New Research of Physiological of Horticultural Crop Resistance to Abiotic Stresses

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Biotic and Abiotic Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 10547

Special Issue Editors


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Horticulture Department, Shenyang Agricultural University, No. 120 Dongling Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110866, China
Interests: abiotic stresses; plant; physiological; molecular
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, No. 120 Dongling Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110866, China
Interests: plant; physiological; molecular
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Abiotic stresses, such as light, salt, temperature, and water extremes, are the primary causes of horticultural crop loss worldwide. Horticultural crop resistance to abiotic stresses from the physiological level to the molecular level. With this Special Issue, titled “New research of physiological of horticultural crop resistance to abiotic stresses”, we welcome new research focused on the interactions of plants and environmental factors that can cause negative effects on plant growth and survival. We particularly welcome papers on environmental stress perception, signaling, and mechanistic responses at all levels.

Prof. Dr. Yufeng Liu
Dr. Xiangnan Meng
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 2758 KiB  
Article
Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Ginkgo biloba L. under Salinity Stress Conditions
by Dan Zhou, Meng Li, Xiujun Wang, Haiyan Li, Zihang Li and Qingwei Li
Horticulturae 2024, 10(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10010089 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is a cherished relic among plants, commonly planted as a street tree. However, it faces cultivation challenges due to escalating soil salinization and widespread snowmelt application. Therefore, this study used 4-year-old Ginkgo seedlings to investigate how exogenous melatonin [...] Read more.
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is a cherished relic among plants, commonly planted as a street tree. However, it faces cultivation challenges due to escalating soil salinization and widespread snowmelt application. Therefore, this study used 4-year-old Ginkgo seedlings to investigate how exogenous melatonin at varying concentrations affects seedling growth and physiology under salinity stress. The results revealed that appropriate melatonin concentrations (0.02, 0.1 mmol·L−1) significantly mitigated leaf yellowing under different NaCl stress levels. Furthermore, they increased ground diameter, current-year branch growth, relative water concentration, free proline, and soluble sugars in leaves. Melatonin also reduced electrolyte exudation rates, flavonoids, and malonic dialdehyde concentration, while enhancing peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. This led to reduced chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, stabilizing intercellular CO2 concentration, preserving photosynthetic structures, and enhancing photosynthetic rates. Additionally, the decline in the photosynthetic electron transport rate, the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII, and the potential efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSII was alleviated. Minimal fluorescence and the non-photochemical quenching coefficient also improved. However, high melatonin concentration (0.5 mmol·L−1) exacerbated salinity stress. After analyzing composite scores, the 0.02 mmol·L−1 melatonin treatment was most effective in alleviating NaCl stress, while the 0.5 mmol·L−1 treatment intensified physiological stress under 200 mmol·L−1 NaCl stress. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis identified seven physiological indicators (photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, photosynthetic electron transport rate, minimal fluorescence, superoxide dismutase, free proline, and chlorophyll a) and three growth indicators (ground diameter, branch length, and current-year branch thickness) as key markers for rapid salinity stress assessment in Ginkgo. These findings are crucial for addressing challenges associated with snowmelt’s impact on roadside Ginkgo trees, expanding planting areas, and breeding exceptional salt-tolerant Ginkgo varieties. Full article
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21 pages, 8943 KiB  
Article
Vermicompost Improves Tomato Yield and Quality by Promoting Carbohydrate Transport to Fruit under Salt Stress
by Di Wu, Chunlan Chen, Yifei Liu, Guoxian Zhang and Lijuan Yang
Horticulturae 2023, 9(9), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9091015 - 09 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
To explore the effect of vermicompost on the yield and quality of tomato cultivated in salty soil, we investigated the soil chemical properties, the yield, vitamin C, organic acid, soluble solids, and nitrate of fruit, photosynthesis, and carbohydrates of plants grown under various [...] Read more.
