Heritage Patterns—Representative Models

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408). This special issue belongs to the section "Architectural Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 43166

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Special Issue Editor

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Debrecen, 4028 Debrecen, Hungary
Interests: urban morphology and Space Syntax; typo-morphology; urban tissue typology and urban typology in Central Europe (1867-1918, Austria-Hungary); planning theory and history; micro-urbanism; art theory and history in the post-World War II period (socialist modernism, Yugoslavia); urban and architectural heritage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tangible heritage, whether universal or local, has numerous layers and perspectives regarding its nature and how we approach and interpret it. To understand the universal value of tangible heritage, we have to seek its underlying principles, rules, and patterns that could involve disciplines not directly connected to the phenomenon of tangible heritage, such as urban morphology, space syntax, abd generative design, in addition to the discernible, such as archaeology, art and architecture history, and heritage protection.

This Special Issue of Heritage aims to research patterns in heritage and the underlying rules that define tangible heritage as a universal value in spatial coexistence, economics, urban life, and design via case studies and theoretical proposals that could be implemented in the future. The pattern language and the heritage phenomenon could act as a base of observation to deduct logic and create generative algorithms (generative design); to understand the importance of spatial connection with tangible heritage and urban forms (space syntax, urban morphology) and its visibility; and archaeological, architectural, and urban heritage. Based on the UNESCO-ICOMOS doctrines and the examination of morphological regions, urban morphological research and its different layers (urban forms, structural components, built environment, urban tissue and their interaction) act as a background and foundation to general urban heritage conservation and protection proposals.

This issue of Heritage welcomes traditional and contemporary methodologies and scholars from different backgrounds who intend to look for patterns of tangible heritage and its underlying principles to understand the diversity of heritage approaches.

Dr. Éva Lovra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Architecture
  • Heritage
  • Generative design
  • Space syntax
  • Tangible heritage
  • Urban morphology

