘Hawaii 7796’ emerged as the most effective rootstocks, reducing wilting by 49.8 and 51.0% and improving yield by 57.2% and 27.7% on average across experiments conducted in three locations (Moshi, Pemba, and Unguja) over two seasons. Combining reduced water supply with grafting resulted in an average reduction in wilting of 76%, while also boosting yields by an average of 3.6 times in experiments conducted in Arusha over two seasons. Grafting onto ‘Hawaii 7796’ and ‘Shelter’ significantly improved ‘Tanya’ yields by 38.3% and 41.6% on average over two seasons, only under standard nutrient application rates. While certain rootstocks improved crop performance, yields across various sites and seasons were significantly hampered by pest pressure. These findings support grafting’s potential to mitigate damage from common stresses, emphasizing the need for further research to identify suitable rootstocks for optimizing returns on investments in grafted plants in Tanzania. Full article
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22 pages, 8069 KiB  
Article
Joint Analysis of Small RNA and mRNA Sequencing Unveils miRNA-Mediated Regulatory Network in Response to Methyl Jasmonate in Apocynum venetum L.
by Jinhua Tan, Xiaowei Han, Qi Liu, Tashi Dorjee, Yijun Zhou, Huigai Sun and Fei Gao
Horticulturae 2024, 10(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10020173 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Apocynum venetum L. is a natural fiber and medicinal plant species with significant economic value. Jasmonic acid is an endogenous growth regulatory substance present in higher plants that participate in plant growth, development, and defense. As important endogenous single-stranded RNA molecules, microRNA (miRNA) [...] Read more.
Apocynum venetum L. is a natural fiber and medicinal plant species with significant economic value. Jasmonic acid is an endogenous growth regulatory substance present in higher plants that participate in plant growth, development, and defense. As important endogenous single-stranded RNA molecules, microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation of plant genes. A combination of miRNA and mRNA sequencing techniques was used to systematically identify the methyl jasmonate miRNAs and mRNAs in A. venetum. Up to 135 conserved and 26 species-specific miRNAs have been identified in A. venetum. These miRNAs mainly target genes that encode transcription factors and enzymes. The expression levels of 23 miRNAs, including miR398 and miR482, significantly changed after MeJA treatment. A total of 1778 genes were differentially expressed under MeJA treatment, of which 825 were upregulated and 953 were downregulated. The main biological processes enriched in these differentially expressed genes were redox balance, secondary metabolism, photosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction. Joint analysis of the miRNAs and mRNA revealed that MeJA-responsive miRNAs function by forming regulatory modules, including miR398-CSD, miR482-NBS-LRR, miR156-SPL10, and miR164-NAC056, which further regulate multiple biological processes, including redox balance, disease resistance, and morphogenesis in A. venetum. This study provides important information to understand the biological roles of miRNAs in A. venetum. Full article
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17 pages, 2905 KiB  
Article
Mediator Subunit RhMED15a Regulates Drought Tolerance in Rose
by Xiaoman Shang, Nanxin Xie, Yalin Li, Zixin Zhao, Ping Luo, Yongyi Cui, Xianlong Rao and Wen Chen
Horticulturae 2024, 10(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10010084 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Mediator is a multiprotein complex integral to the transcription machinery, mediated by RNA polymerase II. Some Mediator subunits have been found to have critical functions in plants’ responses to abiotic stresses. However, the role of plant Mediator subunits in drought responses remains largely [...] Read more.