To explore the effect of vermicompost on the yield and quality of tomato cultivated in salty soil, we investigated the soil chemical properties, the yield, vitamin C, organic acid, soluble solids, and nitrate of fruit, photosynthesis, and carbohydrates of plants grown under various salt levels applied with the application of either commercial chemical fertilizers, cow manure, or vermicompost. Results showed that the tomato yield was not increased from the chemical fertilizer application, while there was an increase from the cow manure and vermicompost (increased 31.7% and 65.2%, respectively) under salt stress. Compared to no salt stress, the contents of vitamin C, organic acid, soluble solids, and nitrate increased 26.55%, 40.59%, 46.31%, and 35.08%, respectively, under salt stress (2 g NaCl·kg−1 soil). Compared with the Control, the application of chemical fertilizers failed to improve the sugar/acid ratio but increased nitrate content, while cow manure and vermicompost improved the sugar/acid ratio by 42.0% and 73.1%, respectively. Particularly, vermicompost increased vitamin C and reduced nitrate to the greatest extent among the different fertilizer treatments. The decrease in sodium (Na+) in the roots and leaves, increase in carbohydrates in fruit, and photosynthetic efficiency of leaves imply an amendment effect of vermicompost on salt stress. Moreover, vermicompost also facilitated the transit of carbohydrates from leaves to fruits by increasing the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium in fruits, leaves, and roots, while decreasing proline and soluble protein accumulation in leaves and roots. In conclusion, vermicompost could alleviate the adverse effect of salt stress and improve tomato yield and fruit quality by improving the photosynthetic capacity and promoting carbohydrate transport to fruit. The findings give a new perspective on the beneficial effect of vermicompost on tomato yield and quality. Full article
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12 pages, 6845 KiB  
Article
Low Nocturnal Temperature Alters Tomato Foliar and Root Phosphorus Fractions Allocation by Reducing Soil Phosphorus Availability
by Qingwen Shi, Ru Ma, Zhouping Sun, Yufeng Liu, Hongdan Fu and Tianlai Li
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050536 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 952
Abstract
Low nocturnal temperature (LNT) is a major constraint for protected tomato production in China during winter and spring, which leads to tomato phosphorus (P) deficiency symptoms. The soil P fractions reflect soil P availability. The foliar and root P fractions reflect the adaptation [...] Read more.
Low nocturnal temperature (LNT) is a major constraint for protected tomato production in China during winter and spring, which leads to tomato phosphorus (P) deficiency symptoms. The soil P fractions reflect soil P availability. The foliar and root P fractions reflect the adaptation strategies of tomatoes to LNT. However, the relationship between plant P fractions and soil P fractions under LNT is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a 40-day indoor incubation experiment with four nocturnal temperatures (15, 12, 9 and 6 °C). Tomato growth status, plant P fractions and soil P fractions were determined. Then, structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the direct and/or indirect effects of LNT on soil P fractions, plant P fractions and tomato shoot dry weight (SDW). The results showed that LNT decreased soil P availability by decreasing soil labile P and increasing soil moderately labile P. The foliar inorganic P, metabolite P, nucleic acid P and residual P were decreased under 9 and 6 °C. The root nucleic acid P and lipid P were decreased, while metabolite P was increased under 9 and 6 °C. Tomato foliar and root P fraction allocation was directly influenced by the increase in soil moderately labile P, while the decline in SDW was directly influenced by the decrease in soil labile P. In conclusion, LNT affects tomato P fractions allocation by reducing soil P availability, which limits the shoot dry matter production in tomatoes. Full article
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22 pages, 5242 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analyses Reveal the Key Regulators of Tomato Compound Leaf Development
by Guangwu Zhu, Chongtian Ma, Shuimiao Yu, Xueying Zhang, Jing Jiang and Xin Liu
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030363 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Leaves are one of the organs involved in plant assimilation and transpiration. Different leaf development processes can result in different leaf shapes. Tomato plants have typical compound leaves. It is helpful to explore the regulatory factors affecting the leaf development and morphogenesis of [...] Read more.
Leaves are one of the organs involved in plant assimilation and transpiration. Different leaf development processes can result in different leaf shapes. Tomato plants have typical compound leaves. It is helpful to explore the regulatory factors affecting the leaf development and morphogenesis of tomatoes to cultivate varieties with high photosynthetic efficiency. We used the typical tomato leaf shape mutants Petroselinum (Pts), Trifoliate (tf2), and Entire (e), which showed a gradual decrease in leaflet number and compound leaf complexity. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to analyze the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the 3 groups, which revealed 2393, 1366, and 1147 DEGs in Pts/VF36, tf2/CR, and e/AC, respectively. We found 86 overlapping DEGs among the 3 groups. In addition, we found that the mutation of Pts, tf2, and e affected not only leaf morphology but also the wax, fatty acid, and abscisic acid pathways during growth and development. An RT-qPCR analysis during leaf primordium development revealed three transcription factors (bHLH079, WRKY44, and WRKY76) and three hormone-regulated genes (IAA-amino acid hydrolase, Gibberellin2ox7, and Gibberellin20ox) that were differentially expressed in the transcriptome. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we observed the leaf shape of VIGS plants and found that bHLH079, IAA-amino acid hydrolase, Gibberellin2ox7, Gibberellin20ox, WRKY44, and WRKY76 were the endogenous regulators influencing tomato compound leaf development. This study provides a promising direction for revealing the molecular regulation mechanism underlying compound leaf development in tomatoes. Full article
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18 pages, 3226 KiB  
Article
Assessing Growth-Promoting Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Municipal Waste Compost on Solanum lycopersicum L.