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 6193 KiB  
Article
Urban Morphometrics and the Intangible Uniqueness of Tangible Heritage. An Evidence-Based Generative Design Experiment in Historical Kochi (IN)
by Alessandro Venerandi, Ombretta Romice, Olga Chepelianskaia, Kavya Kalyan, Nitin Bhardwaj, Vija Viese, Sebastián Ugás, Shibu Raman and Sergio Porta
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4399-4420; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040243 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4565
Abstract
Asia is urbanising rapidly. Current urbanisation practices often compromise sustainability, prosperity, and local quality of life while context-sensitive alternatives show very limited impact. A third way is necessary to integrate mass-production, heritage, and human values. As part of UNICITI’s initiative, A Third Way [...] Read more.
Asia is urbanising rapidly. Current urbanisation practices often compromise sustainability, prosperity, and local quality of life while context-sensitive alternatives show very limited impact. A third way is necessary to integrate mass-production, heritage, and human values. As part of UNICITI’s initiative, A Third Way of Building Asian Cities, we propose a scalable and replicable methodology which captures unique morphological traits of urban types (i.e., areas with homogenous urban form) to inform innovative large-scale and context-sensitive practices. We extract urban types from a large set of quantitative descriptors and provide a systematic way to generate figure-grounds aligned with such urban types. The application of the proposed methodology to Kochi (IN) reveals 24 distinct urban types with unique morphological features. Profiles, containing design-relevant values of morphometrics, are then produced for a selection of urban types located in the historical district of Fort Kochi/Mattancherry. Based on these, figure-ground design demonstrations are carried out in three sample sites. Outcomes seem aligned with the urban character of their respective types, while allowing distinct design expressions, suggesting that the proposed approach has potential to inform the design in historical/heritage areas and, more broadly, the search for a Third Way of Building Asian Cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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21 pages, 7703 KiB  
Article
Functional and Morphological Transformations of the Urban Block—Contribution to the Expected Modernization of Zagreb’s Historical Core
by Sanja Gašparović, Tihomir Jukić and Ana Mrđa
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 4184-4204; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040230 - 3 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3035
Abstract
The paper explores the possibilities of the structural and functional transformation of blocks in the historical center of Zagreb as a part of modernization after many years of neglect as well as earthquakes in 2020. The research aims to determine how the existing [...] Read more.
The paper explores the possibilities of the structural and functional transformation of blocks in the historical center of Zagreb as a part of modernization after many years of neglect as well as earthquakes in 2020. The research aims to determine how the existing block tissue corresponds with the needs of today’s residents and the possibility of its improvement. The historical circumstances in which the blocks were formed and underwent the most significant changes and modern processes that affect the state and value are determined. There is a special focus on the interior of the block (courtyards), as well as on the spaces on the ground floors of street facades, where numerous, unexplored changes can be observed. The findings provide starting points for desirable structural–functional transformations of blocks and stem from the synthesis and interpretation of knowledge from four interrelated parts of the research. The characteristics of blocks have changed during city development stages, as depicted by an analysis and graphic interpretation of historical maps and urban plans (1864–2021). Influences of modern processes on changes of the city are determined on the basis of the synthesis of previous research from different interdisciplinary points of view; a detailed analysis of the structural–functional changes is conducted on the example of three selected blocks. Transformation models for three selected blocks are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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16 pages, 4106 KiB  
Article
Urban Morphology of Zagreb in the Second Half of the 19th Century—Landmarks Guiding the Reconstruction of the Town and the Preservation of Identity after the 2020 Earthquake
by Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci and Mladen Obad Šćitaroci
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 3349-3364; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040186 - 13 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2809
Abstract
The research of the urban morphology of Zagreb in the second half of the 19th century was done with the intention of showing the importance of inherited urban morphology and the importance of urban identity factors at a time when preparations are being [...] Read more.
The research of the urban morphology of Zagreb in the second half of the 19th century was done with the intention of showing the importance of inherited urban morphology and the importance of urban identity factors at a time when preparations are being made for reconstruction after the 2020 earthquake. The research was performed on the basis of old maps and plans and previous research on urban development. The medieval town of Zagreb began to develop in a planned manner in the second half of the 19th century. The orthogonal street grid in the new town built in the 19th century and called the Lower Town—were the result of urban utopian times and the first written legislation on urban planning (1857), the first development plan (1864/1865), and a second development plan (1887/1889). The concept for the urban design of the Lower Town has three distinct themes: an orthogonal street grid, public parks and squares and public buildings. The series of public spaces, consisting of seven squares and the Botanical Gardens, became a landmark pattern in the urban morphology of Zagreb at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. This urban pattern, as a lasting value, remains the main landmark for any new architectural and urban interventions in the town historic part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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18 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of the World Architectural Heritage
by Xuefei Wang, Jiazhen Zhang, Jeremy Cenci and Vincent Becue
Heritage 2021, 4(4), 2942-2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4040164 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2940
Abstract
This research focusing on the world architectural heritage sites registered in the World Heritage List established by UNESCO aimed to analyze its spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors at the world and regional level to provide a scientific basis for further architectural heritage [...] Read more.