Mediator is a multiprotein complex integral to the transcription machinery, mediated by RNA polymerase II. Some Mediator subunits have been found to have critical functions in plants’ responses to abiotic stresses. However, the role of plant Mediator subunits in drought responses remains largely enigmatic. Here, we identified a Mediator subunit, RhMED15a, in roses (Rosa hybrida). Its expression was greatly and swiftly induced by dehydration treatment in the root. The promoter sequence of RhMED15a contains cis-acting elements that respond to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). In addition, the expression of RhMED15a was significantly up-regulated with ABA treatment and inversely down-regulated with MeJA treatment. Silencing RhMED15a using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in roses significantly reduced drought tolerance in rose plants. This resulted in a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and a decreased survival rate in comparison to TRV controls. Moreover, we found that the expression of five drought-related genes, including dehydration responsive element binding factor 1B (DREB1B), responsive to desiccation stress 29A (RD29A), responsive to desiccation stress 29B (RD29B), early response to dehydration 14 (ERD14), and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1), was considerably suppressed in RhMED15a-silenced plants during drought stress. Taken together, our results present that the Mediator tail module subunit RhMED15a serves as an enhancer of drought tolerance in rose, probably through the modulation of the expression of some drought-related genes. Full article
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19 pages, 4043 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Analysis of the Cold Stress Response of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus Reveals the Role of AmCHIA in Its Cold Tolerance
by Xuting Li, Qi Liu, Rongqi Wu, Jie Bing, Lamei Zheng, Batu Sumbur, Yijun Zhou and Fei Gao
Horticulturae 2023, 9(10), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9101114 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, a traditional ethnic medicinal herb, is a rare broad-leaved evergreen shrub in the arid region of central Asia that can survive under extremely low temperatures during winter. In this study, we investigated the cold stress response of A. mongolicus leaves [...] Read more.
Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, a traditional ethnic medicinal herb, is a rare broad-leaved evergreen shrub in the arid region of central Asia that can survive under extremely low temperatures during winter. In this study, we investigated the cold stress response of A. mongolicus leaves using physiological and proteomic approaches. Cold stress treatment increased the relative electrolyte leakage, proline, and soluble sugar levels and decreased the chlorophyll content in A. mongolicus leaves. Moreover, 93 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were identified using two-dimensional electrophoresis, of which 79 were further confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analysis. The predicted functions of DAPs were mainly associated with photosynthesis in chloroplasts, reactive oxygen species scavenging, defense, and protein synthesis, folding, and degradation. A. mongolicus chitinase A (AmCHIA) is a cold-induced apoplast protein whose transcription is upregulated under cold, osmotic, high-salinity, and mechanical stresses. Recombinant AmCHIA expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits chitinase activity. Here, AmCHIA expression enhanced the cold tolerance of E. coli cells, suggesting that it may contribute to the cold adaptation of A. mongolicus after cold treatment. The present study not only provides important data for understanding the cold stress responses in plants but also serves as a basis for further exploration of the biological functions of cold-induced proteins in A. mongolicus using genetic approaches. Full article
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14 pages, 1797 KiB  
Article
Strigolactone-Mediated Trehalose Enhances Salt Resistance in Tomato Seedlings
by Xuefang Lu, Xiaojun Liu, Junrong Xu, Yunzhi Liu, Yuzhen Chi, Wenjin Yu and Changxia Li
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070770 - 05 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Strigolactones (SLs) are newly discovered plant hormones that modulate a variety of physiological and biochemical processes and plant stress responses. In this study, SLs’ synthetic analog, GR24, significantly improved the growth of tomato seedlings under salt stress, while SLs’ synthesis inhibitor, TIS108, inversed [...] Read more.
Strigolactones (SLs) are newly discovered plant hormones that modulate a variety of physiological and biochemical processes and plant stress responses. In this study, SLs’ synthetic analog, GR24, significantly improved the growth of tomato seedlings under salt stress, while SLs’ synthesis inhibitor, TIS108, inversed the positive role of SLs, indicating that SLs could effectively enhance salt-stress resistance in tomato. To further explore the mechanism of SL-modulated trehalose (Tre) in response to salt stress, Tre metabolism was analyzed during this process. GR24 increased the endogenous Tre and starch contents and decreased the glucose (Glu) level under salt-stress conditions. Additionally, the TPS and TPP activities were enhanced by GR24 and the activity of THL was inhibited by GR24 under salt stress; thereafter, Tre biosynthesis-related genes, including TPS1, TPS2, TPP1, and TPP2, were also upregulated by GR24 under salt stress. However, the function of GR24 in Tre metabolism was inhibited by TIS108. Thus, the results indicated that GR24 improved the expression levels or activities of Tre biosynthesis-related genes or enzymes and inhibited the transcript level or activity of genes or enzymes related to Tre degradation, respectively, resulting in an increase in the endogenous Tre level and, therefore, weakening the salt toxicity of tomato seedlings. Full article
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