by Pallavi Bhardwaj, Abhishek Chauhan, Anuj Ranjan, Saglara S. Mandzhieva, Tatiana Minkina, Usha Mina, Vishnu D. Rajput and Ashutosh Tripathi
Horticulturae 2023, 9(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9020214 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
Rapid urbanization and population growth are stressing the present agricultural systems and could threaten food security in the near future. Sustainable development in agriculture is a way out to such enormously growing food demand. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are considered pivotal to providing [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization and population growth are stressing the present agricultural systems and could threaten food security in the near future. Sustainable development in agriculture is a way out to such enormously growing food demand. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are considered pivotal to providing adequate nutrition and health to plants and maintaining soil microbial dynamics. In the present study, municipal solid waste composts (MSWC) were studied for the presence of PGPB and their growth-promoting characteristics such as ammonium production, siderophores production, phosphorus solubilization and potassium solubilization, IAA (indole acetic acid), and HCN production. Four promising isolates were chosen and identified through 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus sp. strain L5-1, Bacillus pumilus strain EE107-P5, Bacillus sp. strain LSRBMoFPIKRGCFTRI6 and Bacillus sp. strain LPOC3. The potential of isolates is validated using Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and was found to improve its growth significantly. The findings indicated the presence of potential Bacillus strains in MSWCs, and these composts can be utilized as biofertilizers for urban agricultural practices. However, studies concerning their impact on other crops’ growth and health are still underdeveloped. Since MSWCs might carry hazardous metals or chemicals, their evaluation for the safe application on the crops should also be assessed. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1782 KiB  
Review
The Aroma Volatile in ‘Nanguo’ Pear: A Review
by Zhuoran Zhang and Zepeng Yin
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030339 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
The aroma of fruit is an important indicator that reflects the quality of its flavor. The ‘Nanguo’ pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) is a typical fruit in Liaoning Province, China, that has an attractive aroma during fruit ripening. Fruit volatile compounds are primarily [...] Read more.
The aroma of fruit is an important indicator that reflects the quality of its flavor. The ‘Nanguo’ pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) is a typical fruit in Liaoning Province, China, that has an attractive aroma during fruit ripening. Fruit volatile compounds are primarily composed of esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, terpenoids and apocarotenoids. The primary characteristic volatile compounds of the ‘Nanguo’ pear are esters. The contents of aldehydes decrease, and the contents of esters increase as the fruit ripens. The aroma changes from ‘green’ to ‘fruity.’ Thus, it has been a favorite of consumers in China and throughout the world for its attractive aroma. This review systematically summarizes advances in the research methods, components, types and biosynthetic pathways of volatile compounds, and the factors that affect the aroma volatiles in the ‘Nanguo’ pear, particularly the regulation by hormones that has been studied in recent years and delineates the research problems and prospects. The aim is to provide critical information for further research on the qualities of fruit flavor and provide a more scientific basis to improve the quality of fruit flavor during the development and storage of the ‘Nanguo’ pear. Full article
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8 pages, 760 KiB  
Review
Research Progress of Plant Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein
by Xue Wang, Yuanfan Xu, Haiyan Fan, Na Cui, Xiangnan Meng, Jiajing He, Nana Ran and Yang Yu
Horticulturae 2023, 9(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9010122 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat sequence (NBS-LRR) protein is the main immune receptor in plants and participates in plant resistance to pathogens. When the NBS-LRR protein is activated by the pathogen’s effector protein, its conformation changes from an inhibitory state to an activated state, then [...] Read more.
Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat sequence (NBS-LRR) protein is the main immune receptor in plants and participates in plant resistance to pathogens. When the NBS-LRR protein is activated by the pathogen’s effector protein, its conformation changes from an inhibitory state to an activated state, then it activates downstream signal transduction and initiates defense responses to inhibit the growth of pathogens. The NBS-LRR protein has major three domains: NBS, LRR and TIR/CC, which all play a certain role in the immune response induced by it. In this paper, the NBS-LRR protein domains and their functions, molecular mechanism of the induced immune response and its application in disease resistance breeding are reviewed. Full article
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