This research focusing on the world architectural heritage sites registered in the World Heritage List established by UNESCO aimed to analyze its spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors at the world and regional level to provide a scientific basis for further architectural heritage conservation. Firstly, this study explored the spatial distribution characteristics of the world architectural heritage sites using the ArcGIS spatial analysis method. Then, we used the space–time statistical method to analyze their spatial and temporal distribution characteristics. The main findings are as follows: (1) world architectural heritage sites are distributed in clusters with imbalanced patterns and a strong degree of concentration: in Western Europe, Eastern Asia, and Northwestern Latin America, with clear country distribution, especially in Italy, China, and Mexico; (2) the time of construction can be divided into four stages: the ancient historic sites stage, the uniform and stable stage, the stage of growth in Asia and Europe, and the stage of growth in Europe, America, and Africa; (3) different types of heritage sites are unevenly distributed, and the type distribution differs significantly between regions, with regional uniqueness. The authors also analyzed the influencing factors of the spatial distribution characteristics and highlighted the important influence of the geographical environment, historical evolution, economic strength and discourse power, international heritage protection situation, and registration policy. This study may provide basis for specific guidance and directions for heritage protection for various countries and regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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20 pages, 5844 KiB  
Article
Visibility Model of Tangible Heritage. Visualization of the Urban Heritage Environment with Spatial Analysis Methods
by Elif Sarihan
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2163-2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030122 - 4 Sep 2021
Viewed by 3515
Abstract
The methodological approach of the study proposes an innovative yet adaptive way to define and preserve heritage sites and their elements. In the case study, the proposed methodology guides the design/planning research of heritage sites by linking the perceptual behaviour with the information [...] Read more.
The methodological approach of the study proposes an innovative yet adaptive way to define and preserve heritage sites and their elements. In the case study, the proposed methodology guides the design/planning research of heritage sites by linking the perceptual behaviour with the information of the built environment. Visibility is the tool to measure the level of exposure of specific urban elements from a particular perspective. While isovist analyses define visibility in the built environment, fields of view from the periphery of heritage sites are applied to calculate visible or invisible areas by the observer. The purpose of the current study is the evaluation of the identification of the elements to be protected, by modelling both the heritage environment and the heritage elements according to the visibility criteria. For this purpose, I illustrate my approach by using visibility analyses and Space syntax analysis in the case of the Sulukule neighbourhood, the leading renewal project, in Istanbul. This area used to have notably cultural–historical assets–historic land walls, the lifestyle of Roma people—but now the renovation works carried out in the Sulukule case study site have affected the identity of the “visible” and “known” space of the historic quarter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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19 pages, 7468 KiB  
Article
Safe Haven—Bath House and Library by the Burmese Border
by Anett Mizsei and Péter György Horváth
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 2105-2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030119 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
This study gives an overview of contemporary vernacular tendencies in Thai architecture. The research includes ecological, economical, ergonomic and cultural aspects, and the aim is to find a possible future direction for architectural design that is able to incorporate local features and follow [...] Read more.
This study gives an overview of contemporary vernacular tendencies in Thai architecture. The research includes ecological, economical, ergonomic and cultural aspects, and the aim is to find a possible future direction for architectural design that is able to incorporate local features and follow traditions yet apply them in a contemporary way. As an example, a case study was carried out about a project realized in Safe Haven Orphanage in Thailand. It consists of two small-scale buildings designed and constructed by TYIN Tegnestue Architects, Sami Rintala and Hans Skotte, together with volunteers and the local community, and they are great examples of a community building “healing architecture”. Due to their aesthetics, their ecological and sustainable approach and their structures, they can provide cultural continuity, which is key for the organic evaluation of regional architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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15 pages, 8783 KiB  
Article
Lines of Settlement: Lost Landscapes within Maps for Future Morphologies
by Paul Sanders, Mirjana Lozanovska and Lana Van Galen
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1400-1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030077 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 3144
Abstract
The value of archival documents quite often extends beyond their original purpose, as evidence contained within these artefacts, whether written or drawn, can provide veracity for new lines of heritage inquiry. Many settlements in the ‘new world’ were set out by land surveyors [...] Read more.
The value of archival documents quite often extends beyond their original purpose, as evidence contained within these artefacts, whether written or drawn, can provide veracity for new lines of heritage inquiry. Many settlements in the ‘new world’ were set out by land surveyors whose drawings charted the accurate placement and alignment of new streets and block perimeters laid upon drawings of the extant topographical landscape features. The paper discusses three settlement maps of Melbourne, Australia, through the lens of Michel de Certeau’s idea that maps are an instrument of power are not just about recording; maps are actually about appropriating and producing regimes of place. In the Australian context, the settlement drawings, prepared under the direction of the colonial administration, inadvertently depicts Country that had been under the custodial care of the First Nations peoples for millennia, and through the intentions of the settlement maps about to be irrevocably disturbed, altered or destroyed. We raise the prospect that urban and landscape design can reflect on the ‘lost landscapes’ of cultural significance, and discuss new ways of interpreting representation through an approach of design reconciliation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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13 pages, 8878 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Study on Industrial Landscape Planning and Spatial Layout in Belgium
by Jiazhen Zhang, Jeremy Cenci and Vincent Becue
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1375-1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030075 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4217
Abstract
As the material carrier of industrial heritage, industrial landscape planning integrates industrial heritage, post-industrial, and industrial tourism landscapes. In this study, we define the concept of industrial landscape planning. As a subsystem of urban planning, we study industrial landscape planning by using the [...] Read more.
As the material carrier of industrial heritage, industrial landscape planning integrates industrial heritage, post-industrial, and industrial tourism landscapes. In this study, we define the concept of industrial landscape planning. As a subsystem of urban planning, we study industrial landscape planning by using the theories and methods of urban planning. As an example, we consider Belgium and identify the main categories of industrial landscape planning as industrial heritage landscape and industrial tourism landscape. We use an ArcGIS spatial analysis tool and kernel density calculations and reveal the characteristics of four clusters of industrial heritage spatial layout in Belgium, which match its located industrial development route. Each cluster has unique regional characteristics that were spontaneously formed according to existing social and natural resources. At the level of urban planning, there is a lack of unified re-creation. Urban planning is relatively separated from the protection of industrial heritage in Belgium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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22 pages, 14813 KiB  
Article
The Spatial Morphology of Community in Chipping Barnet c.1800–2015: An Historical Dialogue of Tangible and Intangible Heritages
by Laura Vaughan and Sam Griffiths
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1119-1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030062 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
This article presents a case study of the London suburb of Chipping Barnet to show how a spatial-morphological approach to tangible heritage challenges its archetypal image as an affluent commuter suburb by highlighting its resilience as a generative patterning of social space that [...] Read more.
This article presents a case study of the London suburb of Chipping Barnet to show how a spatial-morphological approach to tangible heritage challenges its archetypal image as an affluent commuter suburb by highlighting its resilience as a generative patterning of social space that has weathered successive phases of social change. We argue that the enduring spatial-morphological definition of Barnet as a local centre explains how it has been possible to preserve something less tangible—namely its identity as a suburban community. We show how Barnet’s street network constitutes community heritage through a combination of local- and wider-scale affiliations that have sustained diverse localised socio-economic activity over an extended period of time. Noting how local histories often go further than sociological studies in emphasising the importance of the built environment for indexing the effects of social change on everyday life, we draw on a range of archive sources including the analysis of historical maps using space syntax techniques, to reveal Barnet’s street network as a dialogue of both tangible and intangible heritages that are formative of a suburban community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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18 pages, 9701 KiB  
Article
Patterns of the Expanding City: An Algorithmic Interpretation of Otto Wagner’s Work
by Zoltán Bereczki
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1062-1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030059 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4604
Abstract
Central Europe witnessed an urban boom at the beginning of the 20th century. By that time, the leading state of the area was Austria-Hungary, with Vienna as its capital. Before the First World War, even larger expansion of the cities was predictable. Otto [...] Read more.
Central Europe witnessed an urban boom at the beginning of the 20th century. By that time, the leading state of the area was Austria-Hungary, with Vienna as its capital. Before the First World War, even larger expansion of the cities was predictable. Otto Wagner, a leading architect of the empire and an expert in urban planning and architectural theory, published his vision about the future of the evolution of cities in 1911. In this book, he formulates clear rules about how a city should sustainably expand in a controlled manner. In this article, these rules of the inherited patterns are systematised and turned into recursive algorithms to simulate the urban growth controlled by them and the resulting patterns. The algorithms are tested on 1911 Vienna and, as comparison, on 2021 Miskolc, a medium-sized city in Hungary with different geographic surroundings. In the article, the resulting patterns are presented in 2D and 3D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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13 pages, 1322 KiB  
Article
The Town-Plan as Built Heritage
by Vítor Oliveira
Heritage 2021, 4(3), 1049-1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030058 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
The physical form of cities is exposed to conflicting forces of change and conservation. In the conservation field, despite the advances achieved over the last decades changing the paradigm from historical monuments to urban landscapes, the focus tends to be on the building [...] Read more.
The physical form of cities is exposed to conflicting forces of change and conservation. In the conservation field, despite the advances achieved over the last decades changing the paradigm from historical monuments to urban landscapes, the focus tends to be on the building fabric and the main three-dimensional characteristics of buildings. This paper proposes a complementary emphasis for conservation—the town-plan, meaning the different patterns of combination of streets, plots, and block-plans of buildings (building footprints). Preserving the town-plan of urban areas built in the past, means bringing to the present significant parts of urban history, assuring diversity (a key characteristic for sustainable, resilient, and safe cities), and providing a basis for the design of new areas more accessible, dense, and continuous. This argument is illustrated in the Chelsea district in New York at two different scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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18 pages, 8373 KiB  
Article
Sustaining Heritage Patterns in Mining Towns of the North American West: A Historico-Geographical Approach
by Wendy R. McClure
Heritage 2021, 4(2), 961-978; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4020052 - 7 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Urban morphology provides essential methodologies to inform processes for heritage preservation and design intervention in historic places. Among principal research methods used by urban morphologists, the historico-geographical approach is particularly helpful for interpreting formative and transformative processes and for identifying key elements that [...] Read more.
Urban morphology provides essential methodologies to inform processes for heritage preservation and design intervention in historic places. Among principal research methods used by urban morphologists, the historico-geographical approach is particularly helpful for interpreting formative and transformative processes and for identifying key elements that define the physical structure of historic contexts at a town or neighbourhood scale. This article will discuss applications of an adapted historico-geographical approach to analyse heritage patterns in 19th-century mining towns located in mountainous regions of the western United States. Profiled case studies are part of an ongoing study intended to inform design and revitalization processes by architects, planners and community stakeholders in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Patterns—Representative Models)